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Xartananirnaya (late sixteenth cent A.D.) is 
perhaps the most significant and influential 
treatise on music and dance after the 
Samgitaratndkara in theory and practice, in 
range and depth, in authentic tradition and 
epoch-making new trends. Flashes of primary 
originality and a deep concern for conserva¬ 
tion are clearly visible in all its four chapters, 
viz. I. Taladhartr, II. Mrdarigi (Vol. I), 
III. Gayaka: l.Ragadhikaranam, 2. Pra- 
bandhadhikaranam (Vol. II), IV. Nartaka: 

1. Nartanadhikaranam, 2. Nrttadhikaranam 
(Vol. III). Its author Pandarika Vitthala has 
composed five more treatises. He is a versatile 
expert in multiple, cognate art disciplines 
with an eye for intradisciplinal detail and a 
vision of interdisciplinal perspective. He is 
an outstanding symbol of integration in art 
and culture. 

This third and final volume of Xartana¬ 
nirnaya presents the fourth and final chapter 
which deals with nartaka (dancer); this is 
divided into two subchapters which delineate 
(a) aesthetic representation of affect ( bhava 
and rasa in nrtya ), (b) autonomous meaning 
in dance (nrtta). Among the unique and 
major contributions of this chapter of 
Xartananirnaya may be mentioned: i.classi¬ 
fication of all dance into bandha (rigorously 
structured with prescribed items) and 
anibandha (which leaves scope for the 
dancer’s individualistic contributions in a 
given or inherited frame), ii. revelation of a 
parallel corpus of professional terminology, 
iii. analytic description of numerous unitary 
and segmentary dance forms of which all 
extant dance compositions—both bandha 
and anibandha —were composed, iv. refocuss^ 
ing of a North-South axial polarisation of art 
forms and trends on a national canvas, 

v. indication of aesthetic tensions which 
were later resowed into new identities in 
dance, viz. bharatanatya, kathak and odissi, 

vi. choreographed desc riptions of actual, 
contemporary dance compositions. 

The present volume contains two special 
editorial contributions: i. a new method of 
indicating availability of Text-Critical Notes 
and Commentary on the Text to facilitate 
ready reference, ii. Text Critique in which 
an attempt is made to render the present 

continued on third cover 



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11346 



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KAIAMULA SASTRA SERIES 


General Editor 

KAPILA VATSYAYAN 



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I. G. N. C. A. KM. S- 19 







^nM U '53<lahfq§dfq<r^dl 

NARTANANIRNAYA 

OF 

PANDARlKA VITTHALA 


CRITICALLY EDITED AND TRANSLATED WITH COMMENTARY 

BY 

R. SATHYANARAYANA 


VOLUME THREE 


& 

INDIRA GANDHI NATIONAL CENTRE FOR THE ARTS 
NEW DELHI 
AND 

MOTILAL BANARSIDASS PUBLISHERS PVT. LTD. 
DELHI 







First Published 1998 

©Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts 

All rights reserved. No part of the publication may be reproduced in any 
form or by any means, without written permission of the publishers. 


Published by 

INDIRA GANDHI NATIONAL CENTRE FOR THE ARTS 
Central Vista Mess, Janpath, New Delhi-110001 
in association with 

MOTILAL BANARSIDASS PUBLISHERS PVT. LTD. 
Bungalow Road,Jawahar Nagar, Delhi-110007 


ISBN: 81-208-122(5-4 (Set) 

81-208-1219-0 (Vol. Ill) 
Price: Rs. 800.00 (Vol. Ill) 


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Printed in India 
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1 ol-S} 


National Institute of Advanced Studies 

LIBRARY 

Call No. 7..23..A.9. .. 

■\CC. No. 


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TTR'toTf^^T foiMni ^r: II 

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PREFACE 


The publication of this third and final volume of Nartananirnaya gives me 
immense satisfaction and pleasure. 

Nartananirnaya is perhaps the most significant and influential treatise to be 
written (in the late sixteenth cent. A.D.) after the Sarhgitaratndkara , in quality and 
quantity, in theory and practice, in range and depth, in firm foundation of tradition 
and epochmaking, effervescent new trends. This is noticeable in each of its four 
chapters: I. Taladhartr Prakaranam II, Mrdarigi Prakaranam (Vol. I), III. Gayaka 
Prakaranam (1. Ragadhikaranam 2. Prabandhadhikaranam, Vol. II) and 
IV. Nartaka Prakaranam (1. Nartanadhikaranam 2. Nrttadhikaranam, Vol. III). 
Flashes of primary originality as well as a deep concern for the preservation and 
perpetuation of the contemporary usages in both arts are clearly visible throughout 
the work. 

Pandarika Vitthala, the author has also composed Sadragacandrodaya, Rdgamala , 
Ragamanjan , Dutikarmaprakasa and Sighrabodhimndmamald. He is versatile and 
expert in multiple disciplines, with an eye for intradisciplinal detail and a vision for 
interdisciplinal perspective. He is a notable symbol of integration of the age in the 
field of art and culture. 

The main subject matter of Nartananirnaya is nartaka (dancer). This is reached 
by a staircase ( sopana ) method from the orchestral ensemble, viz. tala (cymbal), 
mrdanga (drum) and gayana ; flute is described en passant in the chapter on singing; 
for vina the reader is referred to the author’s Ragacandrodaya. The subject of 
dancing (ch. IV) is divided into two sections: aesthetic representation of affect; 
presentation of the nonreferential, autonomous meaning of dance through 
kinetic, figurative etc. dispositions of the major ( anga ), minor ( upanga ) and 
subordinate ( pratyanga) divisions of the human body. The author has made 
athetisations from and additions to the textual lore he has inherited from his 
predecessors to suit his unique classification of dance. This classification, viz. into 
bandhaand anibandhais a major departure from earlier textual convention. Bandha 
is viewed as dance strictly structured with prescribed items while anibandha dance 
leaves some scope for individual innovation or creativity but in a given frame. The 
classification thus embraces both the conventional (or inherited or traditional) as 
well as the individualistic elements of art presentation. Besides techniques of 
expression (inherited for the most part) such as kinesic, mimesic and semiotic, 
(which is analogous to the elements of linguistic expression, viz. alphabet, vocabulary, 
svntax, etc.), the Nartananirnaya also describes for the first time a great deal of 




Vlll 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


unitary or segmentary forms which served as building material of extant dance 
compositions belonging to both the bandha and anibandha classes of dance. Such 
material is garnered from a pan-South Indian granary. This is a major contribution 
of the treatise, which incidentally also reveals the occurrence of a parallel, 
professional parlance of terminology. A second significant contribution has a 
special value because the treatise was composed during a cultural watershed when 
a distinct polarisation was emerging in the art forms on a South-North axis in India. 
This contribution consisted of refocussing them on a national canvas. This 
situation served as a crucible in which internal and external socio-cultural tensions 
had been developing in art needing resolution. This took the form of forging new 
identities. Nartananirnaya contains thus, much that may be interpreted as partial 
germinations in our dancescape what came to be called Bharatanatya, Kathak, 
Odissi, etc. in course of time. 

Yet another major contribution of this treatise is the descriptions of actual 
dance compositions from contemporary practice. Some were collected from 
Karnataka, Andhra and Tamilnad; some such as dhruvapada and jakkadi were of 
exotic origin; rasa was pan-Indian in prevalence. MukhacaU is choreographed in 
step by step minute detail; this has now survived as an abbreviated part in most 
classical dances under the names rangavandana, dikpalapuja, sabhapuja etc. Abasic 
conceptual change emerged at this time, viz. formations and reformations of the 
new identities (which soon came to gain recognition and patronage even in royal 
courts) were based on materials which were so for regarded as desi. 

Two features introduced into this volume deserve special mention. If Text- 
critical Comment and Commentary on the Text are available for any part of the 
original text printed on a given page, they are indicated by the respective sloka 
number and pada (viz.abed) at the bottom of the opposite (i.e. Translation) page. 
This method is continued from the second volume. It is hoped that this will 
facilitate ready reference. 

The second feature relates to Text Critique. In order to render the present 
edition uptodate, more useful and more complete, an attempt is made to relate a 
prior critical edition of Nartananirnaya by Dr. Mandakranta Bose (and published 
in 1991 at Calcutta) with the present edition. It comprises the following sections: 
i. Introduction (Text-Critical observations and perceptions on the findings of the 
learned editor of the Calcutta edition), ii. An additional prefatory passage called 
Stuti of 33 verses which is reedited, translated and provided with commentary on 
the (Stuti) Text by me, iii. A table of comparison showing the more important variae 
in the corresponding texts in the two editions with abbreviated observations of the 
present editor. This feature is the outcome of a suggestion to me by Dr. Kapila 
Vatsyayan-ji that every attempt should be made to fix the original text. This is a 
humble effort to this end and I thank her for the suggestion. 



PREFACE 


IX 


I am very thankful to the Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts and their 
great Academic Director Dr. Kapila Vatsyayan for asking me to prepare this work 
for inclusion in the Kalamulasastra Series. I am beholden to Prof. Dr. Satkari 
Mukhopadhyaya, Coordinator, Kalakosa, for his constant support, courtesy and 
friendship. Many institutions and individuals have helped me in securing collative 
sources for this edition. Their help is acknowledged in the Introduction to the 
Nartananirnaya in the first volume. I am very grateful to my very dear friend Mr. 
Roland Mann, formerly of McKnsey and Co. for his excellent editorial suggestions. 
I acknowledge with pleasure the considerable help I have received from the noted 
SanskritCrammarian, Vidwan H.V. NagarajaRao of the Oriental Research Institute, 
Mysore for his valuable suggestions in respect of Sanskrit grammatical usage and 
in particular for his help in restoring and translating the ‘Stuti’ text. My sincere 
thanks are due to Vidwan S. Jagannatha, M.A. and my wife, Smt. Gowri Sathya- 
narayana, M.A., RBV for collation and proof-reading. I also sincerely thank my son 
Vidwan R.S. Nandakumar for preparing the Indexes and Bibliography. I am again 
very thankful to him and to Vidwan Soundararajan, M.A. for collecting data for the 
Text-Critique. 

I thank Sri Ramashis and M/s Neographics, New Delhi for their patience with 
me and for the skilful and difficult art of typesetting and get up of this work. 


Bhava Mahasivaratri, 1995 
Trayeelakshmi, Mysore 


R. SATHYANARAYANA 





















CONTENTS 


Preface vii 

TEXT AND TRANSLATION 2-169 

I. Nartanadhikaranam 2 

II. Nrttadhikaranam 48 

pAtha-vimarsa 170-206 

I. Nartanadhikaranam 170 

II. Nrttadhikaranam 181 

COMMENTARYON THE TEXT 207-361 

I. Nartanadhikaranam 207 

II. Nrttadhikaranam 229 

TEXT CRITIQUE 363-430 

Introduction 365 
Text and Translation 371 


Commentary on the Text 383 
Comparison of Readings Notes 397 
Comparison of Textual Variants 399 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 431-453 

INDEXES 455-557 

Slokardhanukramani 455 
VisesapadanukramanI 485 
Index to Names, Comppsers 515 
Index to Works Cited 519 
Index to Place Names 523 
Manuscript Copies Consulted 524 
Index to Words 525 

















H^Hppfa: 

NARTANANIRNAYA 

OF 

PANDARIKA VITTHAlA 






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TRANSLATION 


I. NARTANA-ADHI KARAN A 

1. THREEFOLD NARTANA 

1. One who is proficient in the knowledge (of his own and other) country, (or 
regional-?) language, art, bhavaznd rasa [relevant to the performance], is leader of 
the orchestra, expert in the practice and theory of nartana and who makes 
(=conducts, teaches) (others) to dance is nartaka. 

2. Nartana is said to be that which is presented (lit. shown) by an actor such that 
it has a speciality in the movement < viksepa > of the limbs and is appealing to the 
minds of people. 

Sab. It is renowned to be of three kinds viz. natya, nrtya and nrtta. 

3cd-4ab. Natya is declared by the wise to inhere < asraya> a story , precept, vrtti, 
bhava and rasa , such as in a play and as consisting of fourfold abhinaya. 

4cd-5ab. Nrtya is replete with all [forms of] abhinaya except pusta, ornamented 
with bhava, beautiful in all of its components and attractive to the whole world. 

5cd-6ab. Nrtta is beloved of people, gives ecstatic pleasure, resplendent and 
spectacular in [all] ahgas through the movements [viksepa] of hands, feet etc. and 
is bereft of abhinaya. 

6cd-7ab. Three varieties occur in nrtta viz. visama, vikata and laghu. That ( nrtta) 
is visama (difficult) which involves weaponry, and rotation with ropes etc. 

7cd-8ab. Performance involving deformed body or dress is opined to be vikata 
(hideous). Laghu (light) [nrtta] is described as consisting of small karanas, leaping 
etc. 

8cd. Both these nrttya and nrtta are each of two kinds— tandava and Idsya. 

9. Bold and vehement performance is opined to be tandava. Lasya is said to be 
beautiful with sportive (movements of) limbs and to excite erotic sentiment. 

2. FOURFOLD ABHINAYA 

10. The verbal root ‘nin’ [ni] prefixed with ‘abhi ascertained to mean ‘to bring 
face to face’. Abhinaya is so termed because it leads (the meaning of) the perform¬ 
ance vis-a-vis (the spectator’s heart). 


TCC (Text-Critical Comments) lab 2bd 3c 5c 6a 7bc 8abd 9acd lOd 
COT (Commentary on Text) lac 2c 3a 4c 5d 6d 8cd 9ab,10ab 





NARTANANIRNAYA 


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<TbMldWHl4lJ|I^Tffo 3TOf*T«M II 























































TRANSLATION 


5 


11. Such abhinaya is of four kinds: vacika, aharya , sattvika and ahgika. Among 
them, vacika (abhinaya) is declared to be excellent. 

12. The bodily organs, costumery and make up as well as emotional representa¬ 
tion only manifest or allude to the word meaning; therefore, there is nothing (in 
abhinaya) beyond words; words alone are the cause (origin) of everything. 

13. Whatever is composed in prose or verse in vernacular, prakrta, samskrta 
meaningfully or otherwise is termed vacika. 

Nepathya: Aharyabhinaya 

14ab. Aharyabhinaya is to be understood as procedures of nepathya. 

14cd-15a. Sepathya is of four kinds: pusta , alamkara , sahjiva and ahgaracana. 

15bcd. Pusta (model) is opined to be of three kinds: sandhima, bhajima (vydjima ?) 
and eestvna (vestima?). 

16. Sandhima consists of the forms created by actors from clothes and leather 
fastened i sewn) together. That made by machines is to be understood as bhajima 
i inanmd?) 

17ab. That form which is produced by wrapping is named cestima (vestima?). 

17cd-18ab. Hills, carriages, lofty palaces (aerial vehicles?), shields, armours, 
weapons and bannerstaffs which are [so] created are named pusta (model works, 
stage property). 

18cd-19ab. Alamkara (decoration) is understood as [consisting of] flower gar¬ 
lands, ornaments and drapery which are variously fitted to different parts of the 
body. 

19cd. Entry of living animals (on the stage) is said to be sahjiva (=alive). 

Complexion 

20. Red, yellow, white and (intense) blue are natural colours. Similarly others are 
formed by mutual combinations; yet others are auxiliary colours. 

21. Yellowish white is declared [to be derived] from mixing white and blue. Lotus 
colour is said to be [obtained] by mixing white and red. 

22. Yellowish red is derived by combining yellow and blue (? red and blue). Pale 
red is said to be formed by combining red and yellow. 


TCC llab 12cd 13c 15abcd 16ac I7ab 18cd 19abc 20bc 22a 
COT llabcd-13 13c 14bcd 15acd 14-19 20bcd 21-23a 





NARTANANIRNAYA 


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TRANSLATION 


7 


23. These are colours born of [mutual] combination. Similarly there are many 
auxiliary (secondary) colours formed by combining three and four (primary) 
colours. 

24. Whichever is the strong colour, it should be taken in one part; the weak 
colour, in two parts; blue should be taken as said below (or applied in depen- 
dently). 

25. Blue forms one part while [the other] colour is in four parts; [for] blue is 
declared to be the strongest of all colours. 

26ab. The body should be prepared (painted) from these according to the 
importance of the various characters <vesa>. 

I Sattvikabhinaya (Emotive Representation) 

26cd. The mental state brought about by pleasure or sorrow is called sattva. 

27-28ab. Its performance is [called] sattvika-bhava. It is eightfold: stambha , sveda , 
romanca , svarabheda , vepathu, vaivarnya , asru an d pralaya. Its [stage] acting is as 
follows: 


i. Stambha 

28cd-29a. Stambha (stupefaction, paralysis) arises out of joy, astonishment, 
sickness, sorrow, intoxication and fear. 

29b-30ab. I shall now describe its performance <karma >: motionlessness, ab¬ 
sence of tremour, lifeless, inert-body, senselessness, rigid body—with these the 
savant should represent stambha. 

ii. Sveda 

30cd-31ab. Sveda (perspiration) is born from anger, shame, fear, joy, exercise, 
sorrow, fatigue, injury (devastation), illness, heat and summer. 

31cd-32ab. Its acting should be done with holding a fan, wiping perspiration and 
displaving a desire for air. 

iii. Romanca 

32cd. Romanca (horripilation) [arises] from sickness, cold, joy, touch, fear etc. 


TCC 23b 24bd 28c 32a 

COT 21-23a 26cd 29ab 28cd-30ab 30cd-32ab 32cd-33 






8 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


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TRANSLATION 


9 


33. It should be acted with frequent prickling sensation of the skin, touching of 
the body, and likewise with erection of hair on the body. 

iv. Svarabheda 

34. Svarabheda (change of voice) occurs by intoxication, anger, fear, joy and old 
age. Its acting is done with broken, stammering (irregular) pitch. 

v. Vepathu 

35. Vepathu (trembling) [arises] from sickness, cold, old age, touch, fear andjoy. 
Vepathu should be performed with shivering, quivering or trembling. 

vi. Vaivarnya 

36-37ab. Vaivarnya (change of complexion) [occurs] through cold, heat, fatigue, 
anger, fear and sickness. Vaivarnya should be acted by altering the facial complex¬ 
ion. pressing the blood vessels and is dependent on the organs [of the body]. 

vii. Asm 

37cd-38. Asm (tears) is formed because of grief, indignation, fear, ecstasy, 
vanning, smoke, unwinking gaze and cold. The savant should perform it by wiping 
the eves and tears. 

viii. Pralaya 

39-40ab. Pralaya (fainting) [is brought about] by exertion, sleep, swooning, 
in]urv; performance of pralaya is [accomplished] by inert, lifeless body, inertness, 
lack of tremour and falling to the ground. 

Arigikabhinaya (Body-Acting); DharmI 

40cd. Ahgika ( abhinaya) is opined to be that which is displayed with parts of the 
bodv such as the head, eyes, hands etc. 

41-42ab. The theme to be acted with them is twofold: lokadharmi (realistic, 
referential) and natyadharmi (idealistic, textual-conventional). Each of them is 
iurain ] twofold: cittavrtty-arpika (referring to a particular modality of the mind) and 
iakyaiKistihaniLkdrini (referring to an external object). 


Tt C 1 3d 34ab 36abcd 37ab 38ab 39bd 41a 

~ - > - nab 34 35 36-37ab 37cd-38 39-40ab 40cd-58ab 




10 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


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c^T^TT I 



































































TRANSLATION 


11 


42cd-43. Vacikabhinaya is lokadharmi if it consists of only sentences (speech). 
Here, if the speech is symbolic it is opined to be cittavrtty-arpika: if the meaning of 
the sentence is plain, it is bdhyavastv-anukarini. 

44-45ab. If the sentence is rendered in a raga it is said to be natyadharmi. A 
sentence rendered in a difficult (or uncommon) raga is declared to be cittavrtty- 
arpika. A sentence rendered in a well known raga is bahyavastv-anukarinl. 

45cd-46. Aharyabhinaya, performed with garland, bracelet etc. ornaments is 
lokadharmi. It is to be understood as cittavrtty-arpika when the meaning of the 
ornaments is shown in the (various) parts of the body without the (actual) 
ornaments. 

47ab. If the meaning is shown with actual ornaments, it is bdhyavastv-anukarini. 

47cd-48. A marvel created with models ( pusta ) is said to be natyadharmi. If the 
meaning of the models is shown with the limbs without the (actual) models, this 
indeed is declared by experts to be cittavrtty-arpika. 

49ab. If (the meaning of the models is) shown by employing actual models, it is 
bdhyavastv-anukarini. 

49cd. Sattvikabhinaya (emotive acting) becomes lokadharmi by showing stupe¬ 
faction etc. 

50. Here, it becomes cittavrtty-arpika if the bhava (acting) is shown without the 
actual bhava (mental state). If the same is shown with the actual bhava, it is 
bdhyavastv-anukarini. 

51. If (the bhava is shown) with sattvika-bhavas and hand poses, it is described as 
natyadharmi. If it manifests by the showing of stambha (stupefaction) etc. only, then 
it is cittavrtty-arpika. 

52ab. If it is done with sattvika-bhavas and with hand poses, it is bdhyavastv- 
anukarini. 

52cd-53a. Elucidation of meaning in ahgikabhinaya (body acting) with hands and 
eves is lokadharmi. 

53bcd. When an (affective) state <bhava>, latent in a mental modality is illumined 
through eyes, it is cittavrtty-arpika. 

54. When the meaning of [external objects such as] the moon, lotus, mace etc. 
is shown with hand poses, then the Muni declared it to be bdhyavastv-anukarini. 

55abc. Visualisation of meaning through hand karanas beautified with graceful 
< narma> (movement of) limbs is to be understood as natyadharmi. 


7 42d 43a 44abc 45ad 50b 51 a 54a 

COT 40cd-58ab 





12 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


Pid<^Pfe fl ^ II Va II 
■q^T ^ %%=Ff ^frT ^Tfacqi^rfasTO: I 
%m4r«$lfr n wwp II ^ II 



3r4y«bi^H fa ii ^ ii 


3 . %J|cHUlfaH^:-cilpMT4in'M|cn: 

cf^ ^loK^K'l'fmf^i I 

Pd^MlPw^TsMIW^I^IH^W: II ^ II 
3ni(ri'H ^ ■rll %: ^fasffcT: I 

5(1-SI ■ciHcidl ir4 3il4 J H 'd-Sdl cT^TT II II 

T[ 4 f ^flr^R pTSTS’qFTR ^ I 
^3ft t^^5^aT3T^f|c«W«TM II po || 
MPdczrfr^R^^KW^n imfa ^ 1 

IFTt facT^T ^eftft <IHIpJo^^iP<u| : II ^ II 

i. fMfc: 

^^ls^Ri'it;iRs\ynT^(^Miq < Hi'i'iiq s I 

d l ^tePd4HM M^r^y^iHid, H 11 

'TFT ^TFT?T I 

u|H<|hcmY¥I: TFOT( -«fT?)< u m^d«TT II II 
pT:^m<?P;<il-^9qi^'WiH c^fft^ft I 

ii. 4 ellpH: 

e) | ^Pcftehd t PH<^<M SgcftftWTT II P* II 
3 TPd°i||i|IH'd?JT^=l J WHMl l T c imd: I 
viK^^i q# H^ddlPd^ldSJT II V\ II 
W^Hfdl'^dWIMI^: •H*i u Miqd I 















































TRANSLATION 


13 


55d-56. Therein, cittavrtty-arpika consists of manifesting the meaning through 
dispensation of parts of the body with special grace and tenderness embracing only 
the kaisikl style. 

57. Wherein meaning is illumined with special splendour through karanas such 
as avestita , it is indeed bahyavastv-anukarini. 

3. ABHINAYA OF BHAVA AND RASA 
Vyabhicari Bhavas 
List 

58ab. In this connection, I shall expound what is to be stage-acted in bhava, rasa 
etc. 

58cd-61cd. Nirveda , glani, sahka , likewise asuya , mada,srama, alasya , dainya , cinta, 
moha , smrti, dhrti, vrida, capalata , /uzraz, avegajadata , similarly garua, visada , autsukya , 
nidra, apasmara, svapna, vibodha , amarsa , avahittha , ugrata , mafi, vyadhi , again 
unmada, marana, trasa , vitarka —these thirtythree ( ramagni) are vybhicarins (transi¬ 
tory moods). 

i. Nirveda 

62-63ab. [The vyabhicari-bhava ] named nirveda (total indifference to worldly 
objects) is born from anger, abusive words, poverty, realisation of Utimate Truth, 
humiliation, beating, separation from beloved persons, seeing the prosperity of 
others, illness, sorrow and scolding. 

63cd-64ab. Its stage performance consists of meditation, abject words, downcast 
eves, drawing asunder ( =samprasarana ; deliberation= 5 am/?rarfAflrana), sighing, weep¬ 
ing and deep inhalation. 

ii. G&zra 

64cd-66ab. G/am (languor, fatigue) is born ofvomitting, purging, cutting off of 
sleep, hunger, thirst, excessive exercise, journeying a long distance, fasting, old age, 
penance, excessive drinking of wine, sickness, sulking (wounded sense of honour, 
or indignation caused by jealousy) <mana> and mental anguish. 


ICC 36cd 59c 62ab 63d 64ac 
COT 4< kd-58ab 62-64ab 64cd-67ab 





14 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


^c|u4<^d J ll^ 'dlid I 

iii. ?T|jT 



: II ^ || 


cT«TT TO ch<u||^^i -$W& p I 

^TTSlfaefr^: II II 

fafTCT <M: Mm^wAi ?TfT y<stf^ II II 
^( Ml- ) dir^fd cn ?TfT WT: TOf W#l 
P^^oijdl^^ f H Rn cT«TT ^^-iRuii ^T II V3o || 

^fbTO^sM ^ t^JRTg^rfp I 
^kTTW^ ^ II ^ II 

^^^WIT^W^tW^cT: I 
^ Z \$Pddl Wfr{ II^ II 


v. 


H^H-HlMl^rMTil f4f44T "Ref: I 
witTO^ Hl^W^I ddf^FR: ?FRTcp II ^ II 



^HKlRl4 J ird’bTlR II V9* II 

dWfd F^fd ^Kicqi^dl ^^RT: I 
^Pddl^ufddd: TPffd^TO ^ II ^ II 
J|^lli?d: dSi^fdSJ tfcfd I 

^^HMRn§l(f^ft?)PiBlqrd«Fl ^ 11^ II 














































TRANSLATION 


15 


66cd-67ab. The expert should stage act glani with weak voice, lack of enthusiasm, 
languorous movement, trembling, blanching and thin body. 

iii. Sahka 

67cd-68ab. Sahka (apprehension) arises clearly from fear of [having committed] 
theft, offence to the king etc., likewise, of committing sin. 

68cd-69. Sahka should be shown with dry lips, throat and mouth, looking 
frequently on either side, intense agitation, becoming pale (or blanched), contract¬ 
ing the body, licking (lips) with the tongue and a little trembling. 

70. Sahka generated by valour etc. (in others) (!by committing theft) should be 
performed mostly in bhayanaka (i.e. fearful, rasa) and that generated by unfaithful¬ 
ness of the beloved, in the srhgara (i.e. erotic, rasa). 

iv. Asuya 

71. Asuya (envy) is always produced on seeing the good fortune, wealth, 
intelligence and eminent learning in others or on committing offences to others. 

72. Its stage acting consists of finding fault (of others) in assemblies (in public) 
with character assassination, knitting and raising the eyebrows. 

v. Mada 

73. Mada (intoxication) is produced from partaking of liquor and is opined to 
be of three kinds: uttama (superior), madhyama (moderate) and nica (low). Its stage 
acting is as follows, in (the same) order: 

74. An intoxicated person of superior nature is of smiling words, sweet temper, 
horripilated body; he sleeps or sings or walks with a gentle, crooked gait. 

75. Ail intoxicated person of middling (or moderate) nature sings, laughs, is 
bewildered, has drooping and swinging arms and has drunken, rolling eyes. 

76. An intoxicated person of low nature falls while walking, speaks harsh words, 
loses memory, weeps, has a heavy, hanging tongue <gurusajjanamdnajihma : heavy, 
drooping squint> and spits. 


TCC 67c 68b 69c 70ad 71c 72c 73ab 73c 74abc 75abc 76ac 
COT 64cd-67ab 67cd-70 71-72 73-76 




16 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


vi. SW: 

a^o^H^rWsliW^ 3TC: I 
TT^Tr^ H u I 'Hi T\ ^ 'j'k H 4 H: 11^3 II 

J||;W*c|I^WW ^W*R*T: II vsd II 

vii. 3TTeR^n^ 

^HicMifa^si rtMvi i 

VH’ : n^(-'?T-?)HdW'$OrHsU^cHdW«TT IIVS^ II 

viii. 

II Co II 

^ ^TFRT f¥^5f*H?TT I 
3T^cTT IWTT flWm( T^T?)^^: II C\ II 
^fadlHcM^f^NI !J u IIHd:-l 

ix. r^i 

11 c 3 n 

d;fol# T ^TT^g#IT^I^<sl fcl ^: I 

^ ucs n 

x. "Rtl?: 

oM-HHI^^TTf^cT; <{44<fH< u RTt I 

^e^RFT^ II ^ II 
^rydT^^H'JK^HI^ ^u[Hia>iid s I 
■^f^TMT ^1-Hl^cTFT II C\ II 




































TRANSITION 


17 


vi* Srama 

77ab. Srama (fatigue) is born from long travel, exercise, dancing, tramping 
< sahcara >. 

77cd-78. Its stage acting by the learned consists of dragging the feet while 
walking, making the sound 'sit', yawning, rubbing the body, sighing, lassitudinous 
movement (sweating?), contracting the mouth and eyes, rubbing or shampooing 
<samvahana> the limbs. 

vii. Alasyam 

79ab. Alasya (indolence) is born from one’s own nature, sickness and lassitude. 

79cd-80ab. Its stage acting consists of eating in bed (lying down and sitting?), 
laziness, addiction to sleep, longing experienced during pregnancy and a disliking 
for all forms of activity. 

viii. Dainyam 

80cd-81a. Dainya (depression) is born from misfortune and sorrow arising from 
mental worry and impatienee. 

81b-82ab. Its stage acting is various: infirmity, headache, movement and stupe¬ 
faction of the body, wretched ejaculations such as ‘ha! ha!’, supplication and 
obeisance. 


ix. Cinta 

82cd. Cinta (anxiety) [ is born] from loss of wealth and of precious object and 
from poverty. 

83. The learned [actor] should represent (histrionically) cinta by thinness of 
body, anguish, constant dwelling of the mind on the same thing <dhyana>, 
worrying with a downcast face, and [deep] breathing. 

x. Moha 

84. Moha (distraction) is born from distress, sickness, recollection of old enmity, 
and from finding robbers at unexpected (evil?) place. 

85. Its stage acting consists of showing rotation of inert limbs, rolling and falling 
and stupefaction of all senses. 


TCC 77a 78a 80ac 81c 82c 83a 84bcd 85cd 
COT 77-78 79-80ab 80cd-82ab 82cd-83 84-85 





18 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


xi. 'Hjfd: 

^^:^l(dsni'dl STfalfadl <^frld1 "W | 

d^jliHifo i c^Wlcl^: II 6* II 

xii. 

^4^rtb^rd^HMH l 5hl4 l#n < gRT: I 
yik^ldldlM^ddls^il^lfWTt II 6% II 

xiii. WfeT 

^o4|fd*H|cl5liyrMlf<Klidl c ra: I 

f4>f«i< c H4 c b< u ll^'^5T II %o || 

: II V II 

$rm ff<y n3a 9itewfiR^yr: i 

xiv. ^PToTcTT 

<M I ^H<m4H l dHWre|^Nd : II V II 
<JdH£Jc1 ■dHddl d**Hl€Hf^M4)5f4 I 
cH<t>MU?^: UHISKdl^4*PR^: II ^ II 
t^4o4dMI L l^r4c|Hl^ir^^Kd:l 


XV 


. T>4: 


f: II V* II 
W'Hir<yi J IHHdl^: I 
sR^iiftdi^rra ^4 ^tu4 ii %\ 



































TRANSIATION 


19 


xi. Smrti 

86. [The vyabhicari-bhava ] named smrti (recollection) is born from recalling to 
the mind the pleasure and sorrow which have elapsed, and from long forgotten 
excellent sastra discipline. 

87. The intelligent [actor] should stage act it with shaking of the head, lowering 
of eyebrows, looking with joy, and bringing the forefinger near (the head). 

xii. Dhrti 

88. Dhrti (contentment) is born from valour, power, knowledge of sruti (Veda), 
receiving profit beyond expectation, excessive devotion to the guru (elders or 
superiors), and from cleanliness. 

89. Its stage acting consists of enjoying (all sense objects viz.) sabda (sound), rupa 
(form), rasa (taste, flavour), sparsa (touch) and gandha (smell), and not worrying 
(overwhelmed) about them when available and not sorrowing when they are not 
available. 

xiii. Vnda 

90. Vnda (shame) is born from transgressing the (commands/advice of) 
superiors (such as teacher), disesteem [of others], surpassing of one’s self [by 
others] from repentance and performing an improper act. 

91-92ab. The learned [actor] should stage act vnda with talking in secrecy, 
drawing lines on the ground [with the toes], cutting [biting] the nails, touching 
one’s own cloth or ring, worrying with downcast face—with these and other 
anubhavas [i.e. behavioural responses]. 

xiv. Capalata 

92cd-93a. Capalata (inconstancy) is produced largely from attachment, hatred, 
intoxication, indignation, malice and envy. 

93b-94ab. Its stage acting is by harshness of speech, striking, beating, killing, 
imprisonment, rebuking, commanding etc. as well as by indiscrimination. 

xv. Harsa 

94cd-95. Harsa (joy) is produced from fulfilment of one’s desire, favour of gods, 
superiors (such as teacher) and husband/master, attainment of the desired object, 
pleasure of the arrival of the loved ones, attainment of the pleasures of money etc. 


TCC 86abc 87ad 88b 89cd 91 abed 92b094b 95a 
COT 86-87 88-89 90-92ab 92cd 92cd-94ab 94cd-97ab 




20 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


fSPT ^I^lRrl^Hdl II ^ II 

xvi. STl^fT: 

^lddldd#jfai]WldfdSJT || %\3 || 
JSHl^uil^ MldldftjdWIKfq | 
dcM^51[f3ff«RT 3Tm: TOIHIcH*>: II %C II 

pc|b|K^^c|ir4rdt|uu | ^^j|Nd : II %% II 

3*cHjUd^grfaH4dl<vII *°° II 
^Dy j IHHd1 elided c^R^^«rt: I 
fMU^4»<u | < Tt5^T ^ITO^TT^ \\\o% \\ 
^ffeT c^R^^RTft^cT: I 
# 5 i t^HHKfiltd II *©3 || 

^d4>: fy^^q u i«j>ci II ^©3 II 

&dNU4u|*^d^M*lfa4*Wkp I 
^ddl^dd: ^Wi ^i cT«7T II ^©* || 
^^4<^H U| ^)d rq^t^r^R4^^T:l 
^ I Msb^ t d^lfdlfd^TTWrp II *°<a II 

^^^dl^ld v WKT^HWk , J|[cp I 

q i dfrfl ^d^fdf^ Mdmd: II 5>©^ II 
^PHMIdl^ fadlMMIsbRdlcp MR^HId, I 
xfftsncFRTt dddMRdcfddWsn II *©V3 II 
37ftPT^d IJ l^d I 














































TRANSLATION 


21 


96-97ab. Abhinaya for harsa is performed with perspiration, tears of ecstasy, 
horripilation, lustrous eyes and face, affectionate words, embrace, light hand¬ 
clapping and charming modification of limbs. 

xvi. Avega 

97cd-98. Eight kinds of avega (agitation) involving a flurry of activity <sambhra- 
maimako> are produced from natural (portentous) calamity, storm, rain, outbreak 
of fire, hearing pleasant news, running amok of elephant, injury and hearing 
unpleasant news. 

99ab. Avega due to natural calamity consists of lightning, falling of meteor, and 
eclipse of the moon and sun. 

99cd-100ab. The learned [actor] should stage act the visualisation of any celestial 
apparition due to natural calamity with despair, paleness of face, and dejected, 
drooping body. 

lOOcd-lOlab. The intelligent [actor] should stage act the avega produced by a 
storm by covering (the head) with a cloth, rubbing of eyes, gathering together of 
clothes by quick movement. 

101cd-102a. Avega due to rain should be stage acted by lumping together the 
body and running for a shelter. 

102bcd. The learned [actor] should perform the avega from the outbreak of fire 
by contracting eyes as if due to smoke and quickly running helter skelter. 

103. The learned [actor] should [histrionically] represent avega due to hearing 
pleasant news by giving presents, of clothes and ornaments [sudden] rising and 
embracing [the messenger], tears [ofjoy] and horripilation. 

104-105ab. The expert [actor] should stage act the avega due to running amok 
of elephant with quick retreat, stupefaction (paralysis), swooning, trembling, 
amazement, looking over the shoulder (frequently) and with unsteady movement. 

105cd-106. The avega due to injury [from enemies] should be represented with 
sudden retreat, wearing armour and weapons, mounting elephant, horse or chariot 
and drawing asunder and fear of the attack from weapons. 

107-108ab. The intelligent [actor] should stage act the avega due to hearing 
unpleasant news by falling to the ground, grieving, weeping loudly, lamentation, by 
running about and turning away the face. 


TCC 97ab 99a-100 99d 100c lOlcd 102b 103acd 104acd 105bc 106ab 107b 
COT94cd-97ab 97cd-108ab 




NARTANANIRNAYA 


xvii. >J 1'Sdl 

^Pd^ l <^ ^lP<^l4V-ll!.lPdMPddT ll \o6 II 
oi|K^Hd^l4l ^TT W^frf I 

M^IKPdWdTteM^ II \o% II 
S^ffcT'm'+i^dcTT ^sdlP*R4t I 

xviii. "T^: 

^q4|e)dPe)^| Rft II U° 

i foqfcnqct ^ fsr^j-bfasftf: I 

^^ | o|d)°b^lcWM I »^< f a q^: II II 

^c|^|^<llaM^kf«rR: I 

xix. 

$d4kfPdi^ u TT^qiP^dqiPid: II U3 II 
<M<lNlfcd: ^Flf: I 

f^ ^P^dl^ l ^PcIMI dl ^ ^R^T: II U3 II 
^o^iMpd^P^^l^r^^^R^TO:! 

< ^%I II U* II 

xx. 3^ctJ«KIH. 

Pd4l J llP<^dd 3^r^«Ki "TR *fFTrf I 
?t^: ^P^dlPH^Id^l^l^ r P ^PR!:ll U<a H 
4c^mp^wr4] d <H P^: I 

xxi. Pi5\l 

II II 

TT^ ^TFRf^RTTrWTTTf^T T^SfRcf I 






































TRANSLATION 


23 


xvii .Jadata 

108cd-109ab. [The vyabhicari bhava ] named jadata (stupor) is born from lack of 
clear perception (discrimination) of what should be done and from hearing or 
seeing the unpleasant, sickness or from dullness in response. 

109cd-l lOab. Stage acting of jadata consists of doing nothing, subserving the will 
of another, unwinking stare, lack of ready response or dullness (timidity?) and 
speechlessness. 

xviii. Garva 

llOcd-llla. Garva (arrogance) is born from good looks, youth, learning, 
acquisition of money, noble birth, strength and wealth. 

lllb-112ab. Its histrionic representation is said to consist of inattention, exces¬ 
sive valour, looking at own body, harsh speech, excessive abrasive conduct, con¬ 
tempt, not giving a reply and not speaking. 

xix. Visada 

112cd-l 13ab. Visada (despair) [occurs] from being caught in the act of stealing, 
[misfortune due to] divine dispensation, not attaining the desired object, acts of 
offence committed against the king etc. and loss of voice. 

113cd-114cd. Stage acting of visada occurs with sleep, sighing, shattering of 
enthusiasm, being discomposed (or heartbroken), worrying over the misfortune 
happening due to divine dispensation, contemplation of means of remedying the 
same and searching for help (to this end). 

xx. Autsukya 

115ab. Autsukya (impatience) is born from separation from the loved ones. 

115cd-l 16ab.i4MtiM^yashould be histrionically represented with long sigh, sleep, 
indolence, longing for bed and by worrying with downcast face. 

xxi. Nidrd 

116cd-117ab. Nidrd (sleep) is born from laziness, apathy, weakness, exertion, 
fatigue, one’s own nature, being awake in the night, anxiety and overeating. 


TCC 108cd 110-lllabc 112ab 114b 115a 116cd 117a 

Cot 108cd-l lOab 110cd-112ab 112cd-114 115-116ab 116cd-118 





24 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


Jj*sl J lU<=ld1 II W II 

11 W " 


xxii. 3FTRR: 

cbMMilfaMIdl^l WTRWdlffi: II W II 
^d^dlM^INI' - ^ ^MiKiiq^HId, I 
3T %°^fragd t ’UdNM'F fR: CT9ct II ^o II 
W«^<tt$Rd«n^: I 
ft:^Nd^<M^M$Hfd<ri^: II ^ II 

^TT^q^SINfHKlf^FPT: T'JcT: I 


xxiii. 

rn^l'H^f^RT: 'WU'W'W ^FRf^T II II 
ft I) K H <rfti fa ft hI a ^: I 

«H$Mm i i H W II 

xxiv. 

faai^d 'ra ^MKIgK^IHd: I 

<rH^?d: 'U^ffa'^STf ilH ^Nrl II II 

3^-ftl:iUHI-4^ WF 1*4 II II 

^mRftftcT^T: ^Sf: *^Rft I 

xxv. : 

SUftTHHT TT^FT^ ftrltefaqdlfaft: II W II 
^II^HI^H^t WFft dTR ^TF7% I 
<ic^ll'^^M c l'MNT^TT ST^ofafti'd^: II H 
«^d)d ’jcqfa^ I 



















































TRANSLATION 


25 


117cd-118. Nidra should be shown with heaviness of face, tossing of the body, 
cracking of limbs, deep inhalation and exhalation, rolling of eyes, yawning, laying 
down the body and closing of eyes. 

xxii. Apasmara 

119-120. Apasmara (epilepsy) is born from memory of gods, raksasas, yaksas and 
(malignant) grahas; contrareity (within the body) of long ago, possession by 
brahmaraksasa, bhuta, preta and pisaca, entering an empty (dilapitated) house and 
shedding of excessive tears; it occurs in the night. 

121-122ab. Stage acting of apasmara is said to be (done) with sighing and shaking, 
paralysis, sweat, throbbing, running, falling down unconscious, foaming at the 
mouth and excessive licking of lips and other anubhavas (i.e. behavioural re¬ 
sponses) . 

xxiii. Svapna 

122c. Svapna (dream)occurs during sleep. 

122d-123. Its stage acting is thus: dream should be shown while sleeping with 
exhalation-inhalation, immobile (body), closing the eyes inertly and insensibility of 
the external senses. 

xxiv. Vibodha 

124. [The vyabhicari bhdva] named vibodha (awakening) is born by the break of 
'leep. a bad dream, digesting of food, a [loud] sound, and strong touch. 

125-126ab. It should be stage acted by the good people (actors) with stretching 
the arms, bending the limbs, rubbing the eyes, cracking the fingers, leaving the bed 
and jamming. 

xv. Amarsa 

- 2bcd-127ab. [The vyabhicari bhava\ named amarsa (indignation) is born in 
vigorous) men who are insulted in public assembly by persons of superior 
learning. wealth or power. 

I ?7cd-128ab. The dance expert should perform it with energy, resolute mental 
tS ft w rning with downcast face, shaking of head and perspiration etc. 


‘ n: 119a-120b 119a 121a 122a 123bcd 124abcd 125b 126bd 127a 128b 
’ - > I99-122ab 122cd-123 124-126ab 126cd-128ab 




26 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


xxvi. 


i II W 
facTfav^: I 


II \R% 



xxvii. 3TRTI 

^^qyciiHd&l4iJ$ IJ iM Pi’Ml J in: I 

’jmq qqtraifir ^TFTcr ii ii 

sR^dl-sHPH^f: ^TpH^ I 

xxviii. ^rfcT: 

t#: izwti TW{ im* n 

xxix. ^nfa: 


clldPMtl^ftNqfclH i aK ^?)- II W II 

o^nMtrpj: <H^dVi ^fcT I 

^d^j,P ; l'^ u ll'W<IHI«l^^ b, ^ : 11 ^ 11 

^f%^T5^Tf^dlN | J| : I 

3T^: ^WI^^<d=bHp^q^: II W II 
^ftcT^R TfT: I 

WlHolWI^W^: ^TP^dni^H^: II W II 
?ftcTTfHdm?TT MN^'M^lP^d^: I 


xxx. 3-Hl<: 


dldPMdlP^MI^ WW: I 

oq*H ' g qi fiWdM ^SWE^Id: II W || 










































TRANSLATION 


27 


xxvi. Avahittha 

* 

128cd. Avahittha (dissimulation) is born from shame, audacity, fear and deceit¬ 
fulness. 

129. The learned [actor] should stage act avahittha by speaking something else 
(than the relevant), concealing the form, looking elsewhere (than at the speaker 
or present company) and by feigned boldness. 

xxvii. Ugrata 

130. Ugrata (cruelty) is born clearly from uttering lies, catching [a thief] while 
stealing, commanding to do an unwillingjob < ? niyoga> and committing an offence 
against the king. 

131ab. The intelligent [actor] should stage act these with imprisonment, beating 
and threatening. 

xxviii. Mati 

131cd. Mati (assurance) is born in men originating from deliberation of the 
various sastras. 

132ab. Its abhinaya consists of teaching disciples (the sastras). 

xxix. Vyadhi 

132cd-133a. Vyadhi (sickness) is said to arise from vata (wind), pitta (bile), slesma 
phlegm), sannipata (their mixture), fear and fever. 

133b-135a. Fever is due to cold or heat. Cold-fever should be stage acted with 
shaking jaws, narrowing of mouth, horripilation, dryness of mouth, shivering, 
desire for fire (warmth), shivering and contraction of the whole body, tears, 
throwing loose limbs about and many lamentations. 

135b-136. Again, burning fever should be histrionically represented with throw- 
ing about of clothes, feet and hands, desire to lie on the floor, to apply [cool] 
unguents, desire for coolness (cool drinks etc.), paralysis of the body, drooping of 
r^es and weak voice, contraction of mouth, loud groaning and fatigue. 

xxx. Unmada 

1 37-138ab. [The vyabhicari bhava ] named unmada (hysteria/insanity) is born 
fr «e aggravation of vata (wind), pitta (bile) etc., loss of greatness (in riches, 
rocT^r.c. power etc.), grief, shock, separation of, or from loved ones, and various 
[aaratal~ aberrations acquired (in the past). 


T V ffe v* d 131a 131cd-132ab 132cd 135c 136abc 137a 
" Jy[LI29 130-13lab 131cd-132ab 132cd-136 137-140 




28 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


f^f^^lWdfq c hKl5 w Hi < ^l dIH "^IPlcf I 
^-HHc&ydl'W Hq^ifd'jcdd: I 
d ^ : I 

'-41 fc^dlH '-HI<1 I^PPT: ^d: II V*° || 

xxxi. 

fsfasi ylxt) oM,r^ T cnf^ > md' j iH, I 

II H 

f^Jwf^RlfcT H< u l oMlf^T HdM, I 
3 Hot|rbo|^[ieh l * TO«RnfePft^: II W II 
r=m uu i J iidff^^Kp^^'Ki-^ i 

^T Wl^lA«b^l«=h % TOTfiFPT: II W II 

faNMNlfed^lM 5HWMIdra WKR. I 

MdHT^MId'd^ II *>T* II 
3T%^ f^l ^ftct faN^lRPdskHI^ I 
Cjrre4 %r^ ^Tt f^T ^ ^T: II W II 

wr^pmftfatiiwii 

^IWy^KcR^ II H 

WFi TRDi ^7 HH|c|^W<lrHcb^ I 
y4)Tb 5q W ciMl^lk^: II I 

xxxii. 3lfl: 

t^^cHKI^WI’B: 1 

^IfflftlPftq i ^frHq c^fFPTt II WII 

















































TRANSLATION 


29 


138cd-140. Stage acting of unmada is said to be performed with laughing, 
weeping, getting up and running away senselessly, prattling irrelevantly, breathing 
(agitatedly), singing and dancing, sprinkling dirt and ashes (on own body), wearing 
garlands of straw or remains of flower offering (to deities) round the neck and 
earthen vessels or lids as ornaments, unsteady activities and lying, sitting and getting 
up (without reason). 

xxxi. Marana 

141ab. Marana (death) is declared to be of two kinds: due to disease and due to 
accidental injury 7 . 

141cd-142ab. Death due to disease is opined to occur from maladjustment [of 
the dhatus] due to faults, colic pain, boils, fever, cholera etc. 

142cd-143ab. It should be shown with indistinct speech, hiccup, asthma (or hard 
wreathing), closing of eyes, looseness of body, and absence of any activity of the 
senses. 

143cd. Death-acting is declared to consist only of the state of disease (and not of 
showing actual death). 

144. Death due to accidental injury may be due to drinking poison, snake-bite, 
injury 7 from weapon, (attack by) ferocious (wild) animals, falling from elephant, 
chariot or (other) carriage. 

145-146ab. In case of death due to snake-bite or drinking poison the course (or 
speed) of poison is thus: thinness (of body), trembling, burning, hiccup, foam (at 
mouth) ‘then’ breaking (= lameness) of the shoulders, inertness and death should 
be shown (in this order). 

146cd. In death due to injury from weapons, [stage acting should be performed] 
with sudden falling (to the ground), quivering etc. 

147. Death due to fierce (wild) animals, falling from chariot, elephant or (other) 
vehicle should be shown like death due to injury from weapon, with immobility of 
limbs. 

148. Thus death involving various states (and phases) should be understood. It 
should be performed well by the learned [actor] with speech and movement of the 
parts of the body. 

xxxii. Trasa 

149. Trasa (fright) is born from great, terrible sound etc. Its abhinaya is [per¬ 
formed] with loose limbs and shutting of eyes etc. 


TCC 138acd 139d 140c 141b 142a 143bcd 144ab 145a-146a 145bd 146a 147d 148ab 149acd 
COT 137-140 141-148 149 




30 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


xxxiii. 


: II \\o || 

TfcT^T^J sFtsftcWt cT«H I 

WM: II ^ 

i. Tfo: 

^jsff^RWT: 3ITW TTWti TfcT: I 

Tti ^T^TT^rt^M: II Vtf II 


ii. 




: TT -qftrs^: II *<a3 II 



iii. * 1 )^: 


f^qri^FrTT W^f^WTRTcT: I 

^RR§:Sn4h ifa: || W || 

3T$mdl*R<dll: ¥l)d>Wlf*FTC: ^PJcT: II W II 

iv. 9f>fa: 

PolclKchdl^l^^I^f: sFfa: Wtm I 
c^sHWI^d: II W II 

d^dH^4^$<tfRfaTO: ^jcT: | 


^^H^lRrH^Tfl oi|c|y|^H^| r H=K: || W || 

cioHl6^B#4t5^iqyHl<;r^lcnf^f: I 




































TRANSLATION 


31 


xxxiii. Vitarka 

150. Vitarka (deliberation) is of the nature of generating a doubt arising from 
reflection. Its abhinaya is with shaking the head and knitting the eyebrows. 

Sthayibhavas (Permanent Moods) 

151. Sthayibhavas which are abodes of rasas are rati, hasa, soka, krodha, utsaha, 
bhaya, likewise jugupsa and vismaya. 

i. Rati 

152. Rati (physical love) is born from the attainment of desired objects. It should 
be stage acted gently with sweet words and (corresponding) movements of limbs. 

ii. Has a 

153. Hasa (laughter) is born from mimicking actions of others. It should be 
performed on the stage with smile, laughter or excessive laughter. 

iii. Soka 

154. Soka (sorrow) is born from separation or death of loved one(s), loss of 
greatness (in riches, power, fortune etc.) and grief due to killing, imprisonment etc. 

155. The stage acting of soka is recognised to consist of break in voice, looseness 
of body, blanching, lamentation, shedding of tears, and loud weeping. 

iv. Krodha 

156ab. Krodha (anger) is born of dispute, quarrel, abusive language and insult 
(or insolence). 

156cd-157ab. [Its] stage actingissaidtobe [performed] with distended nostrils, 
bitten lips, dilated eyes and throbbing cheeks. 

v. Utsaha 

157cd-158ab. Utsaha (enthusiasm or vigorousness), born of absence of inalert¬ 
ness etc. and being action oriented, it should be performed on the stage with 
vigilance etc. 


TCC 150abcd 152abcd 153 153c 154 154ac 155abd 156ab 157bcd 158ab 
COT 150 151-163 154-155 156-157ab 157cd-158ab 




NARTANNIRNAYA 


vi. 

RTf*K^HI<t II II 
^Kl'Jli *R HlfH RRcf I 
< I NcbHHR^I^4cM^q» l ^^ ; II M II 
fcK l RrM : I 

vii. 

J|I*H$H^R II W II 


viii. faWT: 

fawil f^**IR: II W II 


II W II 

Rfa^fo^cHWT RRTEt HliaKffl: T^cTT: I 
i. W- 

^d^K J IR4=hMBj^^Hm^l^ II II 
daHlfeP^ftST <JM*IWcl I 
S^KcK^RrHch ^ftiy4l<d: II II 
■RiXi^iX: fn^Tktsf^FR: ^FJcT: I 
^PTRIFTcT WT wzfiM, II W II 

I 


■3i^ft5«T iRRN: ^l^ldt ^TTf^R R II W 
^TScTT RRT Rfd <vdl<=l*RT: y^lRfdl: I 






































TRANSLATION 


33 


vi. Bhaya 

158cd-159ab. Bhaya (fear) is born from offence committed against superior, 
elders and the king, seeing terrible things, hearing awful things and from bewilder¬ 
ment 

159cd-160ab. It should be stage acted with trembling of the body, panic, dry 
mouth, hurried movement, bursting eyes and other suitable acts and qualities. 

vii .Jugupsa 

\&0cd-\6lab. Jugupsa (disgust) is produced from seeing, hearing and touching 
odious (foul smelling, bloody etc.) thing, injury and other odious physical determi¬ 
nants <nbhm*£>. 

161cd-162ab. It should be stage acted with covering the nose, contracting the 
limbs, uneasiness and heartache. 

viii. Vismaya 

162cd-163ab. Vismaya (astonishment), arising from joy [which is] due to (wit¬ 
nessing) extraordinary acts, should be accomplished <sadhyah> with tears of joy, 
horripilation etc. in successful (stage) acting <siddhisthancO. 

Natyarasas (Sentiments for Histrionic Representation) 

163cd-164ab. Srhgara , hasya , karuna , raudra , vira, bhayanaka , babhatsa and the one 
named adbhuta are recognised to be eight natyarasas. 

1. Srhgara 

164cd-165ab. Srhgara (erotic sentiment) is manifested by [enjoyment of the] 
seasons, orrfaments, music, poetry, [company of] beloved persons, in pleasure 
resorts such as gardens. 

165cd-166ab. In sambhoga [srhgara] (union-love) stage presentation is with 
bright face and eyes, smiling eyes, contentment, delight and sweet (gracious) 
ahgaharas. 

166cd. In vipralambha [srhgara ] (love during separation) kama (sexual love) 
should be shown [on the stage] in ten stages. 

167-168ab. Abhilasa cinta , smrti, gunakirtana, udvega , vilapa, unmada , vyadhi, 
jadata an d marana —these are said to the ten (kama) stages. 


TCC 158cd-158ab 158cd-159ab 159acd 161abcd 162abcd 163 abd 
COT 151-163ab 158cd-160ab 160cd-162ab 162cd-163ab 164cd-190ab 




34 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


(a) STfacrTTC: 

:II W II 

^TFFTNp^kT: ycblfHd: I 

^RtfcT WI^Tt *Jgf%f?T 7 T^fcT II W II 
Rl8rMldl+HM«t Vm I 


(b) f^RTT 

Mqm TOTfH: ^r^nr *r^q M ^ 0 n 
^dlPl^r^qf^RRl f^rTT fqRlfc^^ I 
3<l^+<I^Slfy«bl«i)old^<!f[HH, II W || 
Hldl^Mil^f «bl4*ARdH, I 


(c) f^fd: 

II W || 

y^MM+wfuii ^f<T ^jfd^l^dl I 
wmft: ^ ii ^ ii 

3iRqolH5di<^ ^dl^sf^FFTt "^TcT: I 


(d) j J,u|+Mh^ 

f: c|l<t>^gl*ffecl^: II *V9* 
Vl^FV: Jpi^fcfa'^ I 

jpiebl^H ^l^^dNHI^: II W || 

f^T: I 

(e) <j& , i: 


Wfi ^fV V Iwfd V f^rfd II W || 


Pirq^qlr^«M ^ 



Pd’dlfH:%l Wis^H ^ II *V*9 || 

$*|[d^lHc*Ri Vm ~V I 



















































TRANSLATION 


35 


i. Abhilasa 

168cd-169ab. Abhilasa (longing) arises from efforts originating from the intent 
and desire leading to the means of meeting [the beloved]. 

169cd-170ab. [She] creates (i.e. paints or sculpts) the form of the Love-God 
(Manmatha) (? of the hero?), goes in and goes out [of the house] again and again 
(impatiendv), and places herself within his sight, in the first stage of kama. 

ii. Cinta 

170cd-171ab. Cinta (anxiety) is presented [on the stage] by asking the female 
messenger ‘By what means may I obtain [union with him]? By what means may he 
become mine?’ 

171cd-172ab. In the second stage (of kama) [she] should engage in such activities 
is looking with half closed eyes, at her girdle and bangles, and touching and taking 
hold of the waist knot <nivi> (of her lower garment e.g. saree). 

iii. Smrti 

172cd-173ab. Smrti (recollection) is described as (consisting of) sighing again 
and again and deeply thinking of her heart’s desire and disliking all other activities. 

173cd-174ab. One does not attain composure in lying down or sitting or in one’s 
work. Abhinaya for the third stage [of kama] is opined to be [performed] with 
suitable distressed hand movements(?). 

iv. Gunakirtana 

174cd-175ab. To convey [by stage acting] with sportful movements of primary 
and secondary organs of the body, words and glances associated with [suitable] 
activities ‘There is none else like him’—this is extolling (his) merits. 

175cd-176ab. Extolling his merits, slowly wiping tears and perspiration, by 
visualisation of such acts should [abhinaya] be done in the fourth {kama stage) with 
exclamation of ‘ahahaV 

v. Udvega 

176cd-l 77ab. She cannot sit down or lie down on the bed, nor satisfied or pleased 
[with anything], and is constantly expecting [her lover]—this is the position of 
udvega (distress). 

177cd-178ab. Its abhinaya should be done with anxiety, sighs, lassitude and 
heart burn; this should be shown to the utmost in the fifth [kama stage]. 


TCC 169b 170ad 171 abed 172ac 173abcd 174ab 175bcd 176c 177bcd 178b 
COT 164cd-190ab 




36 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


(f) faeilH: 

W w ii w ii 

a^r4drMar4dm^r^f?T: i 

dPgillc^Hlr^KKcqi f^Tlf^Fft' II W II 
cRTRcTSf SF# WS-JH-HHlP-RT I 


(g) ^TR: 

'?Tc^'^T^ 5 RTTci;^«rr 5 TT>T ^T^f^WFTmfq If II \ 6 o II 
^T(^7:)3Jfi1^T^r ^TT^Rr^l 5 Pd Hi £ d: I 
3 #H^fydfkmi ^ -5^% 11 m 11 

PlP<Pd fq^K^id WH 'HR f^T: I 

(h) RlfH: 

W«W: ^f: ^TSPfcfH II W II 
U$P4<-<K<^: oznf«T: ^<-MWc) I 
<&r^ : H RH?t ^jfct HHU*{ 11 \c^ 11 
%RT cftaTSTzn^ JffdO^n I 


(i) ^tsht 

^TT H H ^pftfcT H WTfcT II II 

<pff fT WW R dMp^ld^df^fd: I 
3T^F% <?xi§£KI cT«n U»]dir*+I II ^ II 

owuwhhi ^Nr ^nf^Tt 1 


(j) 7 ^ 

moW\: TrI: ^ HTftd -hhmih: II \ 6 ^ II 

=blHRlHI MdlHIdl ^#5 W cTcT: I 

+l4pu| =MHd^UHl$RT II \4d II 
3-jvi 1 ^iiPi ^vFfM q'jff^c^i I 














































TRANSLATION 


37 


* 

vi. Vilapa 

178cd-179ab. Vilapa (lamentation) is shown with such and such lamentations, 
‘He stood here; he sat here and here he approached me’. 

179cd-180ab. A lamenting woman is distressed by very eagerly expecting 
[her lover] and out of love < rati > wanders hither and thither; [this is] the sixth 
position [of kama\. 

vii. Unmada 

180cd-181ab. She is constantly talking about him (to the exclusion of everything 
else) in all states, and begins to hate [all] men (out of disappointment and 
frustration); this is unmada (insanity) born from excessive delusion. 

181cd-182ab. She sits with unwinking gaze, and sighs deeply; she weeps while 
roaming; this is the seventh state [of Kama ]. 

viii Vyadhi 

182cd-183ab. Vyadhi (sickness) is born from refusing all activities of enjoying 
mediations, gift or wealth (in love) always. 

183cd-184ab. Her body is burning (with fever), cannot attain death (however 
much she longs for it), her mind is confused; she has a severe headache. Such is the 
condition in the eighth [kama stage]. 

ix. Jadata 

184cd-185ab. She speaks nothing, hears nothing, sees nothing with satisfaction; 
[she is] silent, exclaims ‘Alas! Woe!’; her mind is lost, memory stricken. 

185cd-186ab. She utters ‘ hum without cause and has likewise, a slack body; she 
breathes fast through the mouth. Thus is the abhinaya for jadata (stupor). 

x. Marana 

186cd-187ab. If even after trying all the means (available to her) she has no union 
[with her beloved], then burning in the fire of [sexual] love, her marana (death) 
takes place. 

187cd-188ab. Thus [a woman] should perform these stages of sexual love [on the 
stage] omitting death, after studying the ars amatoria 'm the event of her not getting 
[union with] her beloved (i.e. in vipralambha srhgara). 


TCC 178d 179cd 180bc 181c 182ab 183a 184a 185b 187c 
COT 164cd-190ab 




38 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


II \CC II 

TJcj ohlH-MMIHR "^N ^T II W II 

^IMM^ u l4Rtt ^afldlPFFT^lT: I 

ii. 

ll %%o II 
^l^aW^TT I 

'^MFI(-T c f?)'<* ; rat II \%% II 

^TCWFTT I 

cTR ^rfWT: 3TTrf>: TOtewewilRsfa: II W H 


iii. °h<? u I: 


fsTWTT^S : I 

VIIMRmPc|4IMI^4^ II U3 II 

mR^cH^ u # T:CT^: WTO': I 




-■Rr^T-?)^^fWT:^fT:ll W II 


iv. 


sFt^^Wt q^Nf^qi^TTWT^: I 

fo: n w n 

dl^^ ^rsn^: W^fFRTft: I 

II W II 

^£<4WiyR^WW ^TfWT: Ttjrf: I 

v. ^fc: 

II W II 

TOfWfaria #rr i 


































TRANSLATION 


39 


* 

188cd-189ab. A man also should employ the various forms of these states of 
sexual love indicative of vipralambha [separation from his beloved]. 

189cd-190ab. Thus the learned [actors] should employ in stage acting the 
expression of srhgara by women and men in love by their general qualities. 

2. Hasya 

190cd-191ab. Hasya (comic, ludicrous) sentiment is born from oddity in dress, 
ornaments etc., trickery, audacity, and showing faults [of others]. 

191cd-192.Itsstageactingissaidtobe [performed] with distention (throbbingp)of 
nostrils, enlarging and contracting eyes, sweat, facial complexion, grinning, biting 
(or moving) lips as well as grasping [one’s own] sides. 

3. Karuna 

192cd-193ab. Kanina (pathetic) sentiment is born from affliction, ruin of wealth 
ior of power), killing, imprisonment, running away, curse, and separation from 
beloved ones. 

194a-f. Its stage acting is with lamentation, sighing, slackness of body, change in 
voice, shedding of tears, drying of mouth, loss of memory and such other varieties 
of bhava (of vibhava?). 

4. Raudra 

195. Raudra (furious sentiment) is born from anger, abuse, harsh words, 
insult,lies and others. 

196-197ab. Its stage presentation is said to be with beating, cutting, piercing, 
clashing and seizing of weapons, gnashing of teeth, worrying of lips (with teeth), red 
eyes, knitted eyebrows and rubbing together throbbing fingertips. 

b.Vira 

197cd-198ab.[The sentiment] named vira (heroic) is born from such determi¬ 
nants as strength, power, energy, control <vinaya>, valour, leading [the army], 
naya. 


TCC 188c 192b 193acd 195cd 196a 
COT 164cd-190ab 





nartananirnaya 


cTFT^Tf^FFT: ^>Ff: 


vi. 

f^=hiuqd: II II 

y^illHK^: ‘^prf^cR^W: I 

^Fj^ram^ ^ w^: n 3 °° n 

^bcflgd IWf: II II 

vii. 

^RRcf II W || 
pH8lcHI^$^: t4<sMaiq«s> u ^: I 
HWiy-=tfKHI^€T ^t^frfflf^FFf: ^T: II II 


viii. 

^iPiHHHI^^Idlc^^#}: I 
Pc^^Pldl cHeKlftl^rM^-Mfcl^md: II 
cT«n TR^MItHfa^l ^l^Tt T*T: I 

itet^PH^^: II R°\ II 
rt^^TtrPWT:^: I 

PcHlftTTO: 


clHligf 'MH^^ ^ f^fa: ebP^ enfa^ II 
3 T^tF i|fHR^^ I^TpWT: T^cT: I 
^K«fT ■HNl^di ^fs f?R: T TTS^ffi cT^TT II II 
cFjf^TT <*>4c$ ^ ^nf^'l^l'V^: I 










































TRANSLATION 


41 


197cd-198ab. Its stage acting should be done with courage, firmness, sacrifice, 
valour, bright words and bright face etc. 

6. Bhayanaka 

199cd-200. Bhayanaka (terror) is born from hideous noise, ferocious and 
unnatural (or deformed) things, seeing ghosts (or demons), battle, jungle, enter¬ 
ing empty (dilapitated) house and from offence committed against king and 
superiors (such as teacher). 

201. Bhayanaka should be presented on the stage with trembling of hands and 
feet, paralysis of body and palpitation of the heart. 

7. Bibhatsa 

202. Bibhatsa (odious sentiment) is generated by witnessing many [vibhavas] 
such as sight, smell, sound, touch and taste of unpleasant things shuddering 
causing. 

203. Stage acting of bibhatsa is said to be [done] with spitting, contracting the 
bodv, narrowing eyes and mouth and covering nose etc. 

8. Adbhuta 

204-205ab. Adbhuta (wonderment, marvel) rasa is born from (seeing great) 
audience hall, (seven storeyed) palatial mansion, magic, beholding celestial be- 
ngs. excellent speech, sculpture (or art) and form, and similarly (unexpected) 
fulfilment of heart’s desire. 

205cd-206ab. Its stage presentation is said to be [done] with perspiration, tears 
i jov. horripilation, unwinking gaze, interjections of ‘ha! haV , ‘bravo’ etc. 

IV. Citrabhinaya (Special Representation) 

206cd-207ab. Wherefore the specialities (or peculirities) in stage acting of words 
etc. occurring here and there and so far left undescribed will now be expounded, 
this is said to be citrabhinaya (special representation). 

207cd-208ab. The learned [actor] should represent on the stage, sound with a 
v delong glance, head bent to a side and moving the forefinger to the region of the 


“DC 1 9£d 199c 200d 204c 205d 206bc 207ab 208a 

COT lMcd-190ab201 




42 


NART VNANIRNAYA 


Phna< i $P^ ^ ^ ii 3°^ ii 

P«*\ 

f^\ -qro^ ijpMt r^^y^Rridm: n 3°<i m 

rncfufii^i -^jt ^ i 

fcbP^K I ^P^ ^ f rtldfr isi ^ II 3^° II 

M^Wdikd 4lP^l wf 4 f^rf^tc^ i 
■H^P^ i Hrci'ct5ci i ll y<-t^q<;'i'Kl(-'iiTi-) ? TT II II 
pc|px|^^^H I ^ %: TO ^ PdPdPcPH 1 
J l ljfl^-HHM l Pq cT^n ^TOTP^TO: II 3*3 II 
^TO*r=tP*FlTO: ^H*^hIt|A:I 
P^iPX'dlych^H jinu^-H^ n 3*3 n 

%i*iHi i ^ ii rv* ii 

w TO: ^r#5Et TfN ^rrfTOK ^: I 

dd<H<W #^q%: II 3 **a II 

TOTfqg H^U»J|i #TOT^ I 

^KNMd^fq II 3*^ I 

Pd^Mdki^ PciPhP^^ i 

^Tfroaft 3 j^tt ^ ^nfq rfm: ii 3*^> ii 
tTOT^T^ft^qi 3 ^rfaTOTT otto; i 
%k 3 TOTTO^T: ^JeTT WfTTO II 3*^ II 
^TORTO I 

^ft^TFTf^TS c^iyj||Hp;qKd: II W II 
qPdq^lV^ ^f^TT: 3PT^r: I 


^JcTT: PM3IMI WST TO^T: TTTOTO II 33° II 
S^I^TOl PdPd^l: TOlPl: ^fTO^: I 
qcfdld^ ^s-rilfa ’H^P^ai^ ii 33* ll 

IWlRdTO TOkH I 












































































TRANSITION 


43 


208cd-209ab. Touch should be indicated by slightly narrowing the eye, raising 
the eyebrows, and touching a soft flower (Psoftly touching the shoulder and the 
cheek?). 

209cd-210ab. The learned [actor] should stage present form with the hands 
holding pataka pose over the head, moving the face slightly and gazing (as if at 
something). 

210cd-211ab. The intended taste and smell should be indicated by slightly 
narrowing the eyes, expanding the nostrils and with a single inhalation. 

21 lcd-212ab. Autumn should be indicated with the pellucidity of all the senses, 
“right face and looking at strange (and variegated) flowers. 

212cd-21 Sab. Early winter < hemanta> should be stage presented by superior and 
middling characters with contraction of the body and a desire for fire (warmth). 

213cd-214ab. Inferior character should show being cold (in the same season?) 
b* shaking of the head, chattering of teeth, trembling of lips, contracting the body, 
tearful eves <krandita> and with [a sucking] sound ‘ sit. 

214cd-215ab. By smelling the fragrance of the seasonal flowers and feeling the 
m hot) air the learned [actor] should stage act summer. 

215cd-216ab. The rainy season should be expounded with kadamba buds, 
meadow. firefly, and cry of peacocks. 

216cd-217ab. A rainy night should be indicated by deep thunderclap of masses 
i ; ads. showers of rain as well as crackling and striking of lightning. 

217cd-218ab. Parrots, sarikas (female parrot? myna}) and similar small 
herds should be shown by turning (moving?) the fingers of both tripataka hands. 

218cd-219ab. But in the case of peacocks, cranes and swans which are naturally 
r. their stage acting is with recakas and appropriate body formations. 

219cd-220ab. Asses, camels, elephants, tigers, buffaloes—these should be repre¬ 
sented on the stage by the practitioners with (suitable) gaits and limbs (-forma¬ 
tions). 

220cd-221 ab. Bhutas , pisacas , yaksas, danavas , similarly raksasas —these and others 
sh uld be indicated with fear, anxiety and astonishment. 

221cd-222ab. High mountains and tall trees should be indicated with extended 
iz>d raised arms. 


~ . i 211ac212ad 213c 214a 215b 216d 217bc 219ac 220cd 221abc 222ab 
COT 215a 





nartananirnaya 


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TRANSLATION 


45 


222cd-223ab. Crowd, ocean and large expanse should be shown with thrown out 
pataka hands. 

223cd-224ab. Valour, courage, haughtiness, arrogance, magnanimity and pros¬ 
perity should be shown with arala hasta placed region of the forehead. 

224cd-225ab. Beach <vela>, mouth of ahole, house, and cave should be indicated 
with hands, slightly stretched, pointing downward with palms upward. 

225cd-226ab. Those afflicted with sexual love, curse or graha, and a mind become 
weak with fever-their stage representation should be done with gentle activities of 
the body. 

226cd-227ab. Stage acting of swing should be done with swinging dola hastas, 
agitation of the limbs, holding the rope and raised pataka hands crossed (across the 
chest). 

227cd-228ab. Dawn, sky, night, eventide and day [should be shown] with 
udvahita head and likewise looking upward. 

229-230ab. Seasons, clouds, forests, large expanse of water, quarters, planets, 
stars, any other celestial body—all these should be presented on the stage with 
various glances. 

230cd-231ab. With the selfsame ( pataka ) hands employed abundantly and again, 
with the sake ( udvahita ) head, [objects] on the ground should be shown with a 
downward look. 

231cd-232ab. Sun, dust, smoke and fire [should be shown] by covering the face 
with a cloth; stage acting of heat of the ground and [any other] hot thing should 
be made with a desire for shade. 

232cd. Midday Sun should be shown with upward, half-closed eyes. 

233. Lightning, meteors, thunderclap, spark of fire and flame—these should be 
presented on the stage with slack limbs and closing of the eyes by the actor. 

234. Lions, bears, monkeys, tigers and other beasts of prey should be depicted by 
holding padmakosa hands downward in svastika (i.e. crossed) formation. 

235. Counting of one two three four five six seven eight nine and ten occurs by 
[counting on] fingers. 

236ab. Umbrella, banner and banner-staff should be indicated by holding a staff. 


♦ 


T ( 223cd 224abc 225acd 226abcd 227bd 228a 229b 230b 231 ab 235c 236bcd 

COT 223b 231b 




NARTANANIRNAYA 


Trofim ^^fT: TTtW 3Tf*FR Tffr II ^ II 

wt^ % ^ i 

dlefifa® 'TO f^5 ?ft%wnw^l 

dWMI<t*WU^ 3 Wi ^ ^2Rt || ^Vs || 


(^TcfaTfaq^T fWIHHj) 













TRANSITION 


47 


236cd-237ab. Thus these mental states [bhavas\ are propounded in respect of 
abhinaya. Whatever is not said by me here should be adopted by the actors from the 
world. 

237cd Whatever is established in the world is [indeed] irrefutable [i.e. accepted 
universally without question]; natya is born of whatever is natural in the world. 
Therefore, is the world authority in the context of natya. 

(END OF NARTANA-ADHIKARANA) 


TCC 237bdef 
COT 236cd-237ab 237 




48 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


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TRANSLATION 


49 


TRANSLATION 

II. NRTTA-ADHIKARANA 

Pratyahgabhinaya (Representation with Secondary Ahgas) 


1. CONTENTS 

l-5ab. Now, here [in this chapter are descriptions for use in dance of] head, eyes, 
eyebrows, complexions, arms, hastas (hand poses), hastakaranas (actions of 
hands), calakas (arm movements), hastapracaras (ways of moving hands), karakar- 
mas (functions of hands), ksetras (body regions for placement of hands), Rati 
(waist), ahghri ( feet), sthanakas (stances), bhu (ground), cans , akasa (aerial) 
karanas , recakas , characteristics of dance, characteristics of nata (male actor/ 
dancer), characteristics of the nata s body, characteristics of patra , characteristics of 
rekha, lasy ahgas, sausthava, citrakalasa , mudra,pramana, sabhasada (spectator), presi¬ 
dent of assembly, seating of assembly, characteristics of vrnda (orchestra), charac¬ 
teristics of flute, entree of dancer on stage and various dances. We shall describe the 
characteristics [of these] in [the same] order. 

2. VARIETIES OF HEAD POSES 

5cd. Head is defined as [that which is] fit for dance, faultless and possessed of 
[all] five senses. 

6-8. It is of nineteen kinds; its enumeration is as follows: sama, dhuta , vidhuta, 
avadhuta, adhomukha , akampita , kampita, adhuta, parivahita, utksipta , udvahita , 
ancita, nihancita, tiryan-natonnata, skandhanata , aratrika , lolita, paravrtta and 
pdrsvabhimukha. 


TCC (Text-Critical Comments) lcdef 2abef 3acf 4bcd 6cd 7ab 
COT (Commentary on Text) 5cd-18 




50 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


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TRANSLATION 


51 


9. Natural pose of the head is sama (1) and is opined to be [used for] in stage 
acting as the natural. Turning the head obliquely in slow movement is said to be 
dhuta (2). 

10. The selfsame, executed at a fast pace becomes vidhuta (3) head [pose]. Head 
turned downward is avadhuta (4). 

11. Head facing downward is said to be adhomukha (5). Shaking of head up and 
down slowly is akampita (6). 

12. If shaken many times in the same way, it becomes kampita{7) head [pose]. 
The head raised obliquely once is opined to be adhuta (8). 

13. Head turned sideways alternately is parivahita{ 9). Head with upturned face, 
held high is said to be utksipta (10). 

14. Head raised up once is declared to be udvahita (11). Head bent sideways 
slightly should be understood as ancita (12). 

15. Head with raised shoulder (arm?) is to be understood as nihancita (13). Head 
bent obliquely and raised is tiryan-natonnata (14). 

16. Head inclined to the shoulder is named skandhanata (15). Turning the head 
round (circularly) such that it slightly touches [each] shoulder is opined to be 
aratrika (16), 

17. Swinging the head (hither and tither) in all directions is opined to be lolita 

(17). 

18-19ab. Turning the head away is declared to be paravrtta (18). The [head pose] 
parsvabhimukha (19) is aptly (named) because of looking (face turning) aside. 
Cheeks, nostrils, tongue, teeth, lips, chin, mouth and neck—these always follow the 
head [in its movements]. 


3. VARIETIES OF GLANCES 

19cd. The act of looking faultlessly, expressing well the mental state [ bhava ] is 
termed drsti (glance). 

20-21 ab. It is opined to be threefold according to rasa, sthayibhavaand sancaribhava. 
Kdnta, hasya, karuna, raudra, vira bhyanaka, blbhatsd and adbhuta are to be known as 
rasadrstis. 


TCC 9a 10b 11c 12bd loabd 16a 17c 18c 20a 
COT 18cd 19ab 19cd-47ab 




52 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


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TRANSLATION 


53 


21cd-22ab. Snigdha, hrsta, dina, kruddha, drpta, bhaydnvita, jugupsitaand vismitd — 
these eight glances are born of sthayibhavas. 

22cd-24. Sunyd, malina, sranta, lajjitd, sahkita, mukula, ardhamukuta, gland, 
jihma, kuncita, vitarkita, abhitapta, visanna [the one] named lalita, akekara, vikosa, 
vibhranta, vipluta, trastaand madird —these twenty (glances) are [born in] vyabhicari 
[ bhavas ]. 

25. Adding all these, there are opined to be thirtysix glances. Even [the 
omniscent] Brahma would be unable to describe each [possible] glance separately. 

26. [However, only the above will be taken up for definition] for a swift [ Idghavat ] 
blossoming of the mind (arousal of understanding < hrt > in the manner of kataksa 
etc. Kataksa is of three kinds viz. sita, asita and sita-sita. 

27ab. Kataksa is defined by the learned as the turning round of pupils [of the 
eyes] in a charming (and unusual) way. 

i. Rasa Glances 

27cd. Kanta (1) is born of joy and brightness with eyebrow movement and 
kataksa. 

28. Hasya (2) consists of slight narrowing of eyelids and turning around the 
pupils a little. Karuna (3) is tearful with drooping upper eyelids and pupils directed 
to the tip of the nose. 

29. Raudra (4) has still, red pupils and rough, knitted eyebrows. Vira (5) is hot (or 
bright), open with deep, steady pupils. 

30. The bhayanaka (6) glance has eyelids turned upward and the pupils [also] 
Turned upward. Bibhatsa (7) has narrowed eyelids, agitatedly moving pupils and is 
i. sideway glance. 

3 lab. Adbhuta (8) is mild, with narrowed ends of eye lashes, with outer corners 
f the eves expanded. 

ii. Glances of Sthayibhavas 

Sled. Snigdha (1) is [possessed] of eyebrow movement, is pleasurable and 

cowrtous. 

32. Hrsta (2) is pregnant with laughter, of inward pupils, winking. Dina (3) has 
Lf-closed, still eyelids, and is tearful and very indolent. 

33. Kruddha (4) has knitted eyebrows, fierce, upturned pupils. Drpta (5) is 
<vrvidh i expressive of dispositions of the mind, with open (wide) pupils. 


7<; C 25cd 26a 30acd-31abcd 32ac 33ab 
COT 19cd-47ab 




54 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


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TRANSLATION 


55 


34. Bhayanvita (6) has both eyelids wide open and tremulous pupils .Jugupsita (7) 
glance has contracted eyelids and unclear (in pupils or in expression of thought 
processes). 

35ab. Vismita (8) is opined to be even, open and of upraised pupils, 
iii. Glances of Vyabhicari-bhavas 

35cd. Sunya (1) [is] an unwavering gaze, still, with even (i.e. natural) pupils and 
eyelids. 

36. Malina (2) has withdrawn pupils and slightly tremulous eyelashes. Sranta (3) 
has eyelids wilted due to weariness and indolent pupils. 

37. Lajjita (4) is opined to have edges of eyelashes meeting each other and pupils 
cast downward. Sahkita (5) is concealed, has quivering pupils and is looking 
obliquely. 

38. Mukula (6) has fluttering eyelashes touching at the tips, [widely] open pupils. 
Ardhamukuta (7) has half open pupils and half open [ koraka] eyelids. 

39. Gland (8) has depressed eyebrows, eyelids and outer corners of eyelashes and 
has slack pupils. Jihma (9) has slightly contracted eyelids and oblique, concealed 
pupils. 

40. Kuncita (10) has slightly bent eyelashes, eyelids and pupils. Vitarkita (\\) has 
blown, upward eyelids but downcast pupils. 

41. Abhitapta (12) has fluttering eyelids, indolent pupils and flooded with pain 
(affliction). Visanna (13) has drooping outer corners, concealed < lupta > pupils 
and winking. 

42. Lalita( 14) is sweet and smiling and has contracted outer corners [as well as] 
moving eyebrows. Akekara (15) is difficult to see, has (slightly contracted?) outer 
comers and unwinking eyelids. 

43. Vikosa( 16) has restless pupils and unwinking eyelids. Vibhranta (17) has wide 
pen, full blown mid eyes and motionless pupils. 

44. Yipluta (18) has fluttering eyelids, still and downcast pupils. Trasta (19) has 
quivering, full blown pupils and eyelids moving with terror. 

45. Madira (20) is said to be of three kinds: superior, middling and inferior. 
Uttamd (superior, i) has rolling pupils moving in the lower parts of the eye (i.e. 
named down) and has {much] winking. 


TCC 36ab 37bc 38bcd-39abc 41b 42abcd 43d 44ab 45abcd 
COT 19cd-47ab 





56 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


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^rlfacT y$<=ftd fro y4)*ifad, n ^ n 


























































TRANSLATION 


57 


46. Madhyama (Middling, ii) has slightly contracted eyelids and moving pupils. 
Adhama (Inferior, iii) is opined to have pupils moving in the lower parts of the eye 
(i.e. turned down) and has [much] winking. 

47ab. Eyeballs and eyelids follow the glance and pupil. 

4. VARIETIES OF EYEBROW MOVEMENT 

47cd-48ab. Eyebrow lies in the mid-boundary of forehead and eyelids, a dark 
[.syama] line of thin hair shaped like the bow of Manmatha. 

48cd-49ab. It is declared by the learned to be of seven kinds: sahaja, recita, utksipta, 
kuncita, patita, catura and bhrukutl. 

49cd. Sahaja (1) is described to be used in natural states. 

50. Recita (2), used in connection with nrtya consists of one eyebrow, gentle 
voluptuous) and raised. Utksipta (3), appropriately named, has a single, or both, 

eve brows (similarly) raised. 

51. Kuncita (4) has one or both eyebrows curved delicately. Patita (5) has 
evebrows lowered, together or (one after the other) in order. 

52. Catura (6) has both eyebrows throbbing and crooked. Bhrukutl (7), used in 
anger, has both eyebrows raised [high] from the roots. 

5. MUKHARAGA (COMPLEXION) 

53. The learned explain mukharaga (complexion, colour of the face) as that by 
which an emotive modality of the mind is manifested as the generating cause of 
expression of rasa. 

54. It is of four kinds— svabhavika (natural), prasanna (lucid), rakta (red) and 
syama (dark). Their definitions are now stated: 

55. Among them svabhavika (1) is aptly named and is opined to be natural. 
Prasanna (2) is clear (bright) and occurs in the erotic, marvellous and comic 
sentiments. 

56. Rakta (3) is aptly named and [occurs] in the marvellous, heroic, furious and 
pathetic [sentiments]. Syama (4) is (also) defined aptly [and occurs] in the terror 
and odious [sentiments]. 

57. This, employed in mukharaga for expression of rasa and bhava doubles the 
splendour as light (of the sun and moon) in a star studded twilight. 

58. As is the rasa, so is (should be) the bhava associated with the [suitable] glance, 
eyebrow and face; the expert performer should [therefore] apply the appropriate 
mukharaga. 


TCC 46cd 47c 48a 50a 51 bd 52acd 54d 55d 57cd 
COT 19cd-47ab 47cd-52 53-58 





58 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


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TRANSLATION 


59 


6. VARIETIES OF ARM MOVEMENT 

59-6lab. The faultless flanks of man are arms. Arm [movement] is of sixteen 
kinds: urdhvastha, adhomukha, tiryak, apaviddha, prasarita, ancita, mandalagatisvastika, 
iidzrstita, prsthanuga, aviddha , kuncita, sarala, namra, andolita and utsarita. 

6 led. [Arm] extending above the head is urdhvastha (1); touching the ground 
is adhomukha (2). 

62. Extending to a side is parsvagata (3); apaviddha (4) [consists of the arm] 
moving outward from the chest. [The arm] going out to the front is prasarita (5). 

63. Moving from the chest to the head is ancita (6). 

Mandalagati (7) is aptly named (i.e. the arm sweeps round in all directions). 
astoka (8) is [performed] by crossing the arms. Udvestita (9) is [made] by the arm 
m wing outward; reaching out back(ward), it is prsthaga (10). 

64. Moving [the arm] inward is aviddha (11); by bending at the elbow is kuncita 
Sarala (13) [bahu] moves sidewise. Namra (14) [moves] slightly bent. 

65. Andolita (15) is aptly named [i.e. the arm makes swinging movement]. 
idnia 16) [consists of the arm] moving from the other side to its own side. Elbow 

xz i shoulder follow the arm always like a servant. 

7. VARIETIES OF HANDPOSES 
i. List of Handposes 

66. Hast a is defined as generating aesthetic appeal in nartana, undeformed, 

meaning and [capable of] arranging its fingers in special formations 
—Sir toes of the foot. 

67 . It is of three kinds— asamyuta (uncombined), samyuta (combined) and 
z'tfzxed with nrtta y (nrttahasta) . Wherein meaning is manifested with a single hand 
ii» asamyuta. 

68. The illumining of meaning by combining (both) hands becomes samyuta 
kmla). The dissemination of meaning with both hands in special formations is 

wrtLahastCL 

69. Pataka , harhsapaksa, gomukha, catura , nikuhea, sarpasiras, paheasya , ardhacandra. 


ICC 61a 64c 67ab 
GOT 5965 66-127 





60 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


?TcT: ■Wl'p : II II 

{sl^llWt "5^ : 1 

-^T ^dHpW+’Rffl: II vs* II 

3Td T T^T^5ITd: ^«hlW: 'Hsileidll^I: I 
frqcTT^: ^ W{*,: dd=b\ld^: 11^ II 

‘JjTRt ^IksbWlf^ f^R^TSJ I 

cb|cbcj > | J ^t <g<miysl W II 

^Siam WgU: I 

ST^fd^ obMldl^I: ■wRci^-wld: II W II 

■^Td: yu-l^dlcH^ <sid c r>i c I^HM'+: I 
T^T^it5^f|r«f^ h<*»wkI: WW\ II 
sj^ddt ^r«faFTS ^ I 

cTcTt ^TJcTT ^TSfl ^ IIV9^ II 

d^<dl c l ? i)<v < =lTl1 cTd^ITfasfl' I 

fdfkl^ f^y+luif^lciiici^^itl^l H V9VS II 
^Ipcj^oi^f I 

ft<p^'qp5 5 ft ^M^igdMqfsidl II ^ II 

ddUss^ ebRcl^^ft x Rj=ir«m o r>l^ I 

•q^raiilcT^ n vs* n 

irdfr ■qi^H'J'Sfcri'iiqr^ I 
FTRTT^^^frP^dft II £° II 
^pych-wn r d c hl°l'^1 dfddlH < y c r>ki c nl I 
^dM^cHHHMdM'inf^ cT«TT II II 
dPdcfr cfd: I 

<dlddlldfd t^RT H ^ H 































































TRANSLATION 


61 


70. caturmukha. trimukha, dvimukha, sucyasya, tamracuda , sandarhsa, harhsavaktra, 
ranagrdhra, 

71. Khadgasya, mrgasirsa, mukula, padmakosa, urnanabha, alapallava, 

72. alapadma , arala, sukasya, skhalita, tripataka, kartan, mayura, kakagulaka, 

73. bhramara, musti, krodasya, sikhara, kapittha, kakatunda, balacandra, khata- 
kamukha, 

74ab. [these are] thirtyeight asamyuta (single) hastas. 

74b-75. Now, samyutas;, anjali, kapota, karkata, svastika, dola, puspaputa, gajadanta, 
avahittha, nisadha, makara, 

76. srhkhala, vardhamana, dardura, yogamusti, dvisikhara —these seventeen are 
samyuta hastas. 

77. Caturasra, udvrtta, talamukha, svastika, viprakirna, aralakhatakamukha, 

78. aviddhavaktra, sucyasya, recita, ardharecita, nitamba, pallava, kesabandha, 
uttanavahcita, 

79. lata, karivat, paksavahcitaka, paksapradyota, dandapaksa, garudapaksa, 

80. urdhvamandalin, parsvamandalin, uromandalin, urahparsvardha, mandalin, 

81. mustikasvastika, nalinipadmakosa, alapallava, alapadma, 

82. ulbana lalita, varadabhayada valita —these should be understood as thirtytwo 
nrtta hastas. 


TCC 72b 73c 75c-77d 79bd 
COT 66-127 




62 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


ii. 

$^1*8+: d^dl^crlHlPsicT: I 

Mdl«=b) (O ^ -HfedHUlRdddlfjId: II 6^ II 

iwm: ( 3 ) Mdi=H^i I 

7 Ttg#(^) II 6* II 

(*) ^T I 

frplt (<a) ^ ^^Rt^TT ^tm\ II 6 ^ II 
fwM ^T: ^ 'H4(VKI: ($) I 

M^fPTTt (vs) 4<I^J: fH'^yfcKdl^ T TT: II ^ II 

(^)5^^7r5^7cT: I 

M^l^d4Hl^ddiJl^y^$§: (<0 II 03 II 
+rnyi^yeiTft ^f%i:(^o) i 

Pd^HlPHcbl^+Pd^ fgg# (U)f^ II 66 II 

rT^T ^ 41 ^: (U) I 

dW^ (n) ^gSc^ II 6% II 

W^\ (V*) ^ WTFTcT^T^W: I 
iwm (^<0 ?u ’H<ivi^RTuf^R^n n <^o n 
^c|cwi^ym#5rg^ jwi ^: (^) i 
^IMI ( ^) 5 HlfH=hldy^^^I II ^ 5 > || 

cTsftt ^lM<+: (u) I 

?n ^Hfd'dl'^: ^TJET II ^ II 

^ 4 dl^^ 8 l f^MT: M<J=b>l=b: (^o) | 
^*>ll^c^y$^dl^n^: (R\) II ^3 II 
^bl^^JlS^Wf: (33) I 
3 T^m( PclMdWlS^Wf: II V# II 

3 Hlcdl ( ^^iT ■d^Mdd'^d) I 

(R\) £Hld*4 ^ d*MdlPH^> II ^ II 



































































TRANSLATION 


63 


ii. Asamyuta-Hastas (Single-hand poses) 

83. Wherein the thumb is well bent and rests at the root of forefinger, and the 
other fingers are held together and extended, it is pataka (1). 

84. If in pataka little finger is separated and extended, it is harhsapaksa (2). If 
thumb of harhsapaksa is [held] erect it is gomukha (3). 

85. If in gomukha thumb moves to the root of middle finger, it is catura (4). If in 
catura little finger is made equal [with other fingers] it is nikuhca (5). 

86. That in which midfinger of pataka is bent, is sarparsiras (6) hand. When all the 
fingers, together with thumb are separated and extended, it is pahcanana (7). 

87. Holding the fingers of pahcasya close together but separating the thumb is 
ardhacandra (8). When the thumb rests at the root of the forefinger in pahcasya , it 
is caturmukha (9). 

88. If the little finger and thumb of caturmukha are joined it is trimukha (10). In 
dvimukha (11), ring-finger, thumb and little finger of trimukha are held together. 

89. If in dvimukha thumb and middle finger (are held together) it is sudmukha 
(12). When the forefinger of sudmukha is bent, it is tamracuda (13). 

90. Wherein the forefinger and thumb of pahcasya are joineed, it is sandarhsa 
(14). Wherein middle finger joins the intervening (space, i.e. forefinger and 
thumb) it is hamsasya (15). 

91 . Stretching of thumb in hamsasya sideways is ranagrdhra (16). If the ring finger 
also joins in hamsasya , then it is khadgasya (17). 

92. When the forefinger of khadgasyais raised up, it is mrgasirsa (18) . Wherein all 
the fingers, including the thumb are joined like a bud, it is the mukula (19). 

93. Curving the separated fingers and thmb like a bow is padmakosa (20). 
Bending [further] fingers and thumb of padmakosa is urnanabha (21). 

94. If all fingers [and thumb] are separate and palm turned sideways, it is 
alapallava (22). The opposite of alapallava [in hastakarana] is alapadma (23). 

95. Curving [further] the bent forefinger of catura [gives] arala (24). Curving the 
forefinger and ring finger of arala [gives] sukatunda (25). 


TCC 84bcd 85ad 88ad-89b 90d 92abc 93d 95a 
COT 66-127 94 




64 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


^b^ugirszjiTTgsm f(slfddl( ^^)5^B c !^j ( d:( c )nr , id:? q<Jd:?) 
PdMdld^: (3^) MdldvPl qfoaMipHq->i'S|Td: II ^ II 
d^HlH^FT PdMdl'+'W (R6) I 
=hci4d l PH°H^g t eFTTTft (^) II II 

^nr °bi^ (3°) i 

4,fHBHlfta II %6 II 

3^^iJlP^dd^^(^H^4fcl: I 

II %% II 

■q^T ^Ml^dl^-S^fg: f?H3I (^) 

P^l^ lt ] (3<0 II ^oo || 

^f4c^i^Bd4-4] t^M^ c d c ^3, u ^ < + ) : (30 I 

^Pdy'Hfftd:'^^: (30 II II 

^ ^ ^ <gdct)l*i«: (30 I 


iii. k^dSWI: 


II W II 

te^eTIW^ ^ <*M)dd->: (^)l 

(3) m ^WWI^^its^-MWil: ^TT: II ^°3 II 
MdlO HP u N'£k4t ■WprdO (*) ^ I 

^tcf: (<a) Hdl=hl^dHddl5^W■qfrP^t II || 

WfrM rHd^W ^f yq^zt (^) ^1 



HpU|«r^R*Usl<i<^ lsl«ieblo|^HM+: (O I 
^4#4f ^Tc^TRTr JMd'd^: (O II \o$ II 

PHd^=WMc|^c«Tt (\o) qOPkl 

^^TT ^fqc^T %1WI IWT: (U) ^JcT: II II 
^4sld: (^3) ^-^dldikl diy^sl \\%o6 II 






































































TRANSLATION 


65 


96. Curving the midfinger of sukatuqda over the thumb valgita (or encircling with 
the thumb) vartula [gives] skhalita (26). Curving the ring finger of pataka [gives] 
tripataka (27). 

97. Separating midfinger from forefinger of tripataka [results in] kartan (28). If 
the ring finger and thumb of kartan are joined at the tips, it is mayura (29). 

98. Wherein the thumb of mayurais held straight and erect, it is kahgula (30). [In] 
bhramara (31) the little finger and ring finger of tamracuda are separated. 

99. [In] musti (32) the finger (inner) surfaces and finger tips surround the 
thumb. If the little finger of musti is extended, it is then, varahamukha (= krodasya , 
33). 

100. When the thumb of mustii s stretched erect, it is said to be sikhara (34). If the 
forefinger is joined to the tip of the thumb, it is kapittha (35). 

101. By separating the thumb and forefinger of kapittha is [formed] kakatunda 
36) . By extending widely [the same, i.e. thumb and forefinger] of kakatunda is 

[formed] balacandra (37). 

102ab. If the ring finger of kapittha is slightly raised, it is khatakamukha (38). 
iii. Samyuta Hastas (Combined Hand Poses) 

102cd. By joining two pataka hands mutually anjali (1) is formed. 

103. Wherein in anjali the roots, tips and sides are mutually joined in between 
each other (and the tips of thumbs touch each other) it is karkata (3). 

104. When two pataka hands are placed [crosswise] at the wrists, it is svastika (4). 
Dola (5) is [formed] by two pataka hands, palms upturned and joined together. 

105. Two sarpasiras hands, joined at the outer sides (i.e. at little fingers), is 
r u itxiputa (6). Again, two arala hastas placed each at the other shoulder, give utsahga 
( 7 ) 

106. Two khataka(mukhas) placed at the wrists (crossed) [form] khatakd vardha- 
*%ar t a (8). Two sarpasiras-hastas placed each at the opposite elbow [form] gaja- 
canta (9). 

107. Two sukatundas, joined face to face, if [placed] at the chest [form] avahittha 
(10). When mukula (in one hand) is surrounded with kapittha (in the other), it is 
said to be nisadha (11). 

108. Makara (12) [occurs when] two [ardha] candra hastas are placed one above 
the other, palms turned down. When two tamracudas are joined in the shape of a 
chain, it is suikhala (13). 


TOC 96a 97d 98cd-99ab 100ab-101ab 104b 105d-106b 107d 
COT 66-127 105c 106d 




66 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


wrsft (V#) ' Mi lI 

Pd^dd^H^lcl^Nr^ 3 (^) || || 

^pj?4feg# Tjst ^4Ri^Py=b : (^) I 
PsP;i<a<: (^V9) t^UsKlih ^P^Pddl^cicWchl || || 

iv. ^*< 11 : 

fWM<$44'Hl yi^sil ^<d=H^5l1 I 

(O y+lfHdl II m II 
c^l^dl ^FR^r ^^dl (3) WTtSTRT: I 
d<3d1 ^44iPw4^si1 wi'^1 (3) ii ii 
3Tp^St^R^T«TI WP*d=b: wftd+1 (*) I 
pq^ ^Pw4i f^y=h>it (tv) cT^tfddl II M 
o^qKidigdchlcKH^ichl^dl (^) I 
^Ipq^qqq) (V9) ^WW«J»4<Wfadlfad1 II W II 
WI'jyiP^P'Kfll (C) d4Pd^ I 

Hdiq>1 ^T sjdiqd ^ }pqd1 (<0 II \\\ II 

eft WldlH^ftf^ (*o) | 

PddWl (\\) Pi4d1 W^ifad^i^T: "J^T: II ^ II 
3ml*i«wfw«b11M*i4 (^) ^ i 

(^) %r5flc^llRl4d1 ■qTSfcT: ^T: II W II 
PdMdlchl 4)Midlifl ^<ldHdP^dl (V*) I 
fd4<^ ^dl dllcidl T %^fdHdi=hl ddiq^P) (^S) II \\6 II 
=hR<^^w1 (^) ^of w^T5^TT <Hdl<M:l 
PdHdl=hl qxiWlR -q-Kiml "q^clj^ldl (^va) || || 

efT^ %d; Mil^dl Wisi1d+1 (16) I 

^f^TT^(^) || ^ 0 || 

374^5^ ddifa^ (^o) i 

(30 ^WpJd^lPciq^HIct II II 





































































TRANSLATION 


67 


109. If two hamsapaksa-hastas, facing"away from each other, are [crossed] like a 
svastika , it is vardhamana (14). Two ardhacandra Aastojoined well at the sides of the 
palms [form] dardura (15). 

110. If two musti hastas are placed one above the other facing up, it is yogamusti 
(16). If two sikhara-hastas are joined, face upwards, at the tips, it is dvisikhara (17). 

iv. Nrtta-Hastas (Hand Poses for Dance) 

111. If two khatakamukhas facing away from each other, are placed at the chest 
with eight ahgulas (Indian inches) in between, such that the elbows are even with 
shoulders, it is declared to be caturasra (1). 

112. If two hamsapaksas , facing away from each other are held at the chest in front 
it is udvrtta (2). If the udvrtta [sarhyutahasta] are held obliquely at the sides, it is 
recognised to be talamukha (3). 

113. Two hamsapaksas are crossed without touching [each other] it is opined to 
be svastika (4). If the svastika hastas are quickly separated, then it is said to be 
viprakirna (5). 

114. If in the selfsame ( viprakirna ) hasta one is arala and the other, khataka 
(mukha ) [it becomes] aralakhatakamukha (6). If the self same hands are reversed 
and displayed with sportful movements of the forearm, elbow and shoulder [it 
becomes] aviddhavaktra ( 7). 

115. The midfmger and thumb of two sarpasiras hastas [are joined together and 
move across] the forefingers (stretched) outward to give suci (mukha) (8). If in this 
(same) patakas or hamsapaksas move rapidly, it is recita (9). 

116. If one of these hands is caturasra {hasta) it is ardharecita (10). Movement [of 
these hands [? patakas ?] from the shoulder to the region of hips is nitamba (11). 

117. Pallava (12) is opined to be formed by slackly held svastika hands facing 
downward. In kesabandha (13) (these) move from the region of the hair along the 
sides (to the region of the hips). 

118. If tripataka hands are held in front of the cheeks, it is then uttanavahcita (14). 
If tripataka hands are transversely (obliquely) moved swingingly, it is latakara hasta 
(15). 

119. Karidanta (16) hastais [formed] with khataka(mukha) with one hand and lata 
with the other, held at the ear. Placing tripataka hastas in front of the waist and the 
head gives paksavahcita (17). 

120. If the selfsame are exchanged, it is declared to be paksapradyota (18). When 
the shoulder in harhsapaksa moves sideways, it is dandapaksa (19). 

121 Lataviddha-hastas held downward should be understood as garudapaksa 
(20). Urdhvamandalin hasta (21) occurs by the turning round of kesa [ bandha ] hasta 
executed upwards. 


TCC 112d 116ab 117a 118a 119ab 
COT 66-127 112a 




68 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


<TT^f TndRMfcft (33) I 

(33) II ^33 II 

(3*) II ^33 II 

^Rd*!^ cT^T ijfgohwrw+l (3<0 I 
oqiciKy HRHHlM^<=hlVI«=t>1 (35) II 33* II 

^flldfsh^l (3^) I 

eft^3^W)^3IM^dWcrlM«a«f>t (3<0 II U\ II 

"5^4 y'HiRaifq^i (33)^<ftl 

wft ^ RkI^I ^nmfl c#nft (3°) n ^ 

w^\w^\ ( 33 ) cT*JT I 

<^4<<rqRrd«h J ial dflR<*fl <=<fcicii()f^fcT II 33^ II 

v. wrm.-SFrma 


^TPR^TT^f^FnTPTT '^f^FRTT: ^<1: I 
■%rRT TpTT HI WT^% II 33^ II 
wi t^{ i 
d*HMI*WU^ MM #37II 333 II 

■qt 3 dlch^i ^r ^ct w i 
*Mld1*fi fadldldMyiBlVIdRfil: II 33° II 
% ^ ^Wl: ffiW^’H^IsJII I 

^l^di sFRT^ II 333 II 
fdfUstiam: ^T: I 

^TTfer ^TSartwr TrfcT II 333 II 

3T«lff*H4dfctNi HMclNfe+K^ I 
^3T w ^r arsRfrb^sq n 333 11 
^FcTT: ^ y4U°*1l ^fa: ^tM^mcT: I 























































TRANSLATION 


69 


122. The selfsame, displayed at the sides are declared to be parsvamandalin (22). 
[If the same] are turned round each other outward and inward [at chest level] at 
the front, it is uromandalin (23). 

123. When alapallava and arala hands execute a half circle around the upper 
region of the chest to the side, it should be understood as urahpdrsvdrdhamandalin 
(24). 

124. When khataka ( mukha) hastas are crossed repeatedly < avrttau> it is mustika- 
svastika (25). Two padmakosa hands, turning inward [make] nalinipadmakosa (26). 

125. [The same] turning outward in the region of the chest [give] alapallava 

(27) . If the same are moved to the region of the respective shoulder, it is alapadma 

(28) . 

126. Two aviddha(vaktra) hands stretched upward, should be understood as 
ulbana (29). Two pallava hands got to the region of the head are said to be lalita (30). 

127. Two arala hands, (placed) on the hip and (in the region of the )head 
[constitute] varadabhayada (31). Two lata hands [displayed] crosswise at the 
elbows, [form] valita (32). 

v. Pramdnya (Authority), Prayoga (Application) for Use of hand Proses 

128. Other hand poses, fit for abhinaya are infinite; they are not described by me 
here and they should be adopted by the learned from the world. 

129. Authority is declared to be of three kinds— loka (popular or conventional 
usage), veda (scriptures) and adhyatma (conscience/personal experience). There¬ 
fore (!) loka is declared to be the authority in the context of natya. 

130. But in popular/conventional usage there are other hand poses the 
thirtveight similar and dissimilar single-hand poses. 

131. Therefore, all the hastas [described above are to be regarded] as nrtta hastas*, 
they number seven hundred forty [740]. The practical exponents should similarly 
-ormise the same number of samyuta (combined) hand poses. 

132. There is another hand pose named lihga [formed] by bringing to the front 
? side of the thumb of bhramara-hasta. There is no hand pose which is not useful 

in the abhinaya of meaning in natya. 

133ab. Their semantic representation is not altered by slight modification. 
133cd-134ab. All these hand poses must be employed with attention to the 
province (country), the time, [nature and spirit of] the performance (or usage) 
and the context of meaning by men, and especially by women. 


ICC 122abcd 123 125cd 127b 128cd 129acd 130b 131b 132ab 133d-134ab 
COT 66-127 121ab 128-129 130cd-131ab 132b 132cd-135ab 




70 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


3T?J^oFrFT ^TRT: W ^TT: II ^3* II 

inwzti cT^T cTC ^Wi: I 

f^t ^T^T: TPfrffifa:ll ^ II 


vi. c tK'M u l‘1 s 

WHT Hlct^cAW<ftffa: I 
fq^lldc^ <Mcb< J i II II 

oMwf^f MRcffHdH. ii W ii 

37T^?^P% >H<;i'^r < H'Wl4'^l^l I 

3TT«R^TJT cRtit (*) II w II 

<&8*Rl ^dl^*d4^fM *rf^3T: I 

Wm: Wi -qu^i d^^fScfC 3 H W H 

SMftt +iH8l^l^l^<r4l3«RT^>I 3 I 
~m sFcm ^T ^ oij|o||Hd( 3 ) : 5^ II V*° II 
cbPiBI^I ^Tim: sFRTt '^T I 
3T^T: ^rrf cT<j^ MRc|ffid^ O) II W 
^%sfawift ^r f*d%4cfaT^: I 

II W II 


vii. ' c llQl c M: 


^Tq^®ll^^mHWoMW4tiTcI: I 



^ZRt c^dW^ai^FI: +1fHdlW<l II W II 


viii. $WlMkl: 

^rTPTt5^5TRT: I 

Wn F^TSraTTI: sF*T!^ II ^ II 
































































TRANSLATION 


71 


134cd-135ab. If several hand poses occur for the same single meaning, then only 
one among them which generates [the most] beauty (grace, splendour) should be 
employed by the performer. 

135cd. The wrist is declared to always follow the hand. 

vi. Karakarana (Movements of the Hands) 

136. The actions involved in forming all the hand poses should be learned by the 
performer with special effort. They are of four kinds. 

137. Apavestita is one; then udvestita is another; vyavartita is the third and the 
fourth, parivartita. 

138. When the fingers [of a hand] beginning with forefinger are turned round 
inward one after another [and moved toward the chest] this action is said to be 
apavestita ( 1 ). 

139. When the fingers [of a hand], beginning with the forefinger, are turned 
round outward one after another from the middle, it is said to be udvestita (2). 

140. When the fingers [of a hand] beginning with little finger are turned round 
inward one after another [and moved toward the chest], this action < karana > is 
said to be vyavartita (3). 

141. When the fingers [of a hand] beginning with little finger are turned outward 
one after another [and moved away from the chest], it is said to be parivartita (4). 

142. In nrtta (pure dance) and while combining with abhinaya through hand 
poses based on the [above mentioned four] vartanas , meaning should be made 
visual by combining head, eyes, facial colour (complexion) etc. 

vii. Calaka (Arm Movements) 

143a-f. When, by combining bahukaranas (arm-actions) individually and collec¬ 
tively with fast, variegated (beautiful) movement, (which are called) vartanas are 
fetched out < recyante> simultaneously according to their practical usage, such 
that thev are replete with grace then they are mentioned by experts as calakas. 

viii. Hastapracara (Course of the Hands) 

144. Course of movement of the hands is of six kinds: uttana (above), adhah 
(below), agratah (front), parsva (both sides), tiryak (transverse/oblique), sammukha 
(face to face)—these are surface (horizontal) courses of hands, which are aptly 
named. 


TCC 139cd 140a-141a 142ac-143ad 
COT 134cd-135ab 136-142 143 144 




72 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


ix. 

R TO RT^pH ^T: I 

r^Tirt fr«R to n w n 

tf&TO fTOtW W Rt$PT cT«Ti | 
fMr'Tt ^ Pcw4w4h TO II W II 
TORR nidi cT^TT I 

TOR Rfd TORT ^ ^TqffTTT f^T%: || 5>*V9 II 

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+Pi4M4> II W6 II 

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d euld^i: 

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Rglft^TST TOT R#TRT TO RWl II ^o || 
TO^RT TO ( O TOT d^dlWTtRTT I 
TOTFT ciciHlf^l (3) TO Pd4<^ Rfd II ^ 

^44t TOTTER fRSfRT ^fTO (X) TOt II II 
Pd^ldlddl fTOTOtlfRTR ^fTOT (A) I 
lRTORT%TO^^ltTO (A) TOt II II 
^t^ldirfui RTf^TRFJRtTO: I 


<? 3tff*rRT: 

^TO^PMfl«ll(l5^T 3 TO ffeT: II W II 
















































TRANSLATION 


73 


ix. Karakarmas (Actions of Hands) 

145. Utkarsana (raising up), vikarsa (drawing outwards), akarsana (drawing 
inwards), parigraha (accepting/receiving), nigraha (restraining), ahvana (beckon¬ 
ing) , rodhana (hindering/obstructing), 

146. samslesa (contact), viyoga (separation), raksana (protecting), moksana 
(releasing), viksepa (throwing), dhunana (shaking), visarja (dismissing), tarjana 
(threatening). 

147-148ab. chedana (cutting), bhedana (spilling), sphotana (bursting), motana 
(snapping), tadana (beating)—these twenty are clearly ^appropriately named] 
actions of the hands. 

x. Hastaksetra (Regions for Hand Positions) 

148cd. Both sides, front, above, below, head, forehead, eye, shoulders, chest, 
navel, both hips, both thighs—[these] thirteen are the regions for [displaying ] the 
hands. 


8. KATIBHEDA (VARIETIES OF WAIST MOVEMENT) 

149ab. Middle of the body, slender, faultless and fit for dancing is (defined as) 
kati (waist). 

150. Santa, chinna, nivrtta, recita, kampita, udvahita —thus it is of six kinds; now 
their characteristics (will be described). 

151. The still (unmoving) waist is said to be sama (1) seen at the beginning of a 
dance. Undulation of the middle when the danseuse is in an oblique posture is 
ciunna (2). 

152. Returning of the waist from the turned away position to the [natural] face 
- j face position is nivrtta (3). Rotatory swing of the waist in every direction is said 
k be recita (4). 

153. Swaying of the waist from side to side horizontally should be understood as 
t.:-c :a (5). Raising the hip and side slowly is udvahita (6) waist. 

154ab. Chest, back and belly [positions] occur in accordance with the (respec- 
tr e \ariety of waist movement. 

9. ANGHRIBHEDA (VARIETIES OF FOOT MOVEMENT) 

134cd. Pada (foot) is defined as naturally moving on the ground and being 
acdeformed. 


7 • : 47a 146d 146abc-147abc 148ab 150b 152d 154d 
7 7 .45-147 149-154a 154-164a 




74 


NARTAN AN IRN AYA 


TFrTslW: I 


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^TfeTt TTf^TWT I 

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WHIcRpcRTt fPTt (\)m: \ 



: (3) W' 11 W 11 



^fcyH4lN<^8l (*) II W II 



TFRW: ($) *RT: II W II 

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qifHn:(u) I 

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ftsRT: 'qT^ ^ TT$f Wl^#! ( ^) I 

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TRANSLATION 


75 


155. Sama, ancita , kuncita, sud, agratalasancara, udghattita, ghattita, ghattitotsedha, 

156. tratita, mardita, parsniga, agraga and parsvaga —thus foot (movement) is 
declared to be of thirteen kinds. 

157. [Foot] placed naturally on the ground in even position is opined to be sama 
(1). Antita (2) is opined to have heels on the ground and raised forepart of the sole 
(and toes). 

158. Raising midheel and curving the toes is kuncita (3). Raising the heel and 
touching the ground with the big toe while the other foot is sama is sud (4). 

159. Raised heel and stretched big toe is agratalasancara (5). Standing on the balls 
of the foot and [bringing the heel] down to the ground is udghattita (6). 

160. Ghattita( 7) consists of striking the ground with the heel? (alternately?) with 
heel and sole. Striking the ground with the forefoot and heel again and again 
alternately < kramat > is ghattitotsedha (8). 

161. Striking with the forefoot with heel on the ground is tratita (9). That in which 
the [sole of the] foot rubs the ground is mardita (10). 

162. Moving on the heel from the back to the front is parsniga (11) foot. Moving 
[the heel] farther and farther to the front fast is said to be agraga (12) pada. 

163ab. Resting the foot on a side ahd moving it to [the other] side is declared to 
be parsvaga (13). 

163cd-164ab. The sole, toes, heel, ankle, foreleg, knee and thigh move automati¬ 
cally along with the foot movement according to the respective velocity (speed and 
direction of the foot). 


10. STHANAKA (STANCE) VARIETIES 

164cd-l 65ab. Special positioning of the body, motionless, full of aesthetic appeal 
rrace) is sthana(ka) . These sthanakasare numerous; I shall describe the character¬ 
ises of [only] a few. 

1 S5cd. Samapada, parsnividdha , svastika , samhata, 

166. utkata, vardhamana, nandyavarta, mandala, caturasra, vaisakha , ayata , 

■dhtto, 

167. crrsthottanatala, asvakranta, ekapada, brahmya, vaisnava, saiva , aUdha , sthanaka 


TOC 5-5bd 159d 162bd-163ab 166b 167c 
: ‘ ! 54464a 164cd-193 




76 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


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OTftcffeT^ | 

^f(sdlcr 1 l'd<l<rl (^V 9 ) cT^T II II 









































































TRANSLATION 


77 


168. pratyatidha, khandasuci , samasuci, asama ( =visama) suci kurmasana naga , 
bandha, garuda , vrsabhasana , 

169ab. these twentyseven are (thus) listed. Now [their] characteristics [will be 
described]. 

169cd-170ab. When the body [position] is natural, feet are a span apart and are 
straight [as in sama ], they are even in forepart of the sole and in the toe-nails, then 
it is said to be samapada (1). 

170cd. If the heel touches the big toe, it is parsnividdha (2). 

171. The two little toes touching each other and the feet in svastika (crossed 
formation) is svastika (3). In samhata (4) the two big toes and ankles touch each 
other closely. 

172. In utkata (5) the feet are sama or kuncita and the toe nails are even. In 
vardhamana (6) the feet are oblique (mutually), heels touching each other. 

173-I74ab. In nandyavarta (7) the feet in vardhamana (sthanaka) are eight ahgulas 
(Indian inches) apart. When the feet are oblique in tryasra (triangular) on the 
ground one span or four spans apart, then it is mandala (8) sthana. 

174cd. In caturasra (9) there are two spans in between the feet of nandyavarta. 
( sthanaka ) 

175. In vaisakha (10) [there are] one and a half spans in between the feet of 
vardhamana ( sthanaka) . In ayata (11) it is opined that the left [foot] is one span apart 
in tryasra (formation) and the other [i.e. right] foot is sama. 

176ab. The self same is avahittha (12) if the feet are reversed. 

176cd-177ab. Wherein one' (right) foot rests on the ground with the upper 
surface of its toes at the back and then another (the left foot) is placed in front of 
it (further and further), it is prsthottanatala (13). 

177cd-178ab. If at the heel of a samapada is placed the other foot in suci position 
or its own side, then it is asvakranta (14) sthanaka. 

178cd-179ab. If one foot is sama and the other foot touches the outside of knee 
of the former on the outside (of the latter), then it is said to be ekapada (15). 

179cd-180ab. When one foot is sfcraa, the other is bent behind it and then thrown 
up to be at the same level as the knee joint it is then declared to be brahmya (16). 

180cd-181. If one foot is made sama , and the other, slightly bent (kuncita pada) 
and is stretched obliquely in front or assumes a tryasra (triangular) position with two 
and a half spans in between, then it is vaisnava (17) sthanaka. 


TCC 171c 172b 173c 175d 177bd 178d 179b 181bc 
COT 169d 173d 178a 





78 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


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TRANSLATION 


79 


182. If the left foot is sama and the other is raised to the level of the knee cap and 
is made kuncita shaped, it is then lauded as saiva (18). 

183-184ab. Wherein the left thigh is still in the air at the height of only one cubit 
(about twentyfour ahgulas from the ground) and the right foot is stretched five 
spans from the left and both feet are in tryasra form, it should be understood as the 
great atidha (19) sthanaka. 

184cd. Pratyatidha (20) is defined as reversal of the limbs in aUdha. 

185. When one foot is kuncita and the other is stretched obliquely so that its 
thigh and heel touch the ground, it is then called khandasuci (21). 

186. When the two feet are stretched obliquely such that their heels, forelegs and 
thighs touch the ground, it is said to be samasiici (22). 

187. Wherein both feet, assuming suci pose are stretched at the same time, one 
forward and the other backward, it is described by experts as visamasuci (23). 

188. Wherein the knee and outerside of the stretched right leg touch the ground 
and the left foot is sama it is understood to be kurmasana (24). 

189. When, sitting on the ground, the right foreleg is placed on the back [upper 
surface] of the left thigh, then this is acquiesed by Bharata to be nagabandha (25). 

190. When the left leg is bent in the front and the knee of the other (i.e. the right) 
foot touches the ground, it is then declared to be garuda (26). 

191. If both knees rest on the ground together or apart, it is named vrsabhasana 
(27) by the sage Bharata and others. 

192. Other sthanakas occur in profusion according to the usage of the common 
people. The experts in natya may employ the sthanaka at will (among these). 

11. VARIETIES OF CAR! (KINEMATICS OF LOWER LIMBS) 
i. Description 

193. Wherein the actions of the foot, foreleg (shank), thigh and hip are 
carried out as in single movement, it is described as can. 


TCC 182a 184ab 187c 191 ac 193-198 193abcd 
COT 183-184a 185b 193-228ab 193cd 




80 


nartananirnaya 


fa^HN J TcTI£IFTf I - 

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ii.^I: 

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^H-H^rdPcIcR i<chH«Ki<(iRdl: II II 

































































TRANSLATION 


81 


194. Since the cans are prescribed by rules < vidhanopagatd> mutually extend 
< vya-yam > into each other, they are designated as vyayama (system). 

195. That which consists of movement with a single foot is named can. Can 
involving movement with both feet is recognised to be karana. 

196. Combination of three karanas is named khanda . Combination of three or 
four khandas is mandala. 

197. Nrtta (pure dance) is constituted by cans ; cestas (activities) [consist] of cans. 
Release of missiles occurs with cans', cans are employed in [stage] battles. 

198. Whatever is propounded in natya , abides in cam only. Without cans no limb 
(or part) of natya can take place. 

ii. List of cans 

199. Can is renowned to be of two kinds: bhaumi (relating to ground) and of akasa 
(aerial). Samapada , sthitavarta, sakatasya , vicyava, 

200. ardhyardhika , casagati, elekaknditasamosaritamattaWi, mattalU, utsandita , addita, 

201. spandi(ta) apaspandita, baddhd, janita, urudvrtta, rathacakra , paravrttatala , 
nupuraviddhika , 

202. tiryahmukha , marala , karihasta , kuRrika , vislista, katara, parsnirecita , umtadita, 

203. uruveni, talodvrtta, harinatrasika, ardhamandalika, tiryakkuncita, madalasa, 

204. sancarita, utkuncita, stambhakridanika, langhitajangha, sphurita, apakuncita, 

205. sahghattita, khuttd, svastika, taladarsini , purati , ardhapuratika , sarika , sphurika , 

206. nikuttaka, lataksepa , ardhaskhalitika , samaskhalitika —these fiftyone are said to 
be bhaumi (ground) cam. 


TCC 194abcd 195abc 196abcd 197abcd 198abcd 200a 201d 205c 
COT 193-228ab 194d 195d 193cd-198 199-211 




82 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


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iii. \Mi4: 

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^Mi^RdH^ U) ii W ii 
































































TRANSLATION 


83 


207. atikranta apakranta parsvakranta mrgapluta urdhvajanu alata sud nupurapadika 

208. dolapada dandapada vidyudbhranta bhramari bhujangatrasita aksipta aviddha 
udvrttika 

209. purahksepa viksepa apaksepa daman janghalahghanika ahghritadita alattika 

210. jahghavrta vestana udvestana utksipta prsthotksepa sudviddha pravrtta 

211. ullola —these thirtyone are akasacans. Adding all these, the total is eighty 
two. Now their characteristics [will be elucidated.] 

iii. Bhumi (Ground)—can Varieties 

212. By incessant movement of the feet to the front or sideways in samapdda 
sthanaka [the can ] named samapada (1) is formed. 

213. If an inward circle is described by a foot touching the ground and then is 
moved away (in reverse?), it is then described as sthitavarta (2). 

214. Wherein the upper body is lifted up, when one foot in agratalasancara pose 
is stretched and the chest is udvahita, then sakatasya (3) occurs. 

215. Separating the feet in samapada can, if the ground is pounded with the 
foreparts of the soles, then it is vicyava (4). 

216. When the left foot is behind the right and a movement is made with the right 
foot sideways it is then adhyardhika (5). 

217. When the right foot is stretched and returns, while the left foot moves both 
to the right and left, it is casagati (6). 

218. If leaping and descending alternately is done with (agra ?) talasancara feet, 
then it is elakakndita (7). 

219. Turning round and going backward on (agra?) talasancara feet is described 
bv the learned as samo(t)saritamattalli (8). 


TCC 209c 212a 213ac 214ab 215ab 216acd 217bc 218abcd 219abd 
C OT 199-211 212c 213c 214c 215a 216ad 217d 219a 




84 


nartananirnaya 


1 W# (<0 ^ MMilRidI II || 
chPiyi-^f^^i^'ii'gy^n^T ^ s^hi^ i 

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II 33* II 

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dd«3HM I W T m I 

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¥ffe ^c#5^: OTfa: I 
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WWTH% ftWTT 'snfcT: f^fcT^ I 
wnt w in wt <+r^«n (33) rfcidl II 333 II 
M^iq4^ , MK'| r 4irHi4 <: p ^c^l ^xrilR^I (33) I 


























































TRANSLATION 


85 


220. Turning round and going backward on both feet with crossed shanks is 
renowned as mattalU (9). 

221. By moving on the side of the little toe and the side of the big toe slowly 
initiating a recaka one after the other is said [to occur] uts(y)andita (10). 

222. Wherein the forepart and back of a sama foot are rubbed by the other 
agratalasahcara foot one after another, it is to be understood as additd (11). 

223. Wherein the left thigh is still and the foot is samaand the right foot stretched 
obliquely with five spans in between, it is opined to be spandita ( syandita ) (12). 

224ab. If the feet and can (movement) are reversed, selfsame spandita is said to 
be apaspandita (13). 

224cd-225ab. Wherein there is a rotatory swinging of both thighs with crossed 
shanks which also rotate circularly, it is described as baddha (14) can. 

225cd. When both feet [move] in agratala sancara (with a musti hand at chest and 
the other hand moved round) janita (15) can is described. 

226. When the heel of a talasancarafoot is stretched out upward, a shank is slightly 
bent and raised, and the thigh is also raised, it is declared to be urudvrtta (16). 

227. Assuming the caturasra [sthanaka ], if one foot, touching the ground is 
slipped forward and backward, then it is said to be rathacakra (17). 

228. Wherein the sole of the foot is turned up at the back and is stretched 
outward, it is renowned as paravrttatala (18) in popular-usage. 

229. Wherein while standing with feet crossed ( svastika ), the feet execute recita 
movements with heels and balls of the feet, it is called nupuraviddhika (19). 

230. When standing in vardhamana sthanaka the feet move quickly to the right 
and left, then tiryahmukha (20) [is formed]. 

231. Wherein the feet, composed in nandyavarta [sthanaka], execute recita 
movements with the heels and foreparts and are then stretched forward, it is 
declared to be marala (21). 

232. Wherein, in the sarhhata sthana the sides of the feet rub the ground, it is said 
to be karihasta (22) can. 

233ab. If the feet in nandyavarta [ sthanaka] move oblique, it is kutirika (23). 


T< ( 220ab221abc 222abcd 223abcd 224abcd 225ab 226 227abc 228abcd 229 230 23Id 232 

232d 233ab 

COT 22< *d 222d 224a 225bd 226d 




NARTANANIRNAYA 


IIWM 

pgrwfe: im ^tt Mm ( y*)fm *$: i 

3 WTT R<0 II II 
miMmi#t^ f^TT ^tfaciT frm i 
HlMfddlPddl PTCtfwnt: HlMPPddl (^) II ^ II 

WJ i 

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1^81WfW + |ct»K|e^ Uf $Tt *$3 I 
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ddl^l (^) WOTill W II 
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ddl$^ fcR#d 3rf^Pg|: I 
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HdM^ ( R ) II W II 

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jfodl RI^T I 

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^|R^I%HI#T^cT#TP I 
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^STFlsff: fiMfui Mr\: I 

d^5^|%u|| 7T? #^T drfd*lf£*l (R>) II W II 
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*HKI^nadrff «IT ■qST^RcqTSM^r^dl (R) II ^ II 






































































TRANSLATION 


87 


233cd-234ab. If the feet in parsnividdha [ sthdna] are separate and approach each 
other or recede from each other, it is named vislista (24) by the learned. 

234cd. Backward movement of nandyavarta sthanaka feet is katara (25). 

235. Assuming the parsniparsva sthana'xi the heel executes recita , the cognoscente 
declare the can to be parsnirecita (26). 

236. If, in the ekapada sthanaka a foot resting on the ground strikes the 
[respective] thigh, then it is umtadita (27) can. 

237. When the feet, crossed in svastika at the thighs rub the ground with their 
sides, the wise ones call it uruveni (28). 

238. Wherein the back (i.e. upper surface) of the toes move forward quickly 
with the balls of the feet (touching the ground), the good people opine it as 
talodvrtta (29) can. 

239. When feet in the kuhcita [pose] are crossed in svastika and the forepart of 
the soles are curved, jumping with the feet and descending is harinatrasika (30). 

240. Wherein both feet move outwards by rubbing the ground and slowly 
describe a circle one after the other, the learned mention it as ardhamandalika (31). 

241. Wherein a foot placed obliquely is bent and kicks out repeatedly, Sri 
Bharata and others call it tiryakkuhcita (32). 

242. Wherein both feet, resting on the ground are placed here and there as if 
intoxicated, the learned call it madalasa (33) can. 

243. When a foot is bent and kicks up again and again and joins the other foot 
[but] the other foot moves away, obliquely, it is sahcarita (34). 

244. Wherein both feet are kuhcita and each is placed forward one after the other 
it is declared to be utkuhcita (35) by Anjaneya. 

245. One foot is stretched obliquely, the other foot, sideways, on the sole, and 
touches the former again and again; then it is stambhakndanika (36). 

246. Wherein a foot resting in the khandasuci sthana is dragged quickly and let 
over by the other foot, it is said to be lahghitajahghika (37). 

247ab. Sphurita (38) [can] consists of quick movement (sliding) by the sides of 
feet touching the ground. 

247cd. Backward movement with both feet one after the other is apakuhcita (39). 


TC ( 233cd 234abcd 235 235c 236 236a 237 237b 238 240 241 24Id 242 242ab 243 243c 244 244d 245 
245b 246 246d 247 247d 
COT 235ab 241d 244d 







88 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


grff qf gto #^t ^Hffgcn (^o)sfw ii w ii 

xKU|H>| W: TfrTT (*0 Pl J l£Jd I 
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RfWT WTI^f^TT ^ RT dddfilW (*3) MH° II 
f%^T «qig^p«lt ^<|Pichl (Y*) I 

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dgdWMMKW ^^S^lPi^l (*H) I 
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(Ho) | 


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iv. 3 ii<*>w=h4: 

^n^fc^T ^RT: ^HI-HK^ II W II 
^fr^T Mld^HHfdsFRn (%) I 

^?«ri WT fR^T II W II 

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^f|cH RT^T ^sfsFRTT ( 3 ) $ *TT RJcTT I 
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3 M«lf i P^d l tw RT ?RTT gRui^dl (*) I 

$feld'1f<$mHi<;*-4 <ni^'Hid^i4 ^T II || 

"^RZf (H)RF?f I 










































































TRANSLATION 


89 


248. Wherein, assuming sthanaka railed visamasuti, a leap and descent are 
executed with both feet stamping the ground, it is said to be named sahghattita (40). 

249ab. Striking the ground with forefoot is defined to be khutta (41). 

249cd. If the foot is formed into svastika , svastika (42) can occurs. 

250. Wherein both feet resting in sarhhata sthanaka are separated and made 
oblique and touch the ground with their outersides it is taladarsini (43). 

251ab. Pounding alternately with raised feet is puratika (44). 

251cd-252ab. Wherein [only] one foot is raised and pounds on the ground while 
the other foot is [alternately, merely] raised, it is ardhapuratika (45). 

252cd. Wherein [only] one foot glides forward, it is opined to be sarika (46). 

253ab. Gliding forward with both feet in sama form becomes sphurika (47). 

254. If the foot is placed backward, stretched forward and pounds the ground 
Uitaksepa (49) is said to be formed by it. 

255ab. Stumbling obliquely with both feet becomes ardhaskhalitikd (50) can. 

255cd-256ab. When both feet stumble (slip? slide?) forward, backward, sideways 
and at the same time the can is declared to be samaskhalitika (51). 

iv. Akasa (Aerial) cans 

256cd-257ab. A foot in kuhcita form is raised, stretched forward, raised and 
lowered; this is asseverated to be atikranta (1). 

257cd-258ab. Turning the thighs round (circularly), a foot in kuhcita pose is 
raised; this is thrown downward to a side. This is asseverated to be apakranta (2). 

258cd-259ab. A foot in kuhcita pose is thrown up and parsvottana sthanaka is 
assumed; then by executing udghattita pada it is affirmed to be parsvakranta (3). 

259cd-260ab. Executing the procedure of atikranta [the dancer] should leap 
and descend; the other shank is bent and thrown; this is to be understood as 
'.arinapluta (4). 

260cd-261ab. When afoot in kuhcita pose is thrown up and is brought to the level 
of the kneecap and the other foot fixed motionless (on the ground), then it is 
•j rdhvajanu (5). 


248 249 250 250a 251 25lab 252 253 254 254d 255 255b 256abcd 257abcd 258abcd 259abcd 

SHabcd 

COT 257b 258b 259d 





90 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


cTct^ n w ii 

^T-qrfrof: ^HMWISciraT (A) ddlfcdl I 

'Hmfll^ II W II 

W^TTT#H ^T (V9) c?«T ^T ^ I 

^qT#7 ii w ii 

cft^THTtfiFT dHl£: (6) dl u -s<=l^fdH: I 

tJMT WfWcT f^TT MKHiJdpH <J II W II 
s^T fHMid^ *j4 (<0 I 

ii W N 

Hld^dP^id ^ dlciiHKI (<0 "5TTT ^FJcTT I 

^gt ^i f^n ^ii w ii 

f^T <Wpfd<*>HI3r4 ^T fcPRjs^cT: I 

f ^yH i Ri^iq i <^mki U°) n w ii 

■ggdt ^Rf ^ MT^tT MT^ I 

cusf^ijR^ipzr ddid-wlyR ^r*p ii W ii 

Wrf^T ^^Tci;f^^rRTT(U) T Tif^: I 
3j(d*>Hg >*i ^ MfW^ II W II 

feft^TT^WT c^T TOt (^) ^JcTT I 

-$fm wjfo^q tlkpi^ t^racf^ n ya<> ii 

ch<d)' J 1 l j, pold cri^ ^tfdlP^dl U?) *T^I 

^r^d ~M^d, ii ii 

■3^ ddlPsjHT ( ^) dlH ^fT 'Hdd^ I 

^RddiWIild: T 7T^: jP^d^ y-HiRd: II II 

M l d^r^drfgre : ^T 5 Sfo£I ( \\) ^TTRcT: I 

<Jc^rM IqPdMid^d, II II 

Mp^r q tgcfH ^ ql<jfrn (^) ^nft^T w i 
































































TRANSLATION 


91 


261cd-262ab. One foot is stretched backward so that its sole faces the other thigh; 
then its heel comes down to settle on the ground on its own side. Then it is said to 
be alata (6). 

262cd-263ab. A foot in kuncita pose is thrown up and its knee is stretched 
upwards; then it descends touching the ground with the forefoot; this is suet (7). 

263b-264ab. Or, according to others, wherein a foot is placed on the side of the 
thigh and, making it severely pointed (stretched). Cognoscente in tandava (dance) 
assent is to be suti (7). 

264cd-265ab. A foot is made ancita at the back; it strikes the ground quickly with 
the forepart; [this is] nupurapadika (8). 

265cd-266ab. A foot in kuncita pose is thrown up and swung from side to side. 
Then it is [made] ancita and dropped to the ground. This is affirmed to be dolapada 
(9). 

266cd-267. Executing a nupurapada , it is stretched forward; or the foot is made 
svastika , thrown up obliquely quickly performing aviddha karana. It is declared to 
be dandapada (10). 

268- 269ab. Afoot is turned round at the back, stretched and raised over the head; 
or, a foot is thrown up quickly in the front on the forehead, rotated, and placed on 
the ground. This is understood as vidyudbhranta (10). 

269- 260ab. Performing atikranta , the hip joint is turned round; rotation is made 
with the sole of the second foot; this asseverated a bhfamari (12). 

270cd-27lab. Throwing up a foot in kuncita position, the thigh is turned round 
in tryasra . The [other] hip and knee are [also] turned round; this becomes bhujahga 
Irdsita (13). 

271cd-272ab. If the foot in kuncita is thrown up again and again, then made into 
ancita and the shanks are crossed into svastika it is of the name aksipta (14). 

272cd-273ab. A foot in svastika formation is bent and stretched forward. It then 
descends as ancita in a piercing (swinging?) manner; it is known by the name 
aviddha { 15). 

273cd-274ab. A foot in the aviddha {can) executes a surrounding movement 
[round the thigh of the other foot], thrown up and descends [to the ground]. It is 
pined to be udvrtta (16) can. 


TOC 261abed 262abcd 263abcd 264abcd 265cd 266abcd 267cd 268ab 269cd 270abcd 271abcd 
.“iabed 273ab 274abcd 
COT 264 269d 273a 






92 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


3Tff "3^ PclWl4 %Td: It ^ II 

~?u (^) i 

■ 3 ^ 'WT'dFt %^OT4 T dT a T "31: II W II 
"5fTTt f^^TfT (\ 6 ) ^RPH^dl I 
siiinT^ ^rdtft: 3H 3^1; (?^ 4 cUci?) W311 w 11 
pHdHPi^ ^^ 5 -q^qr (u) y^blfHdi 1 
Wlf (^o) ^pgid^lf: wW TO3 II w II 
P*nadi3>P^ m<MPf »n-4d 1 

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Pd*dl4 fft %d ^T WT dT^rfoTd; I 

ddt Hlddd^d^I dl4PfdlP^cn (33) II W II 

3Hdldlfl 3OT^ ^ThFRTTff I 

efdT( )^TTt cT^T TTtWT ^Tf^^TrTTl^f^r: II 3^° II 

ddH'd^^l^-'d^^ fsmfc I 

d1%'4W7 ddTT$ ^TfTddf ( 3*) cT^T ^ 113^ II 

3rf^t%R 4d^ 4y4«^ 4 eh (30 i 

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37Tfrf^TFT 3^T: 3ScTCddT I 
Tc# ^ 13 ^ 4 ^' (30 ^ 2 ^- 3 ^: 11 3^3 11 

■qT^4t: w[w«b4<fe>: Pq-iPaqiOPdd: ^T: II 3<^ II 

dd (30 #:^TT I 

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ddd^'STFfrT ( 3 °) ^4 ■q^T^i^'dlqdH, I 
<i 8 ^lcd: (30 *4M< u l4t: ^Oitwlcn'iif^jq II 3<^ II 
MK^iiif -q*n -q^r m^itira d^Pd 1 
dd d3d ■dn.rqi 3 diPi^l ■HdlOd, II 3<^ II 
ddTgJTdf ^PH^xbl dPddl^PsbdlPcHdd: I 




































































TRANSLATION 


93 


274cd-275ab. Throwing up a kuncitu foot, stretching it forward quickly and 
placing it on ground—wherein it is so, it is purahksepa (17). 

275cd-276ab. If the foot is stretched in air forward and bent again and again it 
is viksepa (18) can according to the learned. 

276cd-277ab. Wherein a foot touches the back of the other thigh with its outside 
and goes near the hip, it is lauded as apaksepa (19). 

277cd. Daman (20) consists of moving a bent foot to the left and right. 

278. If a slightly bent foot is kicked into the air; then it is opined to be 
jahghalanghanika (21). 

279. When both feet are spread apart, a jump is executed and the soles strike 
against each other, it is then ahghritadita (22) can. 

280. A foot placed behind, and kicked up quickly by the other foot is alata. Then 
this is declared to be latta (23) can by sages such as Bharata. 

281. The sole of a foot moving inward is placed behind the other knee; the sole 
of the same foot, moving outward is placed on the side of the same knee. Then it 
is jahghavarta (24). 

282ab. If a foot is encircled with another foot, it is vestana (25). 

282cd. If after [thus] encircling the foot is stretched from the back to the front, 
it is udestana (26). 

283. The throwing up of a bent foot forward and backward up to the knee is 
described by the learned as utksepa (27). 

284ab. If the selfsame is executed backward only, it is known as prsthotksepa (28). 

284cd-285ab. Wherein the feet are crossed in svastika one is lightly swinging in 
the front and [the other foot] is kuncita, it is affirmd by the learned to be sucividdha 
(29). 

285cd-286ab. Wherein the body is gracefully turned round and the foot is udvrtta, 
it abides in the erotic sentiment and should be known as pravrtam (30). 

286cd. The dangling (in wavy movement) in air of both feet, one after the other, 
.s ullola (31). 

287. Just as in padacans the foot [finally] rests on the ground, similarly, the hand, 
after movement, rests in the region of the flips (Pwaist). 

288ab. These cans are described by the Muni (Bharata) as being of the nature of 
gende (and graceful) activity of the limbs. 


7CC 275abcd 276abcd 277abcd 278abcd 279abcd 280abcd 281abcd 282abcd 283abcd 284abcd 
if-Sabcd 286abed 

T 277d 280d 285ad 288b 







94 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


i. 


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#3 WRI JI^-NcUui cTcT: I 
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cffi: I 

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f^J^RT cTcT&'Siqcta ^ I 

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Ml^l=blP^j, 3T«T ^ui^cl I 


ii.^wr^TTf^ 



qdl=blslfrmR«i 


II W II 


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3T^m: f^MT ^Rf^T: II W II 


^II^SH^Hd^S df^^l (3) ^iRT I 



II W II 


■p<ft f^R: TRcT M^ - Nd< u i ("tf) ^ cT^ I 

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RR ■qT^tSildd'H^K: II W II 

cT«TT ^ W RTSf cTRPJR^ (^) vr%c^l 



















































TRANSLATION 


95 


12. NRTTAKARANAS 
i. List of Karanas 

288cd. Bringing together [beautiful movements] of hands and feet is [defined 
as] karana of nartana. 

289. They are endless; but here I shall describe [only] some karanas for use in 
performance in the accomplishment of bandhanrtya. 

290. Una, samanakha, chinna, gahgavatarana, vaisaharecita, janita-karana, 

291. talapuspaputa parsvajanu urdhvajanu dandapaksa talavilasita 

292. vidyudbhranta candravarta nisumbhita lalatatilaka latavrscika- 

293ab. these sixteen are listed; next, their characteristics will be elucidated. 

ii. Characteristics of Nrttakaranas 

293cd-294ab. Ahjali (sarhyuta hasta composed) of patakas at the chest stretched 
(erect), neck, bent shoulders—this is Una (i) karana. 

294cd-295ab. Both feet, with toe nails (mutually) at the same level, touch each 
other, both hands hang down in latahasta [pose]; body is in svabhavika [ sthanaka — 
natural stance]—wherein it is so, it is samanakha (2). 

295cd-296ab. Alapadma [hasta] on the hip which is in chinna pose, [the body 
assuming] vaisakha sthanaka —this becomes chinna (3) karana. 

296cd-297ab. Feet with turned down toes and soles, downward tripataka hands, 
sannata head—this is gahgavatarana (4). 

297cd-298ab. Hands and feet, similarly hip and neck execute recita movement; 
the sthanaka is vaisakharedta, then it becomes vaisakharedta (5). 

298cd-299ab. One hand is [held] at the chest, the second hangs down loosely, 
foot [rests on the ground] with forepart of the sole; this becomesyamta (6) karana. 

299cd-300ab. Left hand holds puspaputa (pose) on (the left) side, the foot is 
agratalasahcara ; the side is sannata, it is talapuspaputa (7). 


TCC 291c 293cd 294abcd 295abcd 296abcd 297abcd 298abc 299bcd 300ab 
COT 288cd-310ab 




96 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


II 3 00 || 

cf$T*«r: (6) I 

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^^f^-fddd: did: FT^Ht^ d^F^Jd: II 303 || 
y^4<Haddd1 d^Tf ddfadlfac) (U) I 
^^1^i dddntddt d<f iiPhhI ii ii 
t^l^RT (^)fdd illdd^F? ^fercri 
ddrff: wf^t TPFnftcT: II ^ || 

dfdl^-y $FT^HT dM^ld: I 

d-*ld<f (^) ddYdddJI 3°^ II 
TJSd: l?f^cT: FTdt dWTd ^?Td^ I 
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^Pd: fudT m<*dl^B^H 3 I 

dMlt fddFF ^dfedlirddd) (^) ^ cRp II ?<>£ II 

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dd d^T: UdFT: Wd^Tt dd^ I 

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fddFf Tf% d dFdi 4)d*1d^dt:l 

*?.}ddd: 

VdddHd dadmSJgft WffddT^ II 3UII 
WTt: d^it: WITT TftdTdT2I ddfd % I 

































































TRANSLATION 


97 


300cd-301ab. One foot is sama\ the other rests behind the thigh; one hand, in 
musti pose is held at the chest; this is said to be parsvajanu (8). 

301cd-302ab. Kuncita pada is thrown up and is raised to kneecap level; the 
hands are [made] appropriate to the [overall] performance; this is landed as 
urdhvajanu (9). 

302cd-303ab. After performing urdhvajanu lata hands are displayed; this is 
declared by dance cognoscente to be dandapaksa (10) karana. 

303cd-304ab. One foot is raised high on its side with toes and sole facing up and 
palms of both hands are bent in aficitapalm, in talavilasita (11). 

304cd-305ab. Wherein can is vidyudbhranta and the hands are made appropriate 
to it, this is said to be vidyudbhranta (12), [employed] in agitated (arrogant) 
roaming. 

305cd-306. Wherein one foot is raised upward on the side to the region of the ear, 
its big toe is held by hand and slowly turned round in the other [ear] region, this 
is said to be candravarta (13). 

307. One foot is bent backward, chest is held high, hand is composed to describe 
a tilaka (vertical mark) [on the forehead], it is described to be nisumbhita (14). 

308. A tilaka mark is made on the forehead with the big toe of the foot, bent 
backward. It is lalatatilaka (15). 

309. One foot is bent backwards with toes and sole facing up; left hand is made 
laia\ this is latavrscika (16). 

310-31 lab. Wherever (in karanas) the hand pose is dominant, the foot pose 
follows it (i.e. subservient to it). When foot [movement] is dominant, the hand 
[movement] is held to be subservient to it. Bearing this is mind, the intelligent 
[dancer] should apply with karana with aesthetic appeal. 

13. RECAKAS 

31 led. We shall now describe four recakas as elucidated by Bharata. 

312ab. They are [throwing-out movements] of feet, hands, hip and neck. 


TtC 300cd 310abcd 302abcd 303abcd 304abcd-305ab 307abcd 308abcd 309abcd 310c 31 lacd 312ab 
OT 288cd-310ab 300c 307d 31 lcd-316ab 





98 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


wci ^TfcT: n 3^3 n 

HHdMHd^dl yl-cqcl Hiq^=h: (%) I 

■qirm ii 

^ VzftM Tf^T 37 =h<^=h: ( 3 ) I 

fsRR: ^dl^l^'lfw^ ^T II 3V* II 

TTfaFTT f^cMfR: 'cf>n3^f>: (3) I 

Wi ^71: II 3V\ II 

+<u|lt ^ W: W Tf^T I 

^RT ^r ^cNt ^ITO: II 3^ II 

3TT*tf^T Wi ftf^TrR: I 

SP^T^I cJTR2J %$7T ^T ^W8TT II 3*V9 II 
37^R ^ RSi'JI^'oqc) I 

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ciMi'k^yl ^r%fmT ^t \ 

^bl^gl ¥t^f: wl cT?7T5^R^ II 3U 1 

3Tjpnft ct«tt to: i 

ftW*#TRW: TJffafSJHdWd: II 33° || 
^ u llTUdl TfH fas-l^wind cRT: I 
dl^ll-Hird^ ^ 77^ cR f^IT^ II 33* II 
cRRlR tf%r<T chHchFdd^: I 

T7f^f5RHM:(-^:?) ^y=b33frf*R: II II 


cri^fWTTR ^ <d=hl«H^RT^ II 33? II 
TTf^TFTT ^T T^Nd-H^d fcf3T I 

4 UHl^ci, II 33* II 

























































TRANSLATION 


99 


312cd-313ab. Continuous movement of heel and big toe inward and outward 
with bending and stretching is said to be padarecaka (1). 

313cd-314. Circular movement of two harhsapaksa hands, executed quickly 
(inward and outward) alternately (i.e. one hand inward while the other is outward 
is hasta recaka (2). Or, it consists of rotating widely separated, stretched (erect) 
thumb and fingers obliquely. 

315ab. Rotation of the neck in vidhuta pose is said to be kantharecaka (3). 

315cd. All round rotation of the hips is pronounced to be katirecaka (4). 

316ab. Recaka is declared by Bharata to be a part of karana always. 

14. NRTTAMANDAPA (DANCE PAVILION) 

316cd-317a. Dance pavilion should be constructed by an expert (engineer) on 
even ground having [first] cleared (purified) the earth. 

317b-318a. The [scale of] measurement (for this) will now be given: anu raja , 
vala, liksa, yuka, yava , angola and hasta. 

318bcd. Eight anus make a raja ; eight of these is said to give vala. 

319. Eight valas are [equal to] liksa. Yukais [equal to] eight liksas. EightywA&sare 
said to be [equal to] yava\ similarly, eight yavas make angola. 

320ab. Twentyfour ahgulas are said to be [equal to] hasta. 

320cd-321. [The dance pavilion] should be constructed thirtythree< trirama> 
hastas (cubits) long east-west and should measure fifteen < tithi > hastas (cubits) 
wide north-south, paying attention to all the procedures laid down in the science 
of architecture. 

322-323ab. Therein should be suitably arranged gold-painted silken canopy etc., 
splendoured with many flowers, made charming with perfumes, agallochum 
(agura), camphor, incense and lamps. 

323cd-324. Therein an attractive throne [lit. lion-seat], decorated with precious 
gems and gold, is established in an auspicious quarter—east or west. The dancer 
should perform dance facing the throne. 


TCC 312cd 313abcd 314abcd 315abcd 320d 321bd 322abd 323a 
COT 311cd-316ab 316c 317ab 320cd-321abc 




100 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


cH'MdlcH^fd^r^ WW^ fMfam II 33S II 
jOdcll^l^lRrd T^ldPdPdTbdT I 

cT«n n ^ n 
wsrc: i 

Hrk^l |]U||^ d^WlPM rTWl II 33^> II 

3icq^-|^-»H^ , ^nrq iic^KqHsl'idl I 
■g^T ^Bded ^ U+lHdfddWdl II 33^ II 
^Tfa 7 ffTc^ iUl'idl I 

^TTf^m ^ defsF^q eft II W II 
jp i ^d W^ cT Hlddl=h^ I ’ 

MNHJyuPl, 

W WM<fdl^(3t?) II 33© II 

-gnj ^ w*i ^ xrra f=r«ift =blPfd^ 1 
TfSTT^W ^ddPdd^R^ II 33* II 
sfo^dPdd^H fHU+Ug<sl l ^l^ I 
^4)Pddl|^dH^)dl^<+yP^^ II 333 'I 
Ufd ^ 3f«m (*) W1 I 
^rft ^ 3T3*fc!T: MlpJNK^I TftfjTfT II 3?? II 
^ chRch<ichKic|^=h i 

f^eTT T T^TtTT II 33* II 

c^HMcdl 4r^H^^3l«lfc(H I 

T^s^qtW fg#4 ^PR ( 3 ) ^ II 33S II 

f?RT ^ UH*KPd^<J|^ | 

-+mP3lP8R' t fR (3) II 33^ II 
























































TRANSLATION 


101 


15. NARTAKA (DANCER) 

325. Comprehensive knowledge of nartana, leadership in all [four] forms of 
abhinaya, knowledge of laya, tala and yati, knowldge of graha, humility, 

326. capacity to follow vocal and instrumental music, ability for expressing rasa 
and bhava articulately, expertise in commencement and conclusion, continuity in 
rasa (?) 

327abc. endurance, intense attentiveness, intelligence, winning over an audi¬ 
ence—these are [prescribed to be] qaulities of a [male] dancer. 

Body Characteristics of Dancer 

327d-328. [The desirable/essential] characteristics of his body are: uncrippled, 
neither too short nor too tall, not too stout, excellent body outline, sausthava, 
tenderness, gracefulness, 

329. dark complexioned or pale red (creamy) complexioned, handsomeness 
(faultless form), [robust] health etc. are asseverated to be characteristics of the 
body of excellent male dancer. The dancer bereft of the (above) qualities and body 
characteristics should not be looked at. 

16. PATRALAKSANA (CHARACTERISTICS OF DANSEUS) 

330cd. The proper receptacle, which is the main-stay for nartana is patra, while 
nartaki (female dancer) is [main-stay] in (pure) dance (only). 

331. Patra is renowned to be of three kinds: mugdha, madhya and pragalbha. The 
characteristics of mugdha etc. are described in the order of threefold youthfulness. 

332-333ab. A lotus-face which blossoms in the slightly wavering, erotic side- 
glances, (full of smiles) Just blossoming, swelling breasts, yet unexplicit limb joints, 
enthusiasm for sexual sport— this is opined to be the first [phase of] youthfulness. 

333cd-334. Heavy breasts, slender waist, red hue in hand and foot, thighs shaped 
like the proboscis of an elephant, explicitly jointed limbs, large hips, deep navel, 
compact mons venoris, 

335. manifestation of body hair, lustre and smoothness in limbs, hair, etc., living 
only for Manmatha (erotic experience)—this is opined to be the second [phase of] 
vouthfulness. 

336. Possessing intoxicating (maddening) beauty, full expertise in amorous 
sport, experienced in the ways of sexual love—this is opined to be the third [phase 
of] vouthfulness. 


ICC 325c-326bd 327d 328a 329abc 330acd 331 abed 333abcd 335abcd 336abcd 
OT S25-330ab 330cd-342 33Id 











102 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


<T«fT I 

tolctodl tawi ^RT^TcfT II 33^ II 
^eb^eburfdl 3pWdW<<rWlgdl I 

II W II 



WTcTT T flTdT 'l4qi=wldKy'lr^RT[ II 33^ II 

T TT?fft%ft: =blto4dUp^: I 
^TT^(8JTMt^ yX^ K< v c,l ^ d ^ : 11 11 



^Mdi^d wrf*\ ‘c^rjphRn ^ n w n 
HI^I^HliftfewS: Mff^pn -m: I 
STC3RT cfT ^HWIHI^i to tofa: II W II 
li«l<l^ T Rt^T to fdFf I 


Rfl(l^+<KlHIH^Hi toT to II ^ II 



U- HIWI^lfH 


tof?rrtofto diwi^ : tototo n 3 ** 11 
torsnftosjm tosftoto : 1 
sRTOrpR: toto toft 11 w 11 

dMi^iPH toto tot tofto to : 1 
to^t to dm ^ to dldflMf^ II w 11 
tos[ft dTfto ^rcTTto ™ I 
tototo^ -dldHH, II ^ II 
tol:(5:) TTT to?TfFto Wltoto (R) to 1 




























































TRANSITION 


103 


337. Possessing the wealth of rekha (q.v^) and sausthava (q.v.), face like the lotus 
and the moon, large eyes, [lower] lip like the bimba fruit (momordica monadel- 
pha), lustrous teeth, 

338. Throat like an excellent conch, arms straight and swaying like a creeper, 
slender waist, large hips, thighs like the proboscis of an elephant. 

339. Not being to tall or short or stout, non-veinousbody dark green or pale red 
in complexion, sportive in speech, generous and bold [—these are the qualifica¬ 
tions of patra ]. 

340. That patra who clearly articulates the very syllables of vocal and instrumental 
music with dispositions of the limbs, delicate and charming tempi and excellent 
talas 

341-342ab. who makes visible the sounds of song and instruments through her 
body (movements), carries limbs like flowers, replete with rasa and possesses high 
maturity in composing the various parts of dance—these are opined by experts to 
be the qualifications of patra. 

342cd. Opposite of these, individually or collectively, is [said to be] fault. 

343ab. Both merits and faults in the patra should be examined if the dance is to 
be successful. 


17. REKHA (BODYOUTLINE) 

343cd-344ab. That setting of the body in which the parts such as head y eyes, hand 
etc. are combined (aesthetically) so as to steal away the heart, is described as rekha. 

18. LASYANGAS 

344cd. Wonderful performance of dancing with all parts of the body is here 
defined as lasyahga. 

345-346ab. Cali , calivata , ladhi, cuka , urohgana, dhasaka, ahgahara, oyara, vihasi , 
i tanas —these ten are known as desi lasyahgas by experts in desi (dance). 

346cd-348a. Simultaneous movement of foot, thigh, hip and arms gently, 
charmingly, sweetly, set to tala , neither too fast nor too slow, and profusely in tryasra 
formation is calx (1). 

348ab. The same, performed quickly and largely to the front is calivata (2). 


TCC 337abcd 338abcd 339abcd 340abcd 341acd 342cd 343abcd 343abcd 344ab 345abcd 346abcd 
MTabcd 348ab 

7 330cd-342 343d 343cd-344ab 344cd-354 346cd 






104 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


^<JHK fcR&ft P^RH^* ^ ^ II ^6 II 
^/IHd*>Pi«ll^Hi -dldd TIT ^Tpc( 3 )‘4 cTI I 
chuf%fc|s^d dU#1dldd'«T4t: II W II 
fa faciei ^4) ('tf) dW^idd^ I 
f4ci t «HiP=icri*4 T i : II || 

didd •cilclH Rl4^ d^l: ^(A) I 
«IW: (O ■ydPdd TcFTT^T^JTcT^ Wftt{ II 3^ II 
mm cdfcdch^dl ^rcn^^PTT^Vrd: I 

O) vm, ^RcFffcT cptPfcr^ II ^ II 



^ifd^T: ‘SIr*WR%*rT^ I 



TFtcTT^PTcT: 


(^o) m\ II W II 


W. ■HladM s 


di^ni m ^kraf^R: wi i 
■?T: Trg>r?t m w <c r4^ h 3<Va h 
^siHpcI^H' PHN uu i cq-qcdP^T I 

W ^Pc|<l4^ PddlP4dlPH3 II ^ II 
dlddl^flHl4]4 ^dP^ldchdm=hH, I 




^T'qrf^t trft f|^T: #MlPcm^d: II ^ II 
TO^FTT^TT^T ^T I 

TTftS^ dd^l ^TT^%feT: ddddlddl II ^\6 II 






























































TRANSLATION 


105 


348cd-349ab. Simultaneous movement of hips and arms which is tender, ob¬ 
lique, and is gracefully aesthetic is opined to be ladhi (3). 

349cd-350ab. Movement of the ears, facile and bejewelled, slow or fast, full of 
bhava (expression of erotic sentiment with eyes and eyebrows) is cuka (4). 

350cd-351ab. Moving of breasts, shoulders and head obliquely with grace slowly 
or quickly is pronounced by experts to be urohganam (5). 

35 led. Dhasaka (6) consists of moving the breasts downwards rhythmically and 
with grace. 

352. Bending [the upper and lower] half of the body alternatively (gradually?) 
with grace like a bow, set to tala is ahgahara (7). So it is declared by Bharata. 

353ab. Slightly oblique, downward movement of the head is opined to be oyaraka 

( 8 ). 

353cd-354ab. Smile, which is ardent with erotic sentiment, effortless, very' subtle 
in a spontaneous pose is vihasi (9). 

354cd. That [movement] which is in rhythm with the sthdya which occurs in the 
song is opined to be manas (10). 


19. SAUSTHAVA 

355-356ab. Wherein hips, knees, elbows, shoulders, and head are in sama 
natural) pose, chest is raised and the body is sanna, it is sausthava. Sauna means 
body) resting in a natural position (whereas) nisanna is a motionless state [of the 
body']. 


20. CITRAKALASA 

356cd-357ab. Wherein the danseuse holds a pose, as if painted in a picture at the 
end of a section in dance to the [continued] accompaniment of tala and accompa- 
nving instruments, it is citrakalasa. 


21. MUDRA 

357cd-358. A natural posture of the body imbued with special splendour 
[of] matta and hidta, held according to sampradaya (orchestra? tradition?) and 
iminates the heart is mudra. Here matta is talasancw, hidita is merrying [conceal- 
~ent] in time [ tala ?]. 


M8cd 349abcd 350abcd 35 1 abed 353abcd 353abcd 354abcd 355abcd 356ab 
: T ! 44cd-354 352cd 353b 355-356ab 356cd-357ab 357cd-358 358d 358c 






106 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


w^i jjldoii^i«rt wfu i 
P^FR^HPh^H 7TF W II ^ II 


33- tn^Hi'Hc;: yfneju^l rT 


?T®F^t5f^«TH?T: HHMKdfcMI«l: I 

dPddI^Pd drf^HI-kil 4 Pd =b ^ cblfcKI: || 3^0 || 
3TOSTFftfrgR: WTc^Pfe: | 
F^ldP=l*ldia <dlpHdl Hc^<P^<: II W II 
^TFiTeff^lTW HPTT^TT^Tf^f^TT: I 


jpil^-d^T ^ ^^dlcWH II ^ II 
Hlc^l^-Hi MW F«fT ^Ilfdl^ciH^ I 
^-qi^iRichlPdc^i II 3^3 II 



^fcT UH=bdl ^ ^TFT^ dlP<d)^il: II W || 

^ ftr«T: yRiqifc'il I 

TrfTO fOTT cfd fwft II II 


W^frT: 


s J^TTt <J ff^: ^Hi^Py'Mqi^ chlfcPc^Tlc^H: I 

(%F?)PcWK<: II W II 


RHRdi>ll4-dPddHR^Rl ^l^llP^d: I 
F“frTHM$:<)ldl ^#RFff^^FTf^ II 3^V9 II 
RdMidl fqiftpg: #nf^chr=NKf^d, 1 




II W II 


wft?£ ^T^rrrfcT: I 






















































TRANSLATION 


107 


22. PRAMANA 

359. Pramana (generally) means evenness [or parallelism] with song and 
instrumental music. But (here) it is homogeneity with rules for [placing] the hands 
in [various] body areas. 

23. SABHASADA (SPECTATOR); VADI (CONTESTANT) AND PRATIVADI (OPPONENT) 

360. Cognoscente in grammar, prosody and lexicons, learned in various sastras , 
knowledgeable in what is faulty and not faulty, experts in instrumental music and 
dancing, 

361. preventers of the false (or wrong) arguments, knowers of proper and 
improper [dance] acts, non-partisans, orators, unenvious. 

362ab-362cd. discerners of the [appropriate] place and time (or knowledgeable 
in regions and times), proficient in various languages, adepts in the [special 
knowledge of] the course (or boundary) of a dispute—such are audience. 

362ef-363. Important qualities and characteristics [of th epatra] , politenesaswell 
as suggestive speech, knowledge of the rules (procedures) of the [various] parts of 
natya, compliance with sastra (prescriptions), cunning < kautilya > in following the 
orchestra, capacity for intuitive, innovative flashes, 

364. Capacity to equal the contender in representing one’s own art (skill) when 
the contender’s art excels—these seven arise in an art contest between two 
contenders. 

365. If they are of equal quality then they are mutually prativadins. However, 
whosoever, between them has higher trirekha(}) he becomes the winner. 

24. SABHAPATI (PRESIDENT OF ASSEMBLY) 

366. Well dressed (and ornamented), generous in gifts, aristocrat, pleasant 
sooken, longing for fame, intelligent, one who understands the minds of others, 
^iept in song, instrumentation and dancing, 

367. full in the knowledge of the specialities (science?) of all the sastras , capable 
: mental retention, skilled in [creating? displaying?] a serious mood, knower of the 

vision [of art] into marga and desi. 

368. Upholder (defender) of the truth, ocean of mercy, discerner of deficiency 
and excess, unenvious, of high descent, capable of controlling attendants, 

369ab. excellent practitioner of dharrna , fearful of sinning, friend of the learned, 
«jch is (=should be) president of the assembly. 


TCC 365abd 368c 
OT 362a 366-369ab 368ab 





108 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


^ItlRlclyi: 

TT? fwrcn TT^TR^TTHt^T: ^W^\: II W 
cTR tewt I cTFT 'f^T: I 

f^TH: =b<=MWW II ^>° I 
^Mc*«=lf=R«rPt 3 tew MpRU^dH I 

Tjtet 1 mR^K+I: II W II 
te RTRwter wfRw^cn: i 
W+£W^ u Ic^kM u MHHHUI: II W II 
3te cfFrwn c| teteteK^I: I 
^ftecT: te teRR: fate: II 3^3 II 
^IPdPcfa) c|p<>jHiw^^RI: I 
tete: M: ^ffatefa II ^ I 


3V 

^urtsft Rcwfr wftepri RcpR^ ii 

^'O^dH'HM ^ cijtihH, I 

-qvm ^JT^teWT RJcTR; II ^ II 
^RT^f%teFT d^dldl^qcl'in, I 
te^PHdPdcjfe : ftenteteRT II ^ II 
SfcRH ^ffa TJ^: teT N< J JW: I 
^RT^TTR W^T R te tePTTSFI^ II W II 
^dld-d^Pd^ <W°4 R RRfa^fR: I 


^V3. ^T; 
i. 


3T? fate^tefa II W II 



















































TRANSLATION 


109 


25. SABHASANNIVESA (SEATING OF THE ASSEMBLY) 

369cd. Therein (in the assembly) is seated the president of the assembly on an 
attractive throne (lit. lion seat). 

370. His good minister [is seated] to his right; at his back, the treasurer; scholars 
and poets. 

371. To the left of the king (= president of the assembly) [is situated] the circle 
of his friends. To the rear right of the king, his attendants. 

372. On [his rear] left are damsels of great beauty and youth, bearing fly whisks 
who, with the jingling sounds of their bangles transport the minds of people to the 
highest bliss. 

373-374ab. To the left front are [seated] mature music composers; to the right 
front of the king [are placed] practical exponents of music (and dance) and 
pleasant conversationalists, medical doctors, astrologers, panegyrists—all together. 

374c. Such is the seating arrangement of the [dance-] assembly. 

26. VRNDA (ORCHESTRA) 

374d-376ab. Now music will be described: An orchestra in which there are eight 
excellent singers, four cymbal players, four mrdahga players and four flautists 
besides the mukhari, is superior. 

376cd. [An orchestra with] half of this [strength] is middling; half [again of] this 
is declared to be inferior. 

377-378ab. Synchronisation is the main theme, [close] following in tempo and 
idla , managing to cover the lacuna (discontinuity) among each other, aesthetic 
appeal in all three registers, intense attentiveness—these are [prescribed as] the six 
qualities of the orchestra. 

378cd-379ab. Singing, instrumentation and dancing (though) abodes of various 
differing themes and nature) should be presented (in a seemingly continuous 
whole) like the (revolving) burning torch by the performers. 

27. VAMSA (FLUTE) 
i. Variety of Flutes 

379cd. I shall briefly elucidate, in this connection, the characteristics of the flute. 


TCC 371d 374d 379cd 

C OT 372d 373d 375-379ab 377ab-378 379a 379cd-417ab 




NARTANANIRNAYA 


^Tcf: Tsflf^t <?RT§TKdT ilrb^KH: l 
3 TFTO: fNt ^T: || 360 || 

^?fd: WT: $TS°Tt TlWld^P^d: I 
^THT^M^IR t\% ^ ^fqr ^SRp II II 
wMhhM ^ 'HHI^rd'HH’dd: I 
cTR i dl^dlPd f?R:RTdTcp II 3^ II 

cW*T ^c+K^Pll chl 4 H^d^P^HdH, I 
N^dM< ^rp II II 
3 ^R|c 1 KKiPm ^RJFTCRTTRt "HH ^ I 
ctto ^l^ld^-wiPd II 3^ II 
4 #?«r: MP^S^d^ I 

cpf mR¥P m T^nfoT II 3 <^\ II 
Hl^dlH^dfd Pd^HIdiyH ^p I 
T^TOfWT ^ *p3^RT: II II 
WsRfaift "^4: ^<91^ fH J l^lrl I 
^TFT ^RJ^T dT^JFT ^fcR(T:?) II 3^ II 
U,^=hl^d^4( :)WI<^5?I ^ *tesjdkp I 
^S^Ii^di&^fl^cieisRpp II 366 II 
Tjft: flHI^d) ^T T^RTTU ^ftcp I 
d^yi^-d: im: -dTsR^ ddl^d: II 36 % II 
d^ll^d) HSH^l W^K^d: I 
ST^IT|d STlt^Tt TT^TiJ^T: II || 
^RdliilS^TCt cp?Tt Pd^ld-I^d^: f^cT: I 

ii. ■WildPd: 

3 T%HHI^UMcp^ft ^SJM WdH, II II 
dlH<WHlPH=hl^c-MI ^Tt TT«WTT I 
^f'cf: RTRp y|p>MI W*m 1% ^PFT: II W II 










































































TRANSLATION 


111 


380. Flute is [made] from bamboo, acacia (catechu), ivory, sandal wood, red 
sandal, steel, bronze, silver or gold. 

381-382ab. It should be circular, straight, smooth, free from knots, split and 
wound. A hole, as wide as [the width of] the little finger is made in the interior 
throughout its own length of the same contours. 

382cd-383ab. An embouchure, measuring one ahgula should be made, leaving 
two, three or four ahgulas from the position of the head. 

383cd. The tararandhra (high register-hole) is [made] six ahgulas distant from 
the mukharandhra. 

384. There are seven other holes at intervals of Y\Ai-ahgula\ they are declared to 
look like the jujube seed [in size and shape]. 

385. [A length of] two ahgulas remains [at the end] apart from all the holes made 
in the flute. Among them [only] seven holes are considered fit for [i.e. division into 
[i.e. regionalising of] the seven notes. 

386. There is an eighth [hole] for the exit of the sound-generating air. The air, 
produced by blowing, fills [the flute] through the mukharandhra. 

387ab. Sanmukha etc. flutes are defined from the [selfsame] nine holes. 

387cd-388. By increasing one ahgula progressively from six ahgulas onwards in 
the interval between mukharandhra and nada (=tara) randhra , eight other [flutes] 
accrue. Such progressive increment by one ahgula may be made up to twentyfour 
ahgulas. 

389. Flute with seven ahgulas [between mukharandhra and tararandhra ] is called 
muni. Eight ahgula [interval]-flute is said to be vasu ; nine ahgula- flute is ndthendra. 

390. Ten ahgula [-flute] is mahananda\ eleven ahgula [-flute] is rudra. Twelve 
ahgula [-flute] is aditya ; fourteen [ahgula flute] is manu. 

391ab. Another flute named murati has twenty ahgulas [interval between 
mukharandhra and tararandhra]. 

ii. Svarotpatti (Generation ofSvaras) 

391cd-393a. Placing both hands on the flute in ardhacandra and sarpasiras 
respectively, sadja is produced with the left ring finger; with the (left) mid-finger is 
produced] rsabha ; with the forefinger, gandhara ; thus three svaras are produced 
with the left [hand]. 


7C C 380abed 381 abed 382abcd 383abcd 384abcd 385abcd 386abcd 387abcd 388abcd 389cd 391 abed 

392abcd 

OT 379a 379-417ab 383cd 388a-390d 






112 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


•R: WI: RTFRT dc^lKl ^f^TT^sFTT^ I 
chfHCT WR: RT<p WTtSRRT RT: II TO II 
^cRT: RPTRRT fdWHp I 

RFTRR PdRPdW RfRRRSJT W[: II TO II 
RJP^T <Pddlcp ^r c hKl'^R'Hd^> I 

^ll(URRdlPdd: RR || TO II 
RRT ^sW‘4Vltf|£ I 

cT dl<d!>l<*>k ^ ilMRMSTct ^HT: II TO II 
RT 'M&l^ RRTT Pg^ll ^p I 
TRR WTT: II TO II 

iii. ^FTcFT: 

d1?ild1sidi|l RTt: ?fhRRT^RcT: I 
^ II ^ IIRf dlMRNRI<p R^: II TO II 
jW+i T^sfq w HHIRpIddH I 
chPRdl ^fdcTT "J^T Pd4lP4dl II TO II 
Rt ?Tft: TTtrfjT W Tjshgftf^: I 
3 TTOR =RTR doHdld^PRdl ( * ) RT II ^oo || 

^t%cp^chP<Phr4 ^rtt( 3 )sjfcwMHH, i 
T^ 5 p^dl^d 1 *i% grBT (^) RJ-^TbSIKt^ 11 11 

3T«fg%54itfjT (*) RT^^d^l<f^«nM’ I 
■HH'dlcp R^TRlf^T f^^NI^PdP^f^T II'tfo^ || 

^T 1 pR^ d4w<l *RT PWlP^dl (<0 I 

iv. ’^c=hK J J u l<|t)l: 

cj^|cjlu||^iPKipu| ^Tt 5 Tft R<*?dd: II TO || 
dfcrftTt R«£: ^i: I 


- 



























































TRANSLATION 


113 


393b-394ab. Four [svaras are produced] with the right [hand] in [the following] 
order: with the little finger is [produced] madhyama\ pancama svara is with the right 
finger; dhaivata is [produced] with midfinger; with forefinger, nisada. 

394cd. Their origin in the three registers is described differently (in different 
registers). 

395. Svaras are produced in the flute in the middle register corresponding to 
those in the human voice by the blowing of a well trained [flautist]. 

396-397ab. [ Svaras ] of the tarn register are produced by pressing the mouth (i.e. 
lower lip) at the mukharandhra [while blowing]. Such mode of playing is mentioned 
as tipa by the people. A svara played thus at a given hole is doubled. 

397cd. By lightly touching the [ mukha] randhra with the mouth (i.e. lower lip) 
and repelling svaras of mandra [register are produced]. 

iii. Vamsagati (Modes of Playing) 

398-399ab. Expert flautists generate many (different) svaras at the same single 
hole by intensifying or slackening, speeding up or slowing down, completely filling 
or not filling, and by accumulating or decreasing the air. 

399cd-400ab. Previous authorities have declared the modes of flute playing as 
fivefold viz. kampita , valita , mukta, ardhamukta and nipidita. 

400cd. Kampita ( 1) is opined [to occur] by shaking the flute [placed] at the lower 

up. 

401. Moving of the turned fingers while producing sancari [varna\ is valita (2). 
Leaving open all the holes with all the fingers is mukta (3) which generates open 
note (of the flute). 

402ab. By half-closing [the hole with the finger], it is ardhamukta (4) which 
generates a firmly held sound. 

402cd-403ab. If the flute is blown by closing all the holes with the fingers, it is then 
pronounced by the experts to be nipidita (5). 

iv. Phutkara-guna-dosa (Merits and Demerits of Blowing) 

403cd. Flute, vina and the voice—these three are the generators of svaras. 

404ab. Among these the flute is preferred because its tone is graceful, sweet and 
smooth (unctuous). 


TCC 393abcd 394abcd 395abcd 396abcd 397abcd 398abcd 399abcd 400abcd 401abed 402abcd 
403abcd 404abcd 
COT 394d 




114 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


c|>|c|lu|^||(l<|U||^1^#T ^ ^T: II Xox II 

cfsg Tfef^rwf wm f^j*Tr f^: i 

IRJ cflTJTToqf^n ^kTT II Xo^ || 

eftuTItfH ^ddHIWd I 

fwm\ ^HcTT Tfrfjo^frF: FfCcTT II X<U || 
^TTf^T chlHd^' ^ HKI^uh cT«TT I • 

f^FTc^ *lM=bc=i ^TT^f TFt*FTcTT II Xo\3 II 

gr<9tfcl Tjnn: #FT: ^^TC4lftfd I 
cT3 ^KJ]u)^d^=hl<^|chdW^ II Xo*' || 
^TcTTSSf^cWd^H^ I 
^TFT ^SSJMcjRsRT: II Xo^, || 
WTFF I 

H: II X^o || 

(O^^MnyN: 41^ <pFFt (^) i 
dK^dd^l <+l=h^|<:^T^t(^)tcT^^ II XU II 
3TF7: ^^Kd^lfd ^S'(x) ^2Ri I 

^ ^«^5^5oq^«rcT: (^) || XU 

v. =iifei'*;| u i4Hi: 

^^•dl'HKUll^qrH: ^siR^f *J<Hldl I 
^JloilfTbHI^If'Cldl 4 J ll£dl 55TKT: || x^ II 
jfiddMd^ mpm ^Hdifadi i 
d^n^fFi TTFf^frFtj ^FTR: II XU II 
TFTt^fcT: FTURTI I 

eilfei+w ^pn4% ci^muTpT ii xu ii 

fiT^iy4)JHI^Uli|d^'J|rc|L|4i| : | 

^FTTf^ra^J 1W: ^xr rsjt || II 
d'lftl'+fd 3^IT: ^44d1dl:FRRT: I 









































































TRANSLATION 


115 


404cd-405ab. The tone which is produced by the fusing [together of the sounds] 
of flute, vinaand the voice into a single sound is regarded as the standard of special 
aesthetic appeal (in tone quality) by the learned. 

405cd-406ab. I have published [details of] the vina in the treatise Ragacandro- 
daya. Those good people who seek to acquire knowledge of the vina should study 
it there (alone). 

406cd. Unctuousness, compactness, manifestation of aesthetic appeal, pro¬ 
fusion (and richness) of sound. 

407-408ab. Voluptuousness <lalitco, tenderness (softness?), similarly resonance, 
range of three registers, audibility from afar, sweetness (=exquisite charm), intense 
attentiveness—these twelve are declared to be the merits of the sound [of the flute] 
and blowing. 

408cd-409ab. Here, these are eleven characteristics among the merits of the 
[flute] sound. In blowing, intensive attentiveness < avadhanatva > the twelfth 
merit-is the avoiding excessess and deficiency (of air). 

409cd-410ab. Bharata and others have said that the defects of blowing are five viz. 
kapila , tumbaki , kaki, sandasta and avyavasthita. 

410cd-41 la. A discordant sound (or no sound) which bursts forth from a phlegm 
afflicted mouth is kapila (1). 

411b. Blowing (with mouth blown up like the gourd lagenaria vulgaris —‘ tumba ) 
to generate a sound as if from a gourd is tumbaki (2). 

41 led. Crowing of a svara deficient in the tarn register is said to be kaki (3). 

412ab. Scant blowing as if from clenched teeth is said to be sandasta (4). 

412cd. Deficient and excessive (in producing svaras) and harsh in both is said to 
be avyavasthita (5). 

v. Vamsika-guna-dosa (Merits and Defects of Flautist) 

413. Thoroughly practised in (the various kinds of) movement of fingers, 
excellent sense of pitch, feeling < ragata> , explicit expression and exquisite beauty 

< madhurya> in ragas, speed and slowness [in executing notes in the ascent and in 
the descent], 

414. Efficiency in singing and instrumental playing, providing reference pitch 

< sthana > to the singer, concealing singer’s defects, skill in [the performance of 
both] marga ragas and desi ragas. 

415abc. Ability to manifest raga not only in its [four] svasthanas but also in other 
[unconventional] positions, self-confidence—these are the flautist’s merits. 

415d-417ab. His defects also are described [now]: profusion of contrary (or 
wrong) usages, opposite of the above merits, not obtaining the desired pitch, 
shaking of head—these are defects in the flautist which should be consciously 
avoided. 


TCC 404cd 405ab 406cd 407abcd 408abcd 409abcd 410abcd 411abcd 4I2abcd 413abcd 414abcd 
415abcd 416abcd 417ab COT 410b 414b 417-422 




116 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


?6. 


j: to tot II^V9 II 

tfto ^ tcfS^cT: UIHIdltol: I 
TORT Hldto ^ ^TSci^dHH^I: II *16 II 
tow ^rtog: W«f W M: I 
^d>HH'dd&Rto ^TfcT II *\% II 
tot tot cTSfq ftoto to I 
Hl^cbl^fHHmia WTtotoil^ II ^o || 
tof to oiiun^ltiHlii I 

^T^d4]ijuY4wJi Ic^T ds^Hlfa^ II *v, II 



sl'tidi’jjri , 3iPt«i»t< , jTi ^ 

to <t? to to toton?^ i 
JlrMrftfaq^J ^rto fcPjto ir*^ II 
toto I 

f^toRfltofw spfTSfa^im: II w II 

cm: todf «l ^FF \: I 

MWif tor^Rto^TRR: II II 
«rto *TTcFT: to pqto ^ I 

Seijis Rto 11 w N 


?o. 3<jHlfa: 


i. |J«fl$lfa: 


3^5f 3 1^<^‘* 'dllciKiq^li J llci: I 

3 ^tofftfci to t to : W n 
















































TRANSLATION 


117 


28. RANGAPRAVESA (ENTREE) 

417cd-418ab. When the leader [of the assembly] together with musicians, 
scholars and spectators is seated [in the auditorium], the members of the orchestra 
enter the stage and take seats. 

418cd-419ab. Having tuned their instruments in unison with attentive mind, they 
should play melapaka and then the instrumental composition gajara. 

419cd-421cd. When, at the end of tuduka (instrumental composition) the 
curtain < antardhana> is being removed, the dancer or danseuse should enter the 
stage after performing obeisance to the Guardians of the quarters, Brahma, Siva 
[Vibhu], Mother Goddesses, the sages, Nagas, Yaksas, Gandharvas, Kinnaras, 
Ganesa, Bharata (muni), Tandu, LaksmI, Sarasvati, Usa, seniors in age and merit 
and Visnu, 

422. The stage < rahga> is defined to be at the centre of dance pavilion, circular, 
[in an area bounded by] seven hastas (each way). 

29. BANDHA AND ANIBANDHA DANCE 

423-424a. There [on such a stage] should be performed two kinds of dance viz. 
bandha and anibandha. That which is regulated by rules of gati etc. is said to be 
bandhaka dance. On the other hand anibandha is [performed] without abhinaya 
(such) rules. 

424bcd. The list [of items of bandha dance] is as follows: mukhacati , urupas, 
dhvada, bidulagas , 

425. Next sabdacali, various sabdaprabandhas, svaramantha etc. gttaprabandhas , 
kinds of cindu. 

426. Kinds of dharu , then some dhruvapadas —thus bandhaka [items are] listed. 
Their characteristics will now be elucidated. 

30. MUKHACALl 
i. Puspahjali (Flower Offering) 

427. Mukha [here] means puruarahga (prelude, overture); catii means movement 
which follows it. Mukhacati is so defined by ancient authorities who were dance 
experts. 


TCC 417c 418a 419cd 421c 422a 423a 425c 426c 
COT 417-422 419abd 420-421 422cd 423cd 427abc 





118 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


^ i 

^^o^ghHdt ^ ^llsrfd II W II 
3TTm: ^W^TPTT m)s*JcI T-WT I 
^ 7j? : WT ^Fl f$T^ II W II 

TT^t <J W W#«rfW: I 
fST«f f^TcT '^'TRtajat T^ rT T« 3 TcT:ll II. 

■JRT: W^Tt ^TT ^RTT I 

■qj^f f^pt4 ^Tc^T *hi*iqUH 41^^ II *3^ II 

Jwm W d l ddflRw^ II *33 II 
3nf^TO^Rn«ri w^ wwi i 
Ji<dfWM<f d^W<=i4f fddlR:ll *33 II 
^ ^T cm: I 

^r°id ra 'fR R II *3* II 

H^lldd-dd^H^'i^qi^d^ ^iddH, II *3S II 
3T«R5r^ L h u ll c bKi ^crJHI^Hirq^: I 
o*||c|fM ddl^k^f ^TR. shlHdl 11*35 H 

*m^fgfwRi ^ ^^Tb^r«idl i 

TJ\i cK^I^I 9l^Rl II *3^ II 

dd^H^yR I 

dxWI’Wldf&BmasiHid, II *3^ II 



STjFIPTWWItfr^ 6*d^l y^lful 11*3^ II 


d<i4Hd<ld dldHI^dlM: I 
<HlldNI3 I TT oiixb^KIdNI^'Hin.'jfl^ II X^o || 




























































TRANSITION 


119 


428. Dancing in the quarters candra(l) tri (3) netra (2) vara (7) asta (8) veddnga 
(6) sara (5) [in this order] progressing to one’s right, flowers should be placed at 
the centre. 

429. If placed at the front, the king is afflicted; to the right, audience; behind, the 
teacher; if to the left, one’s own self. [Therefore the flowers] should be placed 
inside the rahgapltha. 

430. [For,] Brahma himself dwells at the middle of the rahga pltha ; offering 
flowers at the middle of the stage fulfils one’s desires. 

431. [While dancing on the stage] where the foot goes, there (i.e. in that 
direction) the hand; where the hand, there[turns] the hip joint. Knowing the 
[nature of] foot movement, the remaining parts of the body should be accordingly 
harmonised. 

432. For the sake of entertainment ingane-angane which are synonyms for ‘hither- 
thither’ should be uttered [at a pace] proper to the tala and laya [used in the 
dance]. 

433. The excellent dancer should move three steps to the front [from centre 
stage] with aviddhavaktra hands, samapada ran with grace. 

434. Then in candra (direction?) ardhacandra (hand?), Una [ karana ] is executed 
followed by samanakha [karana ] with slow, beautiful and graceful, oblique move¬ 
ment. 

435-436ab. Then what is called sulu should be performed on both sides again and 
again. The wise ones define sulu as the [gentle] swaying movement of the body 
[parts] like the flame of a lamp in a zephyr or of the hood of a snake, again and 
again. 

436cd-438ab. Both hands, assuming lata pose, move outward from the chest 
simultaneously, turning outward and become dvisikhara hastas [at the end]; feet 
touch [each other] and bent. The body moves lower and lower accordingly at the 
[same time]; atttaining talasanca [posture], turning movement of sulu is executed. 

438cd-439ab. Position of the waist two, three and four talas above the ground is 
described by the learned as talasanca, madhyasanca and urdhvasanca respectively. 

439cd-440ab. The interval between the tips of the stretched thumb and mid- 
finger of a hand is defined by the intelligent as tala. 

440cd-441ab. Movement (of a sulu) should always be made such that it follows the 
[accompanying] dlapana of the rdga and the dlapand of clearly articulated sounds 
and is attractive to the audience. 


TCC 431d 432cd 433a 433c 434d 436d 439a 
COT 428 428-429 432ab 433-462ab 435a 





120 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


% 

WIT T TT^T5i4cl<n'H<: IIII 

3T*KddMdl^3T ®lly^iRd: I 

II II 

cTclig Wfl^R <*)R$*dd: I 

^f^ISK'J|fdfmRH b 5b u l II II 

■^c^IdH^ cT5 cT^R '^fafed’d I 
cRR^ WTCT#T -HHUJi^d, II Wtf II 

^fcr^ wf w( ^^rfq I 
dd-kld^ M^ri R Wlf ^Rddidl <T*1T II W\ H 
t^mrara ^4*r*R ww. i 

WT fK^I WFRi ^q-^ii^-qind^ II ll 

WfTcfr I 

cTcT: UrtH WhHm^ II W3 II 

WWFWFR <R ^jjjjfK?H4» <T*TT I 
=hP<s?*dd>d T Wlf TH^P^ddR^ ^ II H 
3if5^T WR WTW^ I 

WI'H^ddl eft R cR^fWRT II H 
■q]^( mftuf ?)\pc|d c h cR 'Jii^P^iaqi cT^TT I 
TprwRWRT ddlSW ^keFTT ll*V> II 
efFTt ^«TTf?«ricT: ddid><: I 

^^cffsclf^ W cR w;: II W II 

dd*dd^<s n*3T R RFlf wRd+^H <WT I 
’HHHt folHi'HiEl WIT ( ? WTT) Ji'mIt], *=<lHd: II II 
P^dld l d i R I 

cR^FT ^ddi^RSINtej^Pd$)>R: II W II 
Wllsb^ u I •Hd«iiH£iHi T^Ff^RT: I 
^T ^fTfeW«TT Wlf H<l<rPTT II *V* II 
^Rpf Rwnwia <r wii R H«sdH, i 
^ rf^Ri <nr ^rtPt y^icidd ii ii 






































































TRANSLATION 


121 


* 

441cd-442. Recaka movement of the head, eyes, hands and feet should be 
executed simultaneously with sdrikd cari during which the left foot is sulu and 
agratalasancara, [and the right] hand holding a pataka pointing downward wherein 
the arm is stretched. 

443. Next, in madhyasanca, with utsyandd [cdri\ and karihasta [karana ], the left 
foot moves thence to svastika formation. 

444-445ab. There [in the svastika ] sulu movement and nupuraviddhika [karana] 
are performed and then, from talasanca position the caturasra [sthdnaka] is at¬ 
tained. Here also sulu should be executed with caturasra handposes. 

445cd-446. Next, reaching the third quarter with talamukha [samyuta hastas], 
a <utika-cari and executing urdhvasanca sama (=samapdda cari? sama kati ?) to the left 
' 4e. followed by samanakha [karana] limbs should be moved as before (in sulu). 

447. In that position vaisakha [karana) is performed, with arms stretched 
biiquely. Then, with kuRrikd cari the second quarter is reached. 

448- 449ab. Here, suluvartand (turning in sulu) is performed in mandala sthdnaka. 
Vbdstage should be reached with karihasta can and karihasta [pose] in the left hand, 
ir.d then with udvestita cari from the left. 

449- 45lab. Facing the audience now, both hands engaged in their respective, 
ic propnate movements, pdrsva [parsm?] recita can and bent knee as well as mandala 
cviriaare performed with latahasta poses; similarly, sulu [is now executed]. The left 
hand is left as it is and the right hand assumes lata hasta pose. 

4d led. Just as the body gradually rises upward, the hand is also raised upward 
c: rrespondingly]. 

452. Then, with talamukha [samyuta hastas ] and svastika can the seventh quarter 
> “cached, sama [samapada can?] is executed on the left side. 

453-454ab. Whatever the procedure [is prescribed] for the second and third 
: -triers from midstage, the same, with specific can and'body disposition should be 
med b\ the cognoscente of principles of, for the seventh and eight quarters 
~:«n midstage. 

454cd-455. Dancing with dviddha vaktra [hastas], mardld cari, the fourth quarter 

r - "“d and vianduUi sthdnaka is held; thcre,ya??/7a karana is performed; next, sulu 
siist ?et in motion. 


—- - +-t6c 447a 448bd 449cd 45lad 452d 453d-455a 454d 455d 
COT OM62ab 






N ART AN AN IRN A YA 


'gfe: I 

f^RTT^faFlf II W II 

TRjf t^t yHMc3 ycMicilci^-qiciHH, I 

cT%^ ^ faysh) u ff II II 

cmt5?ftf^RTT'«Tt ^ ^fPrf fcF^UWfT I 

M^I-hT 'SJcrJ s ^H'ld II II 

^Ef#T cflq J-J^idld Hldd: I 
cTdts^fd^t fK^T II >M II 

c^ TJ5 3#t lc3fT ^qpqf WU cT^TT I 
Tf WIHi^FT ^rfssjrffeqT #T II ^o || 
dd^3Z f^fT 5^1^ ^ I 

qoqumoq fl: •q^OT^f?I s 9t)HiPc;Pd II II 
^131 fei d^Pn^i fSFftp I 


ii. T H'dl^l c Mpi T 1'M • 

WFTTf^p II W II 
Tf^n-q^TT ^TI^^PTt ^WTT I 

^^•l < ^d’^'H^ : ld , H^ : l*j ( PddHH'HI 11^311 
i. WTT— ^Pld^HId'd Hdl^H 


11 . 


111 . 


IV. 


V. 


VI. 


Vll. 


Vlll. 


IX. 


S£n^—'stfeTiql^sHIcR Mdl^H 

wft— 

qq—ddlidd^l^ 

fT—f^qTTcfEf^ui 

^P-dd^^ldcH PlHai^H 
-tjf^— qrrs «trtt^4IP^( fc«r ?) cR ^frtcTO^t 


X. 



























































TRANSLATION 


123 


456-457ab. Khataka [mukha hasta ] in the/ight [hand] at the ear, musti [hasta] in 
the left hand at own side, the body is bent like a bow; with sthitavarta can and 
tiryanmukha can , the sixth quarter is reached and the body is posed into pratyalidha 
[sthanaka]. 

457cd. In this very position the caturasra [sthanaka] and viprakirna [hasta] are 
executed in sulu. 

458. Next, the fifth quarter is reached with ardharecita [hastas] and tiryanmukha 
can , followed by sulu and samanakha \karana]. 

459-460a. In this very position, suddhacali is performed for th pata (jati) ‘ kukuh - 
rem\ next, the hands are formed into ahjali held over the head, mouth and heart, 
doing obeisance to god, teacher and sage [respectively] in katara can. 

460ab-462ab. Then midstage is reached with adhyardhika can in sama [to the 
front?], talapuspaputa [karana] is executed, flowers are gathered [into hands], the 
flowers in ahjali [hastas] are shown to the left, right, back, front and above in [this] 
order and then placed in the rahgapitha. 

462cd. There itself, abhinaya is performed to [the following] benedictory sloka, 
set to a good raga , thus— 

ii. Nandi-sloka bhinaya (Dance to benedictory Verse) 

463. bhavatam bhutaye bhuyad bhavani bhavavallabha I 
ahgtkrta-susahgita bhahgi-mudita manasa II 

May Bhavani, beloved of Bhava (=Lord Siva) whose heart is delighted with the 
excellent music which is [transited into] Her body postures [for, She is the left side 
>f Siva, the Ardhanarisvara] be benevolent for your prosperity. 

i. bhavatam—with pataka moving to the front 

ii. bhutaye— with alapallavas raised upward in the front 

iii. bhuyat—with downward pataka in the act of surrounding 

iv. bhavani —with gomukha-hastas facing each other at left breast and thigh 

v. bhava—wth sucyasya-hasta at forehead 

\i. vallabha—with catura-hasto at chest 

\ii. angikrta—with kapota-hastas at mouth 

\iii. susanglta—with hamsasya-hasta in the region of mouth 

ix. bhangi—with tripataka hasta shaking at the front 

x. mudita— with alapallava-hasta of left hand at the front raised upward from 
below. 


-'7d 459b 461b 463b 463 pr. (ix. x) 
DOT 433-462ab 462cd 463 




124 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


xi. HI-R7T—$c^lcH 

ddKl^d qT^UiJd: shHI<t I 

d)HddeilPdd>iqT^ cRT: II W* II 

iii. ( dcild^ 

TTRjff *rmf M ^dldi iff! cT«TT I 

wttM^ ii ii 

ghHlTl^i: dHIdNI^Kd: I 
Tffifcjft TTfw^T^rt -wR<i«t>1 T pT: 11*^ II 

H u Sei'qpHd1 f^Tgt OHldl chHciq^dl I 

^WT^R^Tftfa ll*^V9 II 

dP^d>d l dn O fc^sfcT: sFRcj; II ^6 II 
J^^Pddl ^ ' I TFJTt( 5» )^JR*i cRT: I 
‘ HIHHlPdRdld ^ ^RTI^T H^dlffd: II W II 
yo^myoijifiWfsfc^qi 'qR^t (3) fTpT: I 
I( ?f)^:f^«fcfWpTt W RRfd II ^9o || 

(3) TTfa: I 

wn #30 f^n mm ^rar^^rq; n n 

■qszf ^ dPd^Tbl O) I 

RteT^rt Wtft jfld^Pd^ II ^ II 

3W 1 teftRf^ : HT.'Fft u ft (<0 J I Pd Often I 

HKIdf R ^<^eqi II II 

TRq^l^lqqi ^5: cpfxRn ftfaftt (O T TfrT: I 
■gqq^^fRTT^qsrwit: uiPdH^d^ n 11 
Hd^gsid^H dOgsdl (^) dfdORdi I 
PdMdl^O ^cdl ?flyd: II II 

wusift^n 3wftt (<0 t tPt: i 












































































TRANSLATION 


125 


xi. manasa—with sandamsa-hasta of right hand at the chest turning outward. 

464. Then, in the selfsame position-kamalavartanika is performed first, and then 
makaravartanika at the sides and the front, in order. 

iii. Gatis and Vartanikas 

465-466ab. [Next?] experts should show, in conformity with tradition, [the 
following gaits] in order: mayuri, bhanavl, mainvl, hayaRla, mrgi, harhsl, kukkutl, 
ikhahjanl and gajagdmini. 

466cd. Both hands in pataka [pose] loosely crossed at the wrists in svastika and 
then, [separated but] touching each other, rotated circularly, are renowned as 
kamalavartana. 

467cd-468ab. When makarahasta turns round inwards from outside and from the 
front to the sides, it is makaravartana. 

468cd-469ab. If hands are shaped like a feather in the tail of a peacock [and 
moved] upwards regularly and the feet are moved slowly one after the other, it is 
mayuri (1) (peacock-like) gati. 

469cd-470ab. If the pace of the sun is shown with imperceptible (or just 
perceptible) circular movement of hands from the left to the right in upward 
motion, it is bhanavl (2) (‘sunlike’) gati. 

470cd-471ab. Just as the fish pathina (siluris pleoris boalis) moves in the waves on 
both sides in deepwater, with similar acts is [formed] mainavl (3) (‘fish- like’). 

471cd-472ab. Wherein, standing on the sides of the feet, [the dancer] moves 
quickly on the ground, stopping [again and again] in the middle, such gati is said 
to be turahginl (4) (‘horse-like’). 

472cd-473ab. If the danseus glances with trembling eyes like a deer, and listens 
to the song [of the orchestra], then it is said to be harini (5) (‘deer-like’) gati. 

473cd-473ab. Stepping forward in the gait of the swan with appropriate bhava 
and hava with erotically-exciting glances, it is declared to be hamsini (6) (‘swan¬ 
like’) gati. 

474cd-475ab. Wherein [there is] hopping simultaneously on the sides of both 
feet like a sex-inebriated cock in oblique [crooked] circles, it is kaukkutl (7) (‘cock¬ 
like’) gati. 

475cd-476ab. Making both hands tripataka, bending both knees, [if the danseus] 
moves quickly, stopping [frequently] it is khahjani (8) (‘wagtail like) gati (limping 
gait). 


TCC 463 pr. (xi) 464cd 469ac 470d 472a 473cd 474d 475bd 

COT 465-480 468-469ab 469cd-470ab 470cd-471ab 471cd-472ab 472cd-473ab 473cd-474ab 474cd- 
4~3ab 473-476ab 




126 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


WM& ^ ^ Wi II II 

TORT dl^ry^ddd1dl(<0J|Pd4dl I 
R#TT Ul^dd ^5^TWf: II *^3 II 
cRTTst WTTOTft TOT^ | 

^sHd y^iidU ^ ii wc ii 

f^f'iTdl cHH^'P^sHI I 

W7T$ ^ TOfftd: II ^ II 
fad+dw^b <r? ^ i 

3 ^. ^miPui 

4lddldd^H4Kl*WlcH4> II ^o || 

«$: ST^Tsfrf^ I 

Wl¥<aII II 

^ dld^M ^T I 

<p(cp3?) ^ TO ^Rfft FfcjdlH*^ II W II 
6K$lPd fHItedldl 378T ^ui^cl 4 

i. Wtft: 

t^rfMq '{l-Hdldf^RT RRJ: II II 

T«R#^n^T Rtw ^ ^xfrf^cT^ I 
RfcT: Mdl=b$W2I TOT^T dd^Sld: II II 

dlcflci^JirdUsik: TOT^HoqN^oq4): I 

11*^ II 

ii. dk^R: 

^tdpM I 

^ISRfcFT W5q^f% II *6$ II 

^cj;ch<u|^Rct, : | 






























































TRANSLATION 


127 


476cd-477ab. If there is a slow [majestic] movement with samapada stance with 
serene body [movement] and glance, it i^opined to be gajaVila (9) (‘elephant-sport 
like’). 

477cd. Feet [movement varieties] etc. should be employed to harmonise with the 
[above] gatis. 

478abc. .After these [gati movements in mukhacali] both left hand and [left] foot 
should engage [in dance kinetics] together to perform vaisnava sthanaka and haya 
(asvakrdnta) sthanaka. 

478cd-479. [The composition] is relinquished on pratydlidha sthanaka ; then the 
left hand is at the chest in sikhara [pose]. The other (i.e. right hand) is stretched on 
its own side with a pataka pose pointing downward. 

480ab. Therein, in the denouement < moksana> citrakalasa should be employed 
to maximum advantage. 


31. URUPAS 

480cd-481ab. Dance consisting of (specific) yati , tala , laya , sthanaka , can , and 
hasta is said to be urupa. 

481b-483ab. It is declared by the learned to be of twelve kinds viz. neri, karananeri , 
bhitra , extra , natra, adrstaprsthatulias, talarupa , siluka , tulla, prasara (-turla ?) kartan and 
hoylu —these twelve are well known. Their characteristics will now be elucidated. 

i. Suddha-neri 

483cd-485. Wherein it is caturasrfi sthanaka , rasa tala f vilamba laya , rathacakra can 
on one foot and any other suitable gati on the other, pataka hasta movement of [the 
above-mentioned mayun etc.] gati in all directions to the left and right alternately 
^mmetrically) like [around] riivi , replete with rekhaand sausthava , it is said to be 
iuddha-neri. 


ii. Karana-neri 

486-487ab. In all urupas excepting adrstaprstha [umpa] bahyabhraman is put 
aether and the denouement, in caturasra\ if instead, chatrabhramari is employed, 
it is karana-neri. 


7 < 476d 478a 479c 480cd 481a 481c 482ad 

COT 475-476ab 476cd-477ab 477cd-480ab 480cd-481a 483cd-487ab 486-490ab 







128 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


^uildld: $<rci#5'^MH(3q: II '*£'3 || 

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f%^£RT II II 

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^#T: Uoi|m*f5£R!: || *6% II 

^TT 55#% ftsjfafa %ft: I 

iii. 

^d l ^cKfig rfeT; ^^Ifl-dd: m\ II ^o II 

TRTef# H<l<d: ’^2^'^fRt I 

f im tm 5R^T II W II 

iv. 

Pd 4^111 Tf^rm Wf <+lPd^^4rf%cTT I 
#T: *Hld«M><PfclMd|cb: ^8^ II W II 
Pd^H PMMlc^ n ^ HPpfrHHkdlcdd: I 
#f#T ^ f% T< RT%: M cT^f^PdOP+ldl II II 

v. 

Hdd J lPd<+l ~?U TT^TT5-q'HiP<ddl I 

UHdldy4P>l ilPddH, II W II 

t%f^Rfr sUdsbUwm^sMd, I 
f#fd4%fW dP^J34> dd^^ II ^ II 

vi. 3^8$$(~e??H 

=bPWI =hlPd^# ^%f#cTT I 
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pciprjd^^ ^'bhhi^hh, i 

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_ 


















































TRANSLATION 


129 


487cd. Wherein there is jhampa tala, gopuccha [yati] and alapallava hasta, 

488-490ab. parsvajanu, urdhvajanu, dandapaksa, talavilasilU, vidyudbhranta, 
candravarta, nisumbhita, lalatatilaka latavrscika —with these nine karanas performed 
in [this] order both to the left and to the right, denouement is in dtidha sthanaka, 
it is karana-neri. 

iii. Bhitra 

490cd-491 . Wherein there are many sthanakas, knda[ tala], gopuccha [yati] bounded 
by sama [yati] in the beginning and end, mardla with calaka, nupurapadika can, [all] 
three sahcas, sausthava and rekha in every direction, it is said to be bhitra. 

iv. Citra 

492. [Wherein there is] tiryahmukha [can] predominently, interspersed with any 
other suitable gatis, tripataka hasta with calaka, sausthava 

493. and is splendid with [all] three sahcas, pipilika [yati], mallikdmoda tala in (all) 
directions, it is citra-, any desired sthanaka [may be used]. 

v. Natra 

494. Wherein there is marala ( =harhsi) gati, interspersed with other gatis, and is 
splendid with the use of samatala and different yati, 

495. vicitra bhraman executed like a child’s play wheel, sthanaka is of one’s own 
choice, appealing asthetically in [all] directions, it is said to be natra. 

vi. Adrstaprstha-tulla 

496. Wherein there is karihasta can, interspersed with other desired [ cans], raced 
tala set to an appropriate yati, madhya, laya, 

497. vicitra-catura hasta, is charming to the good people in [all] directions, it is 
defined by the scholars as adrstaprstha-tulla. 


TCC 490d 491a 493d 
COT 492-493 494-495 496-497 





130 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


vii. Jell'S: 

^Tf^ilMijHs^ "5PTT^T ^eis^iij I 

TT^rt II ^6 II 

3>qisi<94 dlei^H : I 

(^») 

^T«n—B-W«1l^fyfa: ^o|fA: II W II 

dl^-WdPHdl^A: I 

^HHHIddl^lU ^dd^lPd^4r< II ^oo || 
hRoh^ odfilHlRjH^lf^: I 
qi^cticrH ^tT '^dfsHciW'jfl: II || 

■dshq^T ddRsqiq fdfd^l(c)VIK^: I 

03) 

aldidi ^MHIdluii wm || || 

TRTfeddl'dHi Tffe fed I 
^T cTc^cf^oiM ^ %d^djl || 

■cKH q<H ^JT*f clTlr^cf efeT: sFRTc^ I 
y 4 )farl cT^T eTTedT: ^1 % II t\o* || 

■qs^q^qd^il, ifqqsF I 

(’T) 

cIMHT <fd^lsblTbcdWr^ II ^o\ || 

^ ^TWTtfelf^ST: imo^ 11 
UodN^oijijlWd ^fdT<HI I 

H'yq^lP-lRi omici {fqqst-iqc^ II ll 






































































TRANSLATION 


131 


vii. Kuvadas 

498-499ab. Commencing with any talas which contain many drutas, when it 
proceeds with many complex and attractive gatis, it is declared by experts to be 
kuvada which is of the form of tala (i.e. tdlampaka = visual form of tala) [as follows]: 

(a) Cakrabandha 

499cd-502ab. With hand, arm and foot of the right side < savyaih > and foot, arm 
and hand of the left side, with six angasoriom (in talas) orwith /rt/rtvhaving the same 
respective number of ahgas, equal number of matras, and ending in laghu or talas 
in which the precedent druta, laghu etc. is progressively omitted and acquire those 
{druta and laghu) occurring next, the excellent dancer should perform simultane¬ 
ously or in a different tala. Then it is named cakrabandha by the celebrities in the 
science of dancing. 

(b) Ravicakra 

502cd-505ab. Taking up six talasv/hich are of the form of laghu and druta [only] 
and have two equal parts, each terminating in laghu, each of which [again] has two 
equal segments, each of the precedent half should be extrapolated to six [first half] 
positions [of the six talas] as also the last half [extrapolated] with [the other last] 
half; then twelve talas are generated. [ For the rest], ravibandha is like cakrabandha 
[in dance]. 

(c) Padmabandha 

505cd-506ab. Applying the characteristics described under ravicakra to [only] 
four talas, each of the precedent segment should be displayed in the four limbs— 
hands and feet. 

506-507. Then the respective next segment should be combined in both hand 
and foot [together of the same side] at the left and right. Therein are [thus] eight 
talas generated. This is renowned as padmabandha ; the rest is as in ravicakra. 


TCC 498ad 499a 501c 50‘2d 504a 505b 
COT 498-499 






132 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


(^T) 

^HNI«J|i cf^THT <d^rM u IIH s I 
^rfWddl'dHi TTc^FT <J 11^ || 

^T =RlPf I 

T^TFf ^ ^ fgcfft dldP^d^ II Ho^ || 

UPddld aTHI-^ TCt frT I 

dMN^ cT^T ylrfjH^d, WIC^ II HU || 

(W) 

cTPHt | 

wf II HU II 

^RFTt: MK4lWS4Wlf^<?«RteT«n I 
yodlM^4l^WMK4l: WTJcf: sfPTT^ II HU II 
3Mdld$d ^rT ddlPddH I 

^fcT ^TFT l»14fHfd dld^M<=h^ ( -^?) II HU II 
^T dld^M+H, 

viii. (dkHHHj) 

wtsprt tr i)di f'dlft+i i 

3^7T ddP^dl TO¥I II HU II 

qH<*lfedlcbK <Tdy«H I 

cT^ ^IKHHIted fTdd^M'i ^RT: II HU II 

arfagnsm ~nM^ ^ifa<w4Hte<i i 
^rf^MdldlU ^TT W*l2fl4h II HU II 
^rfdPd^ <JB( T ^Id^Vdd, I 






























































TRANSLATION 


133 


* 

(d) Nagabandha 

508-509ab. Taking up four talas having comparable (=equal) number of matras , 
and having segments, each [tala] divisible into three equal segments [each] 
terminating in laghu , and dividing each of these again into three [equal] parts 
respectively, these should be employed in the [movements of] hands and feet. 

509cd-510. Establishing in the first (given?), third and second [equal] parts the 
[above mentioned] tala portions respectively, the dancer should perform [pure] 
dance. Then it is declared to be nagabandha ; the rest is as in padmabandha. 

(e) Vrksabandha 

511. Taking up the [selfsame?] four talaswhich have characteristics as described 
under padmabandha , the progressively previous half is joined to the next half 
mutually. 

512-513ab. Dance performed with both hands (alone), both feet (alone) and 
with both of hands and feet on the left side and on the right side [to the 
combinations of half talas as described above] and to the front with hands and feet 
[together] in a different tala is defined as vrksabandha. 

513cd. Thus is defined the kvadan amed vrksabandha; thus (so far) [isdescribed] 
tdlarupaka. 

Thus Talarupa [ kvadas ] 
viii. Siluka (Jaramana) 

514-515ab. Wherein there is hamsapaksa hand pose, hamsaVila (gati ? tala ?), 
kubrika can and others [cans which are] subservient to it, extending in each quarter 
in the form of monkey-play, and (there is) talasahca , it is siluka. 

515cd. Other people call the selfsame by the name jaramana. 

ix. Tulla (Turlla?) 

516-517ab. Wherein there is aslista (? vislista) can , interspersed with any other 
attractive (cans), gajalila [gati] executed quickly (in fast tempo), vartana performed 
*ith padmakosa hands, a sthanaka is made in every quarter, it is tulla (turllamf). Its 
movement is like that of the water insect. 


TOC 509ad 513cd 514d 516ab 
COT 514-515 516-517ab 





134 


N ART AN AN IRN A YA 


fadfM^+dlcrft ^ SWIc(lfa4 c 1<*^ II W II 
mW^rd^ i ^nrt chif^FR^r i 

?U cRSTFR f^rqir^H'il^<M s II W H 

xi. c h^<l 

WMCd*! WTS^ZRIT dslfadl I 
3<HTiPf5 ?t ^-?)lfrsR: II WII 

rd^lRf^^ff HdT I 

xii. 

ddi^il \\\R° II 

^HsbWrncFi ^nTt ^iP^^sTtf^rar i 
qfam : ^rgcW: (^r^l^OTR^RT dfaPdidd^ II W 
L ldir^l J ]^9hl'S|c|d,’d^ sixfold ohlRldM, I 
^fcT SR9T - 




3TT?F% TFRt ^11 'TJc^dHIdd ffc II II 



3Rt "RcTT II W II 

°hdPdgPclHkUs q <Trefr3lfadlft7d*t I 
fq^fscuRnd ®iipqfHd II II 

d^TTTO Id4«t>dl«^ I 

cikI^hn^w PldHi^TddiPH^rq; 11 n 
■qrf^RTT^d^ fwgcT^ Sld^lPd ^ I 
sSdjfey ^kT ^ ^ II W II 





























































TRANSLATION 


135 


x. Prasara 

517cd-518. Wherein there is ekatali tala in vilambita laya , hands are [in] 
aviddhavaktra [pose], can is parsnirecita interspersed with any other desired [cans ], 
it is declared to be prasara. Its sthanaka etc. should be beautiful. 

xi. Kartan 

519-520ab. Wherein there is uruveni can interspersed with other desired cans , 
hands turn around in the region of the chest, sulus are performed in laghusekhara 
[tala ], sthanakas are changed at each quarter with lightning speed (vidyudbhanta ?), 
it is opined to be kartan. 

xii. Hoylu 

520cd-522ab. Wherein both hands are in lata pose, placed at the back from the 
region of the chest, can is stambhakndanika , interspersed with any other suitable 
cans, [tala] is yatilagna , (replete with yatis?) variegated gatis in each quarter like a 
greedy vulture eating a piece of flesh, it is renowned to be hoylu. 

32. DHUVADA 

522cd-523. Wherein there is bhraman at commencement and conclusion, sulu , 
three lagas at chest [level] and bhujahgatrasita [can performed] as finale, it is said 
to be dhuvada. Antarbhraman is opined to occur at the end of all dhuvadas. 

524. Kalavihkavinoda, tarksyapaksavilasita, vidyudvilasita, bahyavartita, ravisancara, 

525. nartanabharana, tiryaktandava, rahgabhusana, vddisagajabherunda, rolambahga- 
vilasita, 

526. paksisardula, simhapluta —[these] twelve [dhuvadas] are listed first. I shall 
elucidate their characteristics in [the same] order.. 


TCC 522a 523ab 524c 525c 526c 

C OT 517cd-518 519-520ab 520cd-522ab 470-522 523cd-526 




136 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


i. 

ohdfqf Pq4k<+H, H 'a^ H 


ii. 



^tW F R : cTT^tqaHf<=icHif^TcT II W II 


iii. rd^dim^ 

rfsF^HPieh'l ^Tgft ;?Tft ^r44t cT?T: I 

■q^T WpPTtel: faffed ifad*^ II W H 


iv. 


f:?Tf^4 I 
Tjfrfj: ®H£IMP4d% ^ II II 


v.Tf^TlR: 


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f^^^PTT^rrsfq n w n 

vi. r 1ciHI < H< u lH v 

®n^HRPi:?T|^' ^RRiqi^cbl cffi: I 

vii. Pd4<*>c1l>J£cf^ 

®fTU^HP<=R ^ 31 SI <35*144) cTcT: I 
ilAK^I^tbl'^^ Pd4<^di>Js4 II II 

viii. 

sTT^T^TRiT^TT {P-K^lc^l^ cfcT: I 
3^ l c^>Tb4m Wi II <\\* II 











































TRANSITION 


137 


i. Kalavihkavinoda 

527. When there are cakrabhramari, nihsahka, ddtu, horamayl, utpluti and the 
prescribed finale, it is kalavihkavinoda. 

ii. Tdrksyapaksavilasita 

528. Wherein there are cakrabhramari, horamayl, ddtu, nihsahka and the (above) 
prescribed finale, it is tdrksyapaksavilasita. 

iii. Vidyudvildsita 

529. When there are cakrabhramari, rfa/w, nihsahka, horamayl, then the prescribed 
finale, then it is vidyudvildsita. 

iv. Bahyavartita 

530. Wherein there are in order, cakrabhramari, horamayl, then nihsahka , and 
:he prescribed finale, it is bahyavaitita. 

v. Ravisahcara 

531. Wherein occurs bahyabhraman , then da/w followed by horamayl and nihsahka 
ind finale as prescribed, it is ravisahcara. 

vi. Nartanabharana 

532. Wherein there are bahyabhraman , nihsahka , horamayl , da/w, then finale as 
: 'escribed, it is nartanabharana. 

vii. Tiryaktdndava 

533. Wherein there are bahyabhraman , adalu , horamayl , then rayarahgalu and 
fmale as prescribed, it is tiryaktahdava. 

viii. Rahgabhusana 

534. Wherein there are bahyabhraman , rayarahgalu , horamayl , then and 

i*'e^mbed finale, it is rahgabhusana. 


: 7 r 28 529 532 533 




nartananirnaya 


ix. 

<=||<{Wl J l' 5 l , ^'*? u ^ ^44) II II 

^H^-I^Tbl^ iMMI^fadlP^ II W II 

xi. 'qf^5fii<ici=nH, 

tcff^T^RTt ^ ^^l^<l^«bW^: I 
f3rPTt^t5fq ■qf^u^c^ % ^ n w n 

xii. Ri^n^l 

fdlTTTOt TO I 

ftrfcft flrtoq frp: WItRI fW^T ft TOJI W II 

^cM.tRT dMidlS^sft tjjrj^ff I 

U=b|c)r3I (s<i^^l ehfa^H ^1 W II H 

iJcgcfftT TO TO % ^ r«i§(ii'W: I 
3 T^T^ £\Am\ cT^rr 11 v*° 11 

3 TOT %ffjTO ql^W^fT ^< u l «WT II W I' 
i. 3T51^: 

«I^T TOT^JTO II II 

wrfron *j*ft TOS'Si^n.olRdi 1 












































TRANSLATION 


139 


ix. Vadisagajabherunda 

535. In vadisagajabherunda , there are tiripabhraman , datu, adantara, and horamayi 
and prescribed finale, in [this] order, 

x. Rolambdhgavildsita 

536. In rolambahgavilasitaoccur in order tiripabhraman , horamayi , datu, rayarahgalu 
and prescribed finale. 

xi. Paksisardula 

537. Paksisardula is that [in which occur] tiripabhraman , then adalu and datu 
[followed by] nihsahka and prescribed finale. 

xii. Simhapluta 

538. Wherein there are tiripabhraman , rayarahgalu , datu , Aora/n^and prescribed 
finale, then it is simhapluta. 

End of Twelve Dhvadas 
33. BIDULAGAS 

539-540ab. Wherein the dancers execute leaps with the above mentioned as well 
is other lagas preceded by sulu singly once or twice or combined with others, they 
ire all [designated as] bidulagas. 

540cd. Adalu rayarahgalu , nihsahka, hor(a)mayi, 

341-542ab. datu, adantara , dindu, rayapaksisaluva , alaga , dhehki , few, muhgarana , 
’.zraridindu, alagadindu [-these are the bidulagas ]. Now [their] characteristics [will 

described]. 

i. Adalu 

342cd-543ab. When, assuming posture, both feet flap [in air] like the wings 
f ^ bird and then descend to the ground, then it is designated as adalu. 


HOC r 59c 541c 543a 

COT 557 539-540ab 542cd-543ab 





140 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


ii. TFT^Tg: 

^I^MId^f^fo II W II 
feMsfq cTf^r f^: I 

iii. f^f^if;: 

'^T^tc^T fnfcidl ■HhI II W& II 
^ fTOfl: ^ PH^I^: M=h1Pcla: I 

iv. 4l44) 


m ^iR-d^M ^T II W II 

d'g , 4^r§' u ii5 , 4i , i mItm tft $1441 cidi i 

V. ^15: 


■JT: OT4 ^T df4<M<irfW II W II 


vi. 3T^tR: 

■JTcTt fi#RTt ^ dl^315^S'd<: II <a^3 II 
vii. I4 U §: 

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'^rfd fd u §<>«-l4 II W II 

viii. wrf^n^: 

o$\f% TFTTfc: ^SRTI^: I 

ix. 3 Tq^ 

STsfrg?!: Trg^T f^TToR ^JRTt II w II 
^JilfHHN'^ ftsRteRT cRJ I 





































TRANSLATION 


141 


ii. Rayarahgalu 

543cd-544ab. Assuming sulu posture, if one foot falls to the ground while the 
other is in space, it is understood by experts to be rayarahgalu. 

iii. Nihsahka 

544cd-545ab. When, preceded by sulu , a leap is executed with both feet together 
in sama [posture] and descend on the ground at a distant point it is said to be 
nihsahka. 

iv. Hor(a)mayi 

545cd-546ab. Wherein the feet are crossed in svastika , one foot moves (bends) 
backward and a leap is executed with the other [foot], it is said to be hor(a)mayi. 

v. Datu 

546cd-547ab. When one foot is stretched forward, and preceded by sulu a leap 
is executed with the other foot, it is designated by the good people as datu. 

vi. Adantara 

547cd. Datu itself, executed with both feet combined at the front, is adantara. 

vii. Dindu 

548. When, executing a leap, both feet revolve against each other like the 
wringing out of a cloth, and then descend to the ground, it is said to be dindu. 

viii. Rayapaksisaluva 

549ab. Rayapaksisaluva is formed by nihsahka and dindu [executed] in air. 

ix. Alaga 

549cd-550ab. When a leap is executed with face downward, one descends in the 
front a kukkutasana posture is held stationary, then it is alaga. 


* I >43d 545a 547bc 548d 549d 

T ' 43cd-544ab 544cd-545ab 545cd-546ab 546cd-547ab 547cd 548 549ab 549cd-550ab 






142 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


wft ^ II<Va° || 

m&M cT^T I 

xi. 

*JHI^4> UrM T II W II 

Mid^«K«ft ^rTf? t #g 1 

xii. wn 

wm, y? M<l^: II w II 
Tf^tcT^ *I<I*M gfT*i I 

xiii. fe^lH, 

ii w ii 

xiv. chMfeug 

ch^\4 cb^OR^^ i. 

XV. ^d'lR^ 

II W II 

^T: ^T% fa^cnmq: I 

eTT^W( ?TcT^fn% -qsrrf%Rn: iiw II 

«ll$JMlwf<^;M*iai 'SRlWT ^ I 
i. snU^TTt 

^Mdlffun f^T cllHHff ^ II W II 













































TRANSLATION 


143 


x. Dhenkl 

550cd-55 lab. When both feet are in sama [pose] a leap is executed from one side 
to the other, and a descent is made gracefully, then it is said to be dhenkl. 

xi. Blsu 

551cd-552ab. When one foot is fixed on the ground in sama [pose] and the 
second is made as before (bent back?) and both [execute a leap] in air [and 
descend] it is declared to be bHsu by the Muni. 

xii. Muhgarana 

552cd-553ab. Both feet are joined together and a leap is executed to the front; 
the whole body is turned away and is seated on the ground in kukkutasana-, when 
it is thus, it is muhgarana. 

xiii. Hihgarana 

553cd. Some [authorities] declare the opposite of the same to be [designated 
as] hihgarana. 

xiv. Kartandindu 

554ab. Hor(a)mayi executed in kartari (scissored feet) is said to be kartandindu. 

xv. Alagadindu 

554cd. Alagadindu [consists of] alaga and dindu executed in air. 

555. Thus there are [these and] many [other] varieties of bidulagas. The suitable 
one should be adopted from their usage in the world. 

34. BHRAMARl [REVOLUTION] VARIETIES 

556ab. Bhramariv arieties are prefixed with bahya, antar, tiripa, chatraand cakra as 
follows: 

i. Bahyabhraman 

556cd-557ab.Standing on the right foot, the left foot is bent and a revolution is 
executed from the left; it is opined to be bahyabhraman. 


7CC 551ab 552a 553bd 554b 555c 556b 557b 
OT 550cd-551ab 551-cd-552ab 552cd-553ab 553cd-554ab 555ac 556-559 






144 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


ii. 

II W || 

iii. 'Rrft^r^TRTt 

faff ^ri^IcI'crh; i 

iv. s^'SRTt 

dlHM<f ^Wf ^«IT: I 

V. ^35¥RTt 

3^7T & ^Tf^f^TI wff dl<^Fdd: II I 

<n?raiffaTfa3ra> cnf^j ¥taw( i 
TTg^rfcT ^^-WTTf^-Wf^RTR; II <^o || 
■dcj<<?l 'HHI^TPT Rl<sK I 

Mdl+SW«hl£HWd f^TP7?RT: I 
^I^KI^KldJld^ T{Wi cTcT: 11^ || 
M^K ^TT ^K u wr^dH, I 
T rsn^ T To E TT 55^ ^TfT "^T II II 

^TRcRr^^mTff ^wcj^yqr^ i 

: ii w ii 

TJTcfF«TT ^f%xTTef <rMI^«dl*K|wjdH, I 
•jT^ddl ?T^fd -jT)lqfo<?<{lRd*^ II <a^«a II 














































TRANSLATION 


145 


ii. Aritarbhraman 

557cd. Opposite of this is aritarbhraman. 

iii. Tiripabhramari 

558ab. Tiripabhramari is oblique (sideways) revolution on both feet crossed in 
svastika in the front. 

iv. Chatrabhraman 

558cd-559ab. Wherein the trivikrama pose is held and revolution is made from 
the left, the learned declare it to be chatrabhraman. 

v. Cakrabhraman 

559cdef. Cakrabhraman is formed by revolving in a circle employing khanda suci 
lsthanaka ] and ardha [suci karana ? in half circle?] 

Some other bhramans should be understood from their use in the world. 

35. SABDANRTTA 

560. [The dancer] recites the collection of [ pata ] syllables beginning with ‘ ta\ 
generated by the cymbal bearer along with [the musical notes] sadja etc. and 
[words] set in morgana etc. 

561-562ab. Assuming the caturasra [sthanaka ] and holding one sikharahanA pose 
at the navel and the other should be consciously made to assume any pose other 
than pataka etc. at the region of the chest in the front. 

562cd. Then should be performed (dance ? recitation?) which is auspicious and 
is the generating cause for the [pata] syllables corresponding to the beginning 
sounds [of the sabda prabandha on hand? tad dhit thomnon r?]. 

563abc. One foot is [made] suci in the front and the other foot is made ahcita , 
'afterwards] ayata [sthanaka ] is reached in a backward gati ( car £?). 

563-564ab. The hand is turned round [at a pace] corresponding to the respective 
tattatkara [recitation]; the same should be executed with the foot to the back and 
front. 

564cd-565. Svaras should be [displayed] only with voice, [words] with limbs and 
movements of mood-expressive glances, tala should be displayed with the feet and 
the sabda [prabandha ] syllables with rhythm. When so danced, it is called sabdanrtta 
bv dance experts. 


TCC 561cd 563ac 564cd 
COT 556-559 559ef562c 





146 


NARTANANIRNAYA 




TORRFTRT {HIW'W R: I 

q^l^MdH: #5^mt 3 II W II 


i. 


RcJ^I ^ | 



^ rornr^^^ - i 

ii. 

^<HlHllf^T^$KM <^f^u)^cA u l cj II II 
^fd'ir^Tr^' c l r ^ (J l f^TRTT cT^TT I 

q^TTR^wf^R; ii n 

iii. "FPIR: 

^T ^WTT cT«TT | 

3T«Tt^#R f^rTFTT ■c^F^r^r^TTf^r^TT II «a^3o II 
RRfs^RRT ^faRRTRR ^KHlfeX • 

iv. ^T^ZTXT: 

^fw=h1 f^\ fwm r ii w ii 
^TWSTR^RTfq ^T ^fT: I 

R WRT WR: W: II W || 

v. ’’TIFT: 

^ITSRwft «^R %RT cT8TT I 
^r^rmRTfq ^n wot crt ii w n 
tr «faR^ wiwi i 











































TRANSLATION 


147 


36. ABHINAYA FOR SVARAS 

566. That svara other than sadja, which is graha of the raga to which the song is 
set, should be represented on the stage with hand poses. 

i. Sadja 

567-568ab. With alapadma in the right hand and catura in the left, mayuralalita 
[karana ] executed in a mandala (circle.)—thus should Sadjabe indicated by scholars 
in the practice and theory [of dance]. 

ii. Rsabha 

568cd-569. With the hand pose named hamsasya in the right, ardhacandra hasta 
held on the (left) hip in the other [hand], head in sama pose, body in the sthanaka 
named brahma —thus the intelligent [dancer] should indicate rsabha. 

iii. Gandhara 

570-57lab. The intelligent [dancer] should repesent gandhara with sukatunda 
hasta, karuna glance, adhomukhahead, asvakrantd [sthanaka] and [any] suitable can. 

iv. Madhyama 

571cd-572. The skilful [dancer] should stage represent madhyama svara with 
both pataka hands crossed in svastika, head in vidhuta pose, the sthanaka named 
saiva, katicchinna [karana ] and hasya glance. 

v. Pahcama 

573-574ab. Making the hands alapallava, head in the dhuta [pose], body in 
vaisnava, sthanaka, kanta glance—thus the intelligent [dancer] should indicate the 
svara named pahcama. 


TCC 369c 570d 571cd 572bcd 573cd 
COT 566 567-576 







148 


NARTANANIRNAYA 



<=bl^dSWcb1 ^TT sft*R^TT <T2TT || || 

WpR TJ§rf R T R*l l dk l P *r^T R I 

fsrf^ET II || 

vii. fiqi<;: 


chR^'kH =bfd34<H cTlcrl^l I 

■^JTT 'fa^dP'K'Hl f^RT? II V3^ || 


^fd c K^H=h<'jW Pi^PhcI: I 

'HH'f-rli^ ^^Wdcdd<l;jP|STcI: II II 
dM^II 'q^TT 3njc*T ^FTRT^ I 
cTcT: ?T^T dd^l^ui ^ ?R: TgU II \\B6 || 
^l«^'i 4fi®d<a u ^'i ^r l 

IfT: cR3 qfti^cH IJ *V^ II 

^R'MiqiPd ^qaicrniddfd^-dH, I 
^dlRmcri'H^ii^ MldHK-dild,^! II ^60 || 
fq^ u <3qvjrq ^l#^fdHH)S<H, I 




^^■cq<ld alfd'fcH, ll t\6% II 
^J^'^^fld <TTR9Tftfa Flirts I 

4 i)rh 'H^laq*^ 11 \6R 

cin^rq cTWR^TrWi; I 



^MtRrf^TfTcT: II II 


¥^T%( ! ^)Tf*R^R8jf^ q<q|qq^^q|^ 

^TcTUfHf|R^: II \£X I 


I 






















































TRANSLATION 


149 


vi. Dhaivata 

574cd-575. Making both hands kahgula [in pose], with bibhatsa glance, head in 
paravrtta , sthanaka called pratyaRdha , the skilled dancer should indicate dhaivata . 

vii. Nisada 

576. With one hand in karihasta pose, the other hand on hip, with Bid glance, 
vidhuta head [pose], nisada should be elucidated. 

37. DANCE FOR SVARAMANTHA COMPOSITION 

577-578ab. Wherein attracitve dance is performed to yati (vadyaprabandha ) set to 
tala to accord (exactly) with the tattatkara (recited pata phrases) wholly and partly, 
with the quarter [dik\, sthanaka and Parana described here, 

578cd-579. then [dance is continued] to sabda (=recited pata phrases); after this, 
to udgraha [of the svaramantha prabandha] , then again to sabda, to tenakas, to dhruva 
[dhatu ] consisting of a segment of sabda, again to sabda, and following it, to yati 
[ vadya] prabandha. 

580- 58lab. when the patra professes a body which shines with splendour [ultasa] 
and is combined with hava (coquettish glance), bhava, excellent lay a und tala, then 
it is svaramanthaka nrtta which is charming to the practising cognoscente. 

38. DANCE FOR GITA 

581- 582. The patra should dance with sausthava those self same songs [gfta] for 
which the cymbal bearer recites clustors of [pata] syllables beginning with Ja’ 
etc. (= tattatkara) as before (as in svaramantha nrtya) so as to be even with, and 
[exacdy] corresponding to the [matu and dhatu of the] gita, melodic contours 
Jana] and tala graha. 

583-584. The respective desi nrtya, bearing the respective names [of the gitas] 
should be performed by the learned [dancers] representing the sthayl etc. varnas 
_ol the song] with body [or limb, movements], bhavasw ith glances and [mukha] 
Jga. and the meanings arising out of the words and sentences should be stage 
represented with hand poses and talagrahas such as sama with appropriate foot¬ 
steps. 


TOC 575ac 576b 577d 578b 582c 584abc 
7 5c'-576 577-58lab 581cd-587ab 





150 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


WTt^T Jlld^ I 

^£5T o|U|^ird**1R^«n II II 
PcWdb>lfel«TT ^H J I-^<W: I 

cT«n5^t5fq Tiftrsia c^y[^«5i n 


cT^%5T Pq§r^^=b: I 

Pd*<dPuiP-l^ (?fa^:?) hicuR^^: ^d-qiR^: II \C6\\ 
jfid^iP<<#Pa^P<Pd, crm^ m i 
i.-?rate: 


^t^ITF( :) stf^ITW II <\ 6 % II 

ci'°t§<i&Ri'^ c h: yW) ^criiMl^l'NWn: I 

ii. . 

^ Mt II || 

■R^Hipi-d PsPiRkmico^ I 

Tim ^S% ( ?1% ^0 %T: W^cT^T Pq§P=i^=h: II W II 


iii. fd-boifuipd^: 

^H I H l PgdX^ ^l^^fe^ 1 

Wx.& W 1 ^ f^rf^: ( -t^50 'I W II 

iv. Hldlf^: 


STf^RcN^HHIdl HldlPdPd^: I 

v. ^guiR^a 

tu WT ^KMNWcT i ciieHHd l d^ H W II 

do^Ml'd^d^ I 

























































TRANSLATION 


151 


585-586. In this manner alone should dance to gita be performed [whether 
itbe] suddha sudas such as eld, dlikramas such as vama, vipraklrnas such as snrahga, 
or the salagasudas [such as the dhruva), as also other well known or little known, 
as the case may be. 

587ab. Meaningful part of the song should be denoted as nrtya; the part without 
meaning, as nrtta. 


39 CINDU-DANCE 

587cd. The desi [dance] of Drdvida region is named cindu. 

588-589ab. It is found in six varieties: suddha cindu, viducindu, tiruvanicindu, 
maldcindu, kolacari (cindu) and gitamudracindu. Their characteristics are as follows: 

i. Suddhacindu 

589cd-590ab. Wherein udgraha and dhruvapadaare composed in drdvida (Tamil) 
language and melapa(ka) and abhoga are omitted, it is said to be suddhacindu. 

ii. Viducindu 

590cd-591. Wherein udgraha and meldpa are sung [each] once, then the dhruva 
bearing the name of the [patron] king and consisting of two or three caesuras, is 
[rendered] again and again, the conclusion is on dhruva [itself], then it is viducindu. 

iii. Tiruvanicindu 

592. Udgrahabears the partron’s name; dhruvais one and a half its size. These two 
are sung again and again; then it is tiruvanicindu. 

iv. Maldcindu 

59$ab.Maldcindu is a garland as parts of words which are not governed by any 
-ales (as to nature or quantity). 

v. Kolacari cindu and kattanacindu 

593cd-594ab. Wherein occurs alapaWiXh paid syllables, then a vdkya (statement, 
prose) without tala, illumined with words and rdga and contains the seed of the story 


TCC vsScd 59Id 593d 
COT 587-602 





152 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


cftTU Fq^q: W*TH ^TT^FT^T: ‘II \%~X || 
^<c\ <4-Mct>c-ii^l<frJpc|RlclH, I 



3H^r=h&)iy<^Ri^TT^l c t’g u lP c l T ^ c t>: I 
vi. T fhTg^Tf^: 

i|dNehW<m1 J WHWoilW^)Hd: I 
fsf^^tW^i^Fq^q: MRculfHdi: II II 
TRTTffr %^TFI *K yqH=b) | 
cT^t^nt ^ ^qnuR; 'SPTtWts'^; n ^6 n 
cT^T ^ TTtSJ ^TR7^5 1 



Vll. 



'^II^M^dHl^yriJMl^lRrTO^n I 
^3T 'Hly=ldl'Wl|-: f^rft5r|-=hU-c|^: II ^oo || 
^M$iq|q<rfi*l2I ’SJ^f^cbdlUd: I 
■qi<?Miii^i II II 

ciH'»iifci^d ^^raTf^RTrf^IcF^ I 
'^HKNI^fK'Ji fa^r4 II ^ || 


■*o. utfr: 


ttt t^h(| i T u l=hMI^<l^ld^(l W\: I 
Hpsqid: ftlRMs'q^cftscrHNk'*: II ^03 || 

^RT: I 










































TRANSLATION 


153 


594cd-595. Then, there are five or seven cindus interspersed in the middle and 
is made very charming with pilmuru , kaimuru and attractive kalasas , and if the plot 
involves weapons, then it is kolacan [ cindu\. 

596ab. If the story-plot is otherwise, then it is kattanacindu. 

vi. Gltamudracindu 

596cd. Gltamudracindu consists of song ( gita) and is declared to be of eight kinds: 

597. By omitting melapaka , antara and abhoga individually or collectively, cindus 
are declared to be of two, three, four or five dhatus. 

598-599ab. If there is prayoga (= gamakalapti) in the melapaka , or if there is prayoga 
in dhruva , then the conclusion of the song is on udgraha ; if however, there is prayoga 
in antara , then conclusion is on dhruva. Such is the conclusion [of cindu ] always. 

vii. General Characteristics of Cindu 

599cd. Chiefly with syandi[ta\ apasyandita adhyardhika sthitavarta [cans ] etc. 

600. with vaisakha, mandala , aRdha,pratya&dhaetc. [sthanakas] , with rekhd, sausthava 
md Idsyahgas, recakas of head, feet and hands, 

601 .with graceful havaand bhava , suluand citrakalasa , closely following beautiful 
(syllable), adorned with the sounds of ankle bells, 

602. belonging to the respective jati metrical form and splendoured with the 
terature of the vernacular language—thus should cindu dance be performed 
i: :ording to tradition. 

40. GHARGHARA (STRIKING OF ANKLE BELLS) 

605-604ab. Wherein there is striking of ankle bells, it is opined to be gharghara. 
: :: rata, siripidi, apadava , alagapata, sirihira and khuluhula —these are declared to 
be 'ix kinds of gharghara. 


TOC 602c 

T vc«2 603-609 





154 


NARTANANIRN AYA 


i. qfe<TC: 

^fadilllRTr^Rl: II || 

MlNg^H RT RlW c^fRT 'ifeoiidch: I 

ii. Mrfq^t 

^rliJddm^H^:^l^tfa: II ^ II 
RRT RT 3Wi sf^RiRM Wft[ I 

iii. 3PT53 

^MKdd^N^cil II ^ || 

iv. 3fcrHNk: 

3rf^g4lsr ^Ttf¥T oh)Hd*t I 

cT^(^)5d'JNIdl^ ^-l^d( 7^'dfcl, ^fld)d)W^ 
ll^ovaii 

V. RlRfe<: 

^cblfH^TFr RT^ M: iffRT: I 

RRRR RfRT RTR; RtW: RlRfeil II II 
RgTgRt: R**PlR fcTSflt: WTt'jfk I 
RfRt: RTRd RTfsfkT: RlRRi II $ 0 % || 

vi. 

^dilWW RRTf: RTW ^ I 

^TOHIFT RT5RRT RR: ^oiim^d: II II 
Rtskl ^£d: RTWT ^ffr ^d=h1fd|: I 

f^IKdl ^5T3^n ^TT; -?fmTfRcTT: || ^ || 

R^ cbRkdld'lfTffRd: I 

























































TRANSLATION 


155 


i. Padivata 

* 

604cd-605ab. Stamping the ground with both heels one after the other or with 
a single heel with foreparts of the soles fixed on the ground, is padivata. 

ii. Siripidi 

605cd-606ab. With the sole clinging to the ground, siding of the foot forward and 
backward one after another again and again is siripidi. 

iii. Apadava 

606cd. Striking the ground with the sole of only one foot is apadava. 

iv. Alagapata 

607. Gentle shaking of both feet in air one after the other, like (containing?) the 
ullolapata of mrdahga is named alagapata. 

v. Sirihira 

608. One foot being in sama pose [on the ground], the other is impelled forward 
and its shank is shaken, it is said to be sirihira by the learned. 

609. Or, the intelligent declare sirihira to consist of both feet resting naturally on 
the ground and shaking of the shanks. 

vi. Khuluhula 

610-611 ab. Striking the ground with the heel of the left foot the forepart of which 
rests on the ground or the rotation to the left and the right with [the heel of] the 
:»ther foot its forefoot resting on the ground is declared by dance experts to be 
c r uluhula gharghara. 

61 lcd-612ab. Other splendid ghargharas should be surmised in the same way. All 
•arieties of gharghara should be executed so as to accord with the tala. 


TOC 604d 607d 610b 
IOT 603-609 607d 611c 






156 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


^rT^TOTT TO ^T^HldRidl II W II 
«TF ^fsRTT sfft: TTT fg«TT qR^fcidl I 
^TT cj ^ <TOT "TO II W II 

TOq^k^Kl ^ s^M^d I 

i. ctig^l £TF 

37ff% ch^jhh 3 *prrw^ n w n 

cTTOTOFPT tlH^HH. I 
dcTc^KlRfa: m^dld^R^ II W II 
SfR^ Tt%cT( f^rffcT) jfldHMN: qR^IRfd: I 
cRT: 4HHP<=ldH. II ^ II 

<Ml^fHRc|I^A: I 

^Rfi Pm^ ctfpcjM wt^rt: n w n 

1%: ^RJ: W TTH •H^nfgRf: I 

^N^Ici^cdl'WI^HclH d^Wdl.ll W M 
RiciR^dMKHM' I 

aTcTM^T^T^^rTOfe^mT II W \\ 

TTT ^ ^RTcTT cf# <R^+h^<|Rh 1 | 
cRT: °b<ni*Hdl ^dHi^: *cA.: TpT: II ^3° || 
%5?^T^cT: 'RUlRdd dcRiqMR^ I 
dldd'dl^-Hi ^H'dl^TTeR'^ II W II 
crfarot i 

dld^^^-M^Rl^irH^MH, M W II 

^T: TOTTO^T fgil'fdq^ ^ I 

Rtort ddf^dify ww^ n w ii 

cRT cbgul^q cTd^TO I 


/ 



































































TRANSLATION 


157 


41. DHARU DANCE 

% 

612cd-613ab. That [song which is] composed in Telugu language and omits 
udgraha and abhoga is described by the intelligent as dharu; it is declared to be of two 
kinds. 

613cd-614ab. The important [kind] is kattanedharu; the other is muktadharu. 
'Kattane' is synonymous with ‘bandha’ [set, composed]. Its procedure will be first 
described. 

i. Kattane Dharu 

614cd-616ab. Wherein, when the arddi [instrumental composition] is being 
plaved the patra enters the stage holding the edge of her garment (border of her 
saree) and performs excellent dance with [accompanying] tattatkara etc., pata 
syllables, lay a and tala, first to alapa. Singing without (! with) dhdtu etc. is declared 
to be alapa. 

616cd. Next occurs graceful foot [work] combined with tuhga lasyangas which 
are verily like the limbs of personified rdga. 

617-618. Displaying pilmuru, kaimuru etc., here and there in the middle, the 
danseuse extends the dance with three, four, five, six or seven dharus along with 
oattis in excellent lasyangas having bhava and hava. 

619-620ab. If a single word (stanza?) is composed in Kannada language, not set 
to tala, recited in vilambita [ laya ] and beautified with a single yati, it is described by 
experts as patti which affords ecstatic pleasure to connoisseurs susceptible to rasa. 

620cd-621ab. Next, variegated dance < citrana > should be performed with 
ialdsa, attractive svaras rendered in the pluta ( vilamba ) measure and kaimuru sabda 
< prabandha). < 

621cd-622ab. Wherein there is complete blending of [the sounds of] cymbal, 
Tina] strings and mrdahga and there is dancing with sportful disposition of limbs, 
it s defined as sulupa. It has sulu which closely accords with tala and is beautiful with 
high sounds of ankle bells. 

623-624ab. Performing dance again with kalasa sabda and twice repeated word 
stanza?) conclusion is effected with [the instrumental composition] named arddi. 
Then it is desi nrtya, born of Telugu region, called kattane [dharu]. 


~ C 513c 615b 616a 619d 620d 

T 614c 615cd-616ab 617cd 618-622 620 623a 







158 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


'ihiVihi' q ii ^ ii 

h^isPiP^h, I 

cTT#T || || 

lJ > d$TfifqW'HI<^qT ^=hgu) qq I 

ii. 

^<44% q? facr^ q II || 

^T: qgjqqTq I 

cTfcTFT ?PT4^T =h(d<=IK cj d44cp II ^\3 II 

3T*raT5^?«n^«n»n^d<i qq i 

cTTefr Sjci<n4l5''qq qT qTrf>T TjfrfjqT qq II ^6 II 

iDclfuiH^n^qTqi^ir^qr-ldil I 
frq^qfqwqq HHiii+snaR^ n ^ n 
^•^•lU'H^iqKoq {MldldMdlrHcbH, I 
HKiTii^Hi'H^d m<wiiq4) ^ cfi ii ii 

qf^ qq WP? qrqqjqqq; i 
q^^qqqqtqRTi fqqq qjqq; ii ^ n 
qtqqi% ^qqq ?qqqiqqqfi?t i 
q?H ci^iqqiq qH^nfdq^^ n w ii 

iNMifaci«i«fiiq qq^W^fqqp i 
q^W<H<l dl^-rMldd^-d^ II ^33 II 
^•J^MI^d Tf^RT q?q qszf q qqqqq; | 
qqffqqqqtqq n ^ n 

qqi ^qqq ^frq ijwifq^jlwp i 

■ef» k iPq k i$Pd 4 pq+; || || 

qqtq tqqn iqqt qrqpgjqqg^q: i 

("^fq qq^r'-iq) 

































































TRANSLATION 


159 


624cd-625. Wherein there is bending high and low, sausthava disposition in both 
upper and lower [parts of the body], udgraha is composed of words (stanzas?) 
having four pauses and set to any tala , it is named pada. 

626ab. Or, kattane dharu is [also] opined to be the opposite of whatever is said 
above. 


ii. Mukta Dharu 

626cd-627ab. Pilmuru [dance] is inserted in the first half of the dharu ; then dance 
is performed to both the first half and second half. Then it should be danced a few 
times with different tempi of the [same] tala. 

628. Or, [dancing to] another dharu wherein the latter half is higher than the 
former and the tempo is fast; it is [then] described as muktika-dharu. 

42. DHRUVAPADA 

629. Splendid in Sanskrit or in the literature of the language of madhya 
[pra]desa, consisting of three [two?] or four sentences (statements), is based on the 
stories of men and women, 

630. endowed with srhgara rasa , constructed in raga, tala and words, possessed of 
alliteration at the end of the lines (stanzas?), and/or yamaka [alarhkara ] at the end 
of lines (stanzas?), 

631. wherein each of four lines (stanzas?) are thus constructed [and there are] 
udgraha , dhruva, abhoga and antara , it is declared to be dhruvapada. 

632. The patrashould perform dance with attractive havaand bhavato the accom¬ 
paniment of the singing of [such] dhruvapada , prominently displaying the kanta 
glance. 

633. [When there is] bhava embracing many gatis , beauteous with splendid 
Idsyahgas , the stage is illuminated by the teeth during the (smiling and) singing [by 
the patra] here and there between words, 

634. composed in the khanda ( tala) measure (or in the measure of each section), 
with shaking [of the body] now and then, replete with all forms of abhinaya , 
splendoured in rekha and grace, 

635. [when it is so], then it is dhruvapada dance; it is adorned by [applying] facial 
colour; it is indicative of erotic body form with modifications of eyes and eyebrows. 

636ab. Hava occurs with [the special] movement of the neck; bhavaisborn in the 
mind. 

[End of Bandha Nrtta ] 


TCC 629cd 630abd 631c 632b 633d 635d 636a 
COT 




160 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


3Tsnf^T^rjrT^T ^A ^Tlfa ^bcT: II W II 
dlHIddl ^Pd3R}R: Uldtf4?h>: I 
«^ u RMenWRa n^Rehi n w n 
%^cH ^r dld^M+H, I 

n°3M ^§q ^ II II 

$§q Ri4+<«i ^rmt ^npF cm: i 
HHI^lWdl ddP^llP^l ll^ll 

i. HHIdd) 

WP*H^u|H f^TTf^^ I 

d'Mdld'UHpc|dH v II V*° || 
dlMNdl I 

ii. ■mRi: 

PdUHUMdPdP^dPldfdHdV^: II W II 
dddldPdPddl^Pd^Tl •HHM^d, I 

iii (a) <HHi'<ii 

^ifddldl^i ^ ■fadfrMdd^lfcldH, II W II 

PdPdddPdflHH fllMMI W^d I 

iii (b) ■Hld^R: 

^TT l^d^tl)^: WT^f^FT II W M 

iii (c) ^^HPlR: 

^tbl^Tp-jd^^: ¥{b^d I 

iii (d) W*ft: 

II II 

















































TRANSITION 


161 


43. SEQUENCE IN ANIBANDHA DANCE 

* 

Sequence of Urupas 

636cd. Now I shall narrate the sequence of anibandha (urupas) as [found] in the 
world: 

637. Namavali , yati, Samanya [suddhajneri , salanganeri, sankirnaneri, bhavaneri, 
nadaneri, 

638. kaivartana-muru, rattaimuru, talarupaka, gundala, malaka, mandi, mudupa, 
murandari, 

639. kudupa, tiryakarana, lavani, vatuka — these are desi [dances] born in many 
regions and abiding in their respective quarters. 

i. Namavali 

640-64lab. Full of appropriate abhinaya, beautiful with variegated gatis, consist¬ 
ing of laya and tala through variation in tivati and graha — such namavali, delightful 
to the popular mind, should be [thus] danced. 

ii. Yati 

641cd-642ab. Yatinrtta should be performed with gatis which are even with the 
pauses, many charming lagas, variegated limb movements in accord with laya and 
tala. 

iii(a) Samdnya-(suddha)neri 

642cd-643ab. That which is set to aditala and vilambita-laya and is full of 
variegated gatis, is said to be samanya-neri. 

iii(b) Salanganeri 

643cd. This selfsame if [performed] with single and combined hand poses is 
salanganeri. 

iii(c) Sankirnaneri 

644ab. Sankirnaneri is said to be [performed] with combined, single and (?) nrtta 
hand poses. 

iii(d) Bhavaneri 

644cd. Bhavaneri is declared to be [performed] with rasa, bhava, body [move¬ 
ment] , glances etc. 


TCC 636c 637d 638d 639d 640c 64Id 642d 643c 
COT 636c 640-64lab 641cd-6^2ab 642cd-645ab 






162 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


iii (e) ■l-S'lR: » 

T^of £dHI^ d^RftfcT ^FRTT I 

iv. 

Hpu is p ^t II H 

•hHcJi ct^t n n 


V-W 

Hld^fTl^ f^f^Hff^iH°l4 "51: I 
BNdiq ft II ^*vs II 

vi. < 1 * 1 ^ 

TCT"TT? Hl^^Hidd: 1 
^xj: ’JT: ^d 4 ^ " 5 ^ II II 


vii. dld^H^H, 

r«t>r«ltlH*iMsbCl WIN «l§ci&dH, I 

f: TPfxT <TT^Wp II W II 


viii. ti u sid^ 

*T|TCT WW I 

dldl^lfd'jd ^ J] u ^i "nf^T cT^T II R<a° || 


ix. Hd<=h'^ 

yidM 8 W<^: I 

t=TcT#T <RI II SM II 

x. 'R 1 ^t 


48 mm i fop qT w«tt ici^ii^H i 

H u 4 )ld =hlP 4 cl^ II II 













































TRANSLATION 


163 


iii(e) Nadaneri 

645ab. This selfsame, [performed] in fast tempo is recognised to be nadaneri. 

iv. Kaivartana 

645cd-646. Wherein pleasant dance is performed to the right and to the left with 
appropriate gatis and hands touching (i.e. crossed) at the wrists are rotated 
charmingly, then it is named kaivartana. 

v. Muru 

647. Wherein the patra twists the body obliquely and throws tripataka hand pose 
with both hands outward and inward again and again, it is called muru by the 
learned. 


vi. Rattaimuru 

648. Wherein the dancer twists his body in the utkatapose in fast tempo again and 
again, it is ratta(i)muru. 

vii. Talarupaka 

649. If in a [dance] performance a tala containing many drutas is taken up and 
engages in many complex gatis , [it is] talarupaka. 

viii. Gundala 

650. If there is dance performed to accord with the tala by rotating the shank in 
and out quickly, it is then described as gundala. 

ix. Malaka 

651. Malaka occurs by many varieties of arm movement, circular rotations of 
alapallava hand poses, and [named?] with recakas of hips, sides and head. 

x. Mandi 

652. If dance is performed with quick movement of the tips of the upper surface 
prstha of both feet, one after the other such that the knees are bent, then it is 
asseverated to be mandi. 


ICC 647abd 650d 651c 652a 
- OT 645cd-646 647 648 649 650 651 652 





164 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


xi. im 

dldTJPmcT: I 

cRT ^HpHr^Tt) II II 

xii. *i< u 4(l 

f^TFT ¥^"5^: I 
7^0-jcW^^T II W II 

xiii. 

^d l ^fc RT ^ M4jdl^«4H ^ I 
3rar4 ^rff^t w fafad&dHM^ ii w ii 

xiv. Pd4+<<^ 

f^^^W^TFT ¥¥Tf II W II 

3^TT% ^T: y^l^H 1 

tt^ ^i Pd4^4^ ii W ii 

xv. diqufl 

uHMidft*ra wi ^m4wi i 
dbiw f l cTc^FFT ¥IH^P4W«n cT^T II W II 

xvi.^: 

^'CTf ^PHdai^TT TOJT ^T MU4dlffcl: I 
WJH crld l ^ W ¥HU|MI^ II W H 
<T^T5^ diPu^d?: I 

M. dehi) 

^IcRt WH ?$& ¥3 ffrcT ^dlsldd, II ^° II 














































TRANSLATION 


165 


xi. Mudupa 

653. When dance is performed with mudupa cans closely following the tala , then 
it is called mudupa which is made appealing with variegated gatis. 

xii. Murandari 

654. If the dancer, in the course of mudupa (can ) executes bhramari again and 
again, dances by repeating the mudupa , it is murandari. 

xiii. Kudupa 

655-656ab. Wherein the toes are bent and the big toe is stretched erect, the shank 
is stretched and trembled at variegated fast speed; this is combined with gharghans 
(described above); then this is opined to be kudupa. 

xiv. Tiryakarana 

656cd-657. Establishing any [desired] karana , bhramari should be performed; at 
the end [of bhramari ] some karana is again taken up; wherein it is so done again and 
again, it is tiryakarana. 

xv. Lavani 

658. The patra , standing on samapada and placing ardhacandra hand pose(s) on 
the hip(s), should rotate the body above the hips. Then it is lavani. 

xvi. Vatu 

659-660ab. The patra should execute a rotation in the form of a circle <mandala> 
with knees and feet resting on the ground, with bent back and latahasta pose. Its gati 
is of suryamandala (bhanavi gati); then this is called vatu. 

44. JAKKADI 

660cd-661. The song is composed in yavani (Persian) language, edge of the 
garment is held [in hand], kallaetc., and gajarae tc., are combined [into the song]; 


TCC 6 54c 655c 656b 658abc 

COT 653 n>4 655-656ab 657d 660cd-664ab 







166 


nartananirnaya 




f^2TT5RH II II 

eh)Hdi^4 ^i ^4 \iH^r<roKir^ i 

f^TT ^nr ^TRTf^^T: II W H 
^Kltekfefl cT^7 'JieR^t HdH, I 
•qT7^ft% : !’W'W)^l t l^l II 11 

■q^Tf^ w wMHpnPyn 1 




-y^STTf^ cfT^l cn^mT^ n w 11 

irfJT ^T5^r ^li?n«rai n w\ n 

aiPjg fg l ^ffe: ^r4t^f fopT 5 I 

M-jc# i T mi^im^4: II W II 

^ n W 11 



cT«TT I 


drl^ l l^ l fo l ^T ^T II W II 

xT^f^: wf^t^ 4 &l WH^>: H 11 
^T: WTsft ^ I 

■^#Tf^^PTpRT^ WcT^PcRT: x ^ x { II ^° " 

^dciidci'Hi^l^ II II 
cj<|[<4 ^44 u ^<‘ra 'Ji'iM'iMH, 1 
<u4Pfa l ^kT ^ cf^ % II W II 

























































TRANSLATION 


167 


it is adorned with ahahga; dance shouldbe performed to this beautifying <vicitra> 
in many ways in the three tempi. 

662-663ab. When nrtya is performed with soft movements of the limbs, splendured 
with bhramarie tc., and wherein the [talakriyas are sounded ( sasabda ) such as dhruva 
and sampa and wherein there are no movements of limbs < cesta> [during this], such 
dance is opined to be jakkadi. 

663cd-664ab. That which is sung by Persian experts in their own language with 
udgraha etc. is named jakkadi and is very beloved of the Persians. 

45. RASA DANCE 

664cd-665ab. When muraja and other instruments are being played by the 
[respective] instrumentalists, for fulfilling the king’s curiosity (fancy) or in vasan- 
totsava [spring festival] etc. 

665cd-666. four, eight, sixteen, thirtytwo or sixtyfour patras join together or part 
[from each other], dance, holding sticks in their lotus[like] hands, 

667-668ab. which are an ahgula in thickness, sixteen ahgulas in length, bound 
with gold etc. metals at both ends, straight, round, firm, free from knots, smooth 
and painted in [different] colours, 

668cd-669ab. held according to the [custom of the respective] region, or 
holding stick fly-whisks, or sticks with cloth streamers or sticks to which daggers are 
fixed, 

669cd-671. with four, five or six beats, varieties of sounded strokes made in the 
front, in the back, similarly on both sides, then varying the strokes with caris and 
bhramans which are beautiful, executed to the left and to the right forming 
geometric patterns < mandalibhuya> repeatedly [such dance should at once] follow 
the song, tala and laya , 

672. Then, this is described by the learned as dandarasa which is fascinating to 
the people. This selfsame dance, performed without sticks is rasanrtya. 


TOC 661a 662d 663bd 664a 667b 668c 
jjT 660cd-664ab 664cd-673ef 






168 


NARTANANIRNAYA 





zr?n cT^rr ^Tf^nf^TTrl: i 



n w ii 


^. <4MfigR: 

cMcft fagcfa II $V9* II 

^ci1=b ■H«ri'H^-lfl*t i I 

^dfaq ®l§d<.^ !$& ^11^ II ^<a II 

H u sRfqg<rH Tf^RT crffafrcR I 
HcIhPM 4 ^ cFeft I 

ylHxlH^<^ J IH^^t^T -jcdlRl'JNH, 
q^M I Mft *pi W MP^dl: II W H 

■^fcT H u -S<l c t)fq§clPl<P c lrl dcPlPlup) 

h^sj+t^ i 


HcfnPH'jjii: MH: I 










































TRANSLATION 


169 


673. Renowned desi dances practised in many countries and [many] people are 
indeed endless. They should be rendered by those who are proficient in the art of 
dancing so as to be abodes of beauty; for, only beautiful dance is dance; the rest is 
mockery. 

(End of Anibandha Dance) 

674. Dance which had become ambiguous in both practice and theory and had 
shrunk < sahgata> because of blind tradition, has been now made unambiguous by 
’Pandarika] Vitthala. 

675.1 have composed this sahgita [treatise] which is much varied [in both theory 
and practice] and is [made] simple for the world, in order to please < rucyartharro 
king Akbar. May this afford profuse joy to the hearts of [you, my] friends. 

676. By studying < drstvco this transcendent, beautiful Nartananimaya composed 
bv Pandari Vitthala as well as the profuse usage of the art [of sahgita as prevalent] 
in the world, may the experts < pandita> themselves become gurus and always show 
the [right] way to those who are in the forefront [in the learning] of the auspicious 
tala, mrdahga, skilled singing and the auspicious flute and dancing. 

Thus ends the fourth chapter, [entitled] Nartakaprakarana in Nartananimaya 
jmposed by Pandarika Vitthala of the auspicious Karnata -jati. 

End of Nartananimaya. 


75abed 

DOT ->4cd 673ef 673f 674a 676 





PATHA-VIMARSA 


TEXT-CRITICAL COMMENTS 

CH. IV DANCER 


1. Nartanadhikarana 


The following sources are used in collating the text of this chapter. Extant 
available in each source is shown in brackets. 

Primary Sources: 

A (4.2.417c-4.2.677) 

B (4.2.1-4.2.291c) 

C (4.1.1-4.2.677) 

K(4.1.5-4.2.477) 

L (4.1.1-4.2.67) 

M (4.1.1-4.1.131b) 

R (4.1.1.-4.2.64c) 

T, (4.1.1-3) 

Of these, folio No. 35 (4.2.234-4.2.262) is missing in B; also, two folios are missing 
in R: No. 124 (4.2.411-4.2.433) and No. 126 (4.2.457d-4.2.476d). 

Secondary Sources: 

NS (chs. 4. 10, 22, 25) 

SR (chs. 6, 7) 

SD (ch. 7) 

AM {passim, 1238: NN 4.2.304cd-305ab) 

AS {passim, 1.165, 166: NN 4.2.629, 630) 

BhK {passim) 

1. NARTANA-ADHIKARANA 

lab. bhavarasavid: C— bhavarasabhava ; M, T ( — rasavrtti', M: a and b are inte: 
changed. 

lb. vid-vmda: M vyavacchanda', L ' da' added in margin. 

2b. cittanu : C vittanu- by graphic deterioration 
2d. tada: L tatha 
3c. nataka: M nayaka 

5c. hastapa-: K haste pa. K commences at this point. 




PATHAVIMARSA 


171 


6a. -nanda: L adds 'da’ in margin. 

7b. tat: R ta 

7c. virupa: R vitrayam ; 

7c. tonga: K repeats. 

8a. upetam: K upejam 
8a. -ralpai M -ralpe 
8b. - rutpluta-: K-rastatd; L glosses: ' laga ’. 

8d. nrtya nrtte: L inverts: nrtta-nrtye 
8d. dvidha-dvidha: K dvidhah dvidhah 
9a. - mudbhata: L-mudbhatam 
9c. narmahga: L adds ‘ga’infralin. 

9d. -miritam: C-mitiritam 

lOd. -dabhinayah: K dalabhinayah 

lla. sa syad: K som sed- 

llb. sattvikah: L sattvikah 
12c. param: omitted in K 
12d. vag hi: B, K vagbhih 
13c. racito: M rucito 

13c. va'nyo: K, R vanya; M vanyam ; see comm, on NN 4.1.13c. 

15a. racana ceti: K khucana veti by graphic deterioration 
15b. mata: M bhavet 

15c. Bhajima has collative consensus, but vyajima , NS 21.6d 
15c. caiva: omitted in M 

15d. Cestima has collative consensus, but vestima , NS 21.6cd; also, 16b, by intrinsic 
md extrinsic probability. 

15d. ceti: C, M veii 
16a. kilajam: C, M kilitam 
\bc.jneyo: omitted in M 

17a. Cestyate has collative consensus, but vestyate by intrinsic and extrinsic 
probability. 

17d. carma: omitted in K 

18c. -■ rasca: M-rastu ; L adds ‘ra’in revision. 

18d. -bharana: L adds ‘ na in revision. 

19a. vidha: L vidhi 

19b. yathdrnirmitah: M hyahgopahgavrnitah ; C -nirmamah 
19c. pravesastu: L adds ‘ sa’supralin. 

20b. -scaite svabhvajah: L adds ‘te supralirv, M svabhavatah 
20c. canye: K vanye 

22a. Fitanila is established by collative unanimity but raktanila elsewhere e.g. NS 
21.82cd. 






172 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


23b. upavarna: R vijneyastusta- 

24b. mukta: NS 21.85b -muktva 

24d. yatra: NS 21.85d ’ nye tu 

28c. rogacca: M rosacea ; SR (7.1655d): rusah 

32a. - bhinayo: L adds ‘ nayo in margin. 

33d. -lukasane: L glosses: kanduyana\ cf NS 7.103b: tathollukasanena 
34a. krodha: L adds ‘dha’ at bottom in revision. 

34b. Svarabhedatah is lectio vulgata\ but emended to 4 svarabhedakah ’ by graphical 
probability. 

36a. sitatapa: L sitatapa 
36b. bhaya: R mukha- 
36b. rogatah: R ta ; K id 

36c. mukhavarne paravritya: NS 7.105ab: mukhavarnaparavrttya 
36d. nadipidanayogatah: C nanadi .. .yoyogatah 
37ab. Corresponds to NS 7.105ab 

37b. - dahgasamsrayam: NS 7.105cd: prayatnat-taddhi duskaram 

38a. preksana: C, M proksana 

38b. - dasru: C, M dasrum : L adds ‘sru’ at top. 

38b. Nisitatah is lectio vulgata ; this vibhavais shown as sita (cold) elsewhere e.g. NS 
7.97d; SR 7.1666c 
39b. ghata: LM dhata- 
39d. smita : C, M smitah 

41a. etesam: L adds 4 sam' in margin in revision. 

42d. vakyatah: omitted in K 
43a. tatra sanketikam: lacuna in K. 

44ab. raga ... kathyate: lacuna in K, M 
44bc. kathyate durga: omitted in K 
45a. raga: L adds 4 ga’supralin. 

48d. K koviadih : majority reading is 4 tadvidaih 4 kovidaiK (R) is preferred to 
4 vidvadbhiK (M) because of graphical probability. 

50b. tva : M hya- 

51a. sahastaih: M, K, R sahasaih 

54a. gada: C gaja 

56c. saukumaryavisesena: lacuna in M. 

56d. prakasanam : C, R pradarsanam 

59c. capalata: R capalam va 

62a. - dhakro -: omitted in L 

62b. rnana-\ M kama 

63d. samprasarana: C sampradharana 

64a. rudito: L adds 4 to ’ supralin. 



PATHAV1MARSA 173 

64c. vanter virekato: M vater virakto 

67c. Krta is lectio vulgata ; only C has Ursa corresponding to ‘ karsyena\ NS 7. 31c. 
But krta is better supported by both intrinsic and extrinsic probability; e.g. NS 7.30- 
pr:‘ -tanugatravaivarnyar' and SR 7.1529a: vivarnasithilahgatvam. 

68b. sanjdyate; R sarhjhayate 
69c. kincit: C racita 

70a. janita: L vitata ; R cakita; K vanita 
71c. srhgari- L adds ‘rf at folio top. 

71c. -tastva - R stvam stvam 

72c. -tkarsai NS 7.37a:- tkatamukhaih 

73ab. madyro ... matah: NS 7.3 pr.: madyopayogad-utpadyate sa ca trividhah 
73c. - stasya: K -stu 

74ab. smita- tanuh-. NS 7.41a: smitavacanamadhurarago hrstatanuh 
74c. suku ... ttame= NS 7.41c 

75ab. gayati ... ksepatah: M omits but replaces with 76ab, ‘skhalita ... made 9 
75a. - satisra: omitted in R 
75b. vyakulo: L vyakula 

75c. skhalita ... nayanah - NS 7.42a; L ghurnah 

76a. -hatah: K, L hata- 

76c. guru ... jihmo: NS 7.43c jihvo 

77a. adhva ... nrtta = NS 7.46pr. 

78a. nihsva.. .gamanaih -NS 7.47c 
80a. dohada: L glosses: ‘garbha 
80c. -santa-: L, R scintya- 

81c. adhrta ... roga = NS 7.48pr. (approx.) cf. ‘ tasyadhrtisirorogagatragaurava- 
wamanaskata .... 

82c. aisvarya ... hara: NS 7.49pr: aisvaryabhramsestadravyapaharah: NS 7.50a: 
iravyaksayaja 

83a. tanu: K inverts in anagrammatism: natu\ L adds ‘nu ’at folio top. 

84b. bhavet: M bhayat 

84cd. kusthana.. .jayate: NS 7.52a: asthane. NS 7.52a: taskaran drstva; 

85cd. sarvendriya ... ktavyah: NS 7.53cd: sarvendriyasammohat tasyabhinayah 
vrayoktavyah 

%fyab % -dhibhavita vrttam yatha:- NS 7.54ab: matibhaviatam yatha vrttam 
86c. -ta sacchastrat: NS 7.54c: tam smarati 

87a. sirah ... ksepaih NS 7.55c: sira udvahana kampairbhruksepaih 
87d. sudhih: K, L sudhi 
88b. Idbhatah: lobhatah ? 

89c. hatate: L adds ‘ta marginally in revision. 

89d. -sauca-: M sauca 



174 


NARTANANIRNAYA 



91abcd. nigudha...cintanaih:NS 7.57pr. 

I Omits 'dha in ‘nigudha 
92a-94b. rdgadvesa....prasadatah NS 7.59pr. 

94d. bhartr:- L bhartuh 

95a. samlabha: C samlapa; K samlapapha 

97ab. utpata..sravanatah: NS 7.62pr : <k9lddldc|<#,l$3KX* HU| ^ | t y ^ o|U| - 
odUdlPWcTT^ 

99a-100. vidyudulkdti..krtudarsana:\-lk(U)hr, NS 7.62 pr: l=f^cr c t>lPl !: iidyHd'1' c l'^^4I- 

99d. visanna: M vivarna 
100c. -scaksi: L-scabhi 
lOlcd. pindi...dhavanat: NS 7.62pr: 

102b. samkoca: K samkrodha 
103a-c. vastra...pulakaih: NS 7.62pr.: 

103d. budhah: K, R varah 
104a. -dru-\ lipography in K 
104cd. -scad ga : omitted in R 
105b. vijnah : omitted in L 
105b. varah: M parah; K varam 
105c. - pakramanato: M-prakramanato; L-pakramanam 
106a. -rohat samprasd -: L roha vyavaha; K harasarana 
106b. samprasaranat: C, R sampradharanat 
107b. paridevanat: M anagrammatism: parivedanat 
108c. vaktra: L cakra by graphic deterioration 
108d. karyasya: R karysya 

108d. -pattitah (B) is preferred to the majority reading ‘pattita . 
llOc-llla. rupa...aisvaryat: NS 7.66pr: 

111b. viksepaih: C, M -dhiksepaih 

lllc-112a. ahgava....radyaih: NS 7.66pr: 3Hq^|b|4^M^Ti<c;HWi-^N u ll^*l c lcril c hH- 

112b. hypermetry for one syllable; -£TTHl^<-? 

114b. vaicintyo-: M vaicitryo ; cf. NS 7.69a: vaicitropaya cintabhyam 
115a. viyoga ... janata: NS 7.70a: istajanasya viyogat 
116cd. alasya....bhavatah: NS 7.71ab: WHl^M 

117a. ratrau jagara: NS 7.71c: ratrau jagaranat 
117c. gaurava: L adds 'ra 9 infralin. 

117cd. mukha....lolanaih:NS 7.72pr.: mukhagauravagatrapratilolana 



















PATHAVIMARSA 


175 


118c. sanna: R omits ‘-nna ’ 

119a-120b. deva... pravesanat: NS7.72pr.: deva.... kalantaraparipatana 
119a. danava: L adds ‘va ’ infralin. 

121a. mhsvasakampitaih: K lacuna; C nisthlvakampitol 
122a. -ranu: L-stusva-; K-rasu- 
123b. -mllanaih: M mllitaih by graphic similarity 
123c. -yanam: L lipography for ‘ya’ 

123d. suptya: M suptva 

124abc. nidraccheda....sparsatah: NS 7.76pr.: ^l6KHlR u IIHl^5;i T ^i i ^'My 
124d. vibodho: L visado 

125b. valana: L calana by extrinsic and intrinsic probability 
125b. mardanat: K, R mardanat 
126b. subodhah: C, M vibodhah 
126d. vidyaisvarya: C vidya saury a 

127a. nmam utsahasampanno: NS 7.78: nrnam utsahasamyogad 
128b. prayunjlta: L adds ‘ta ’ supralin. 

128b. nrtyavit: NS 7.79: panditaih 
129a. gopanais-: L, R motanais- 
130c. cugrata: L tugrata 
130d. jay ate: R jnayate 

131a. bandhananirbhartsaih: NS 7.80pr.: vadhabandhanatadananirbhartsana- ... 
L omits ‘nf; R nimambhatsaih 
131cd-132ab. nana....bhavet NS 7.82: 

HHMRdlsfatsfa TTfcT: 'plTH v I 

132c. kapha: C, K khapha 

132cd. vata...jvarat: NS 7.82pr.: vatapittakaphasannipataprabhavah 

135c. niksipta: K, R viksipta by graphic similarity 

135c. karaih: R inverts: rakaih 

136a. sita: C, K, R santa by graphic deterioration 

136b. srastaksi: L -staptaksi 

136c. vikunana: R inverts: vikunana 

137a. vata....kopdcca: K repeats ‘-ttodi’; NS 7.83pr.: vatapittaslesmaprakopacca 
138a. -dharjk L loses ‘-rji- by damnum. 

138a. -hard :L has damnum for ‘ra\ 

138c-140b. hasitaik.cestitaih: NS 7.83pr. correspondence interalia. 






176 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


138d. -dhapi is lectio vulgata but based on the unreliable K and R, L has damnum 
for pi \ here emended to dhavi 9 on both intrinsic and extrinsic probability . cf. 
NS 7.83 pr. p. 374 and SR 7.1609b. 

139d. stpiar : L has damnum for l -na ’ 

140c. -sea tunmada: BC - ru nmada 
141b. -ghatajam: R -ghatajam tatha 
142a. visu-: C, R visu 
143b. -stacca: L stabdham 
143c. -nameka is erased in K. 

143c. -bhavo hi: L bhavati ; K bhava hi 

143d. -bhinayah smr-: L lacuna 

144a. - panada: K omits '-da 9 

144b. sastra: K sastra 

145a-146a. ahi . bhahgam: NS 7.86pr.: 

145b. - gairir : L -rgaira (= gain by loss of one vertical stroke of ‘ga) 

145d. phenam: R kenam by graphic deterioration 
145d. param: L omits 'ram 9 . 

146a. -bhahgam: K, R -mahgam by graphic deterioration 
147d. -ryamahga-: L -manga- 
147d. calanam; K calane 

148ab. ityevam . tmakam = NS 7.90ab. 

149a. maha....jayate= NS 7.91 ab. 

149cd. srastahga....bhavet= NS 7.91cd. 

150ab. vicara....tmakah: NS 7.92ab. vicaranadi sambhutah samdehatisayatmakah 
150cd. vitarka. ..kampanaih: NS 7.92cd. vitarkah so 9 bhineyastu sirobhruksepakampanaih 
150c. -neyastu: C, M nayet sa- 

152ab. istartha. .. ratih: N S 7.9ab visayaprdptya ratirityupajayate, R-yapritya-Kprasam; 

152cd. saumya...cestitaih=NS 7.9cd 

153. para....panditaih= NS 7.10 
153c. hasitaih: L, R, hasanaih 

154. viyogad...jay ate NS 7.10pr.: correspondences inter alia 
154a. viyogad: K omits ga . 

154c. vadha: L adds -‘dha 9 infralin. 

155a. gatrair'. C, M, gatra 
155b. paridevitaih: L paradevinaih 
155d .-bhinayah: K omits '-bhi 9 . 

156ab. vivada...prajayate: NS 7.14pr.: adharsanakrustakalahavivada-; vivadat is a 
better reading. 










PATHAVIMARSA 


177 


156a. krcchad R: kalahakrcchra K krstddha 
157b. sphura...smrtah: hypermetry for one syllable. 

157cd-158ab. asammoha....dibhih = NS 7.21. 

158cd.-159ab guru....jay ate= NS 7.22: capi vice cabhi 
159a. ghoranam: L cordnam 

159cd-160ab. gatra....gunaih =NS 7.23: vispharita vice vidarita 
159d. vaktrasosana: K vaktrasosana 
161a. kirtanaih: K kirtanani (repeated). 

161b. vibhavatah: L revisional marginalia 
161cd-162ab. nasa....nirdiset- NS 7.26: sav ice - sea (162a) 

162a. hrllekhair: L glosses : ‘ upasthita vamana’ at folio bottom. 

162b. nirdiset: L nidarsayet 

162c. nivrttau: R nivrtau ; probably, ‘ nirvrttau , meaning ‘originating from’. 
162cd-163ab. karmati....dibhih = NS 7.27: praharsa (27d) vice harsasru (163b) 
162d. vismaye: L cinmayo by graphic deterioration 
169b. so...tab: lacuna in K. 

170a. tisthatyalokana pathe: NS 22.174 tisthati ca darsanapathe ; C. kathe 
170d. katham va sambha-: NS 22.175 katham va'sau ; ibid. Ca, Bha: katham va sa 
171a. - tinivedir: K titice- 

171a. vakyaih: NS 22.175: bhavaih but ibid. Da: vakyaih 
171b. cintam: L adds in folio bottom during revision. 

171c. -rardha: L adds ‘-rdha in bottom margin. 

I71cd. vipreksi....darsanam: NS 22.176: preksitani valayarasana paramarsah 
171d. kanci :NS 22.176: tani 

172a. nivi....marsam: NS 22.176: nivinabhyah samsparsanam\ ibid. Bha.: 
ndbhyurudarsanam ca tatha\ ibid; Da: nabhyurunam sparsah karyo; L adds paramarsam ’ 
in revision at folio bottom. 

172c. nisvasitaih: L - mivasataih; K, R omit ‘sva’; K-ter- 
173a. pradesa-: NS 22.177: pradvesa. 

173b. iti: NS 22.177 \-manu- 

173cd. sayya....karmani: cf NS 22.178: naivasane nasayane dhrtim-upalabhate 
svakarmani vihasa 

174a. anvitopahatad: NS 22.178: taccintopagatatvad 
174b. matah: R bhavet 

175b. syad: K, R sthad , by graphic deterioration 

175cd. guna....marjanaih: cf. NS 22.180: gunakirtanollukasanairasrusvedapama- 
rjanaiscapi 

176c. vdpi: L capi: K kdpi 

177b. syadudvegasthanameva tat:K omits ‘syadudvega’\ NS 22.181: masrita\ ibid. Ca: 
-meva tu; ibid. Bha: gantuvinirdiset. 




178 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


177c. khedena: R omits ‘ de\ 

177d. hrddahdr : NS 22.182 -mudvega- 

177d. ca: L va 

178b. me ca: omitted in R. 

178d. -miha co: L-mihaivo- 
179c. udvigna: C, M, R udvibha 
179d. ratya capi: NS 22.184: dhrtya capi 
179d. vilapini: R vilasini 

180b. sasthasthanamasrita: NS 22.184: vildpasthdnamdsritd ; L: sritah 
180c. -yat kathayukta: R prak kathayuktah ; K kathukta 
181c. -tastk L adds at bottom of folio. 

182a. roditi: L rodati 

182b. saptame bhava idrsah: NS 22.186: natyamidam syat tathonmade ; K repeats 
‘bhava’ 

183a. -nirantarakrtaih: NS.22.187: nirakrtaih pascad 

184a. tlvrdpya: C, M catha; R tivrdhyar 

184a. sirasa vedana tivra: corresponds to NS 22.188b. 

185b. citta : L vitta 

187c. karyani : K repeats ‘ka’ 

188c. ’pyeva: C, M -pyevam ; R ye ca 
192b. vajanaih: L calanaih 
193a. vibhava: K, R vibhava 
193cd. sapaih....rasah: occurs only in L, R. 

195cd. - scanyaih.....jayate: parablepsia in K 
196a. tadanaih: omitted in K 
198d. vaisadya: L vismaya 
199c. ravatah: M svaratah 

200d. bhaydnakah: NS 6.68pr. gives the anubhavas as follows: cR^F y 
204c. vakya: C vadana 

205d. -meksanaih: C - mesanaih by phonetic deterioration 
206b. smrtah : omitted in K 

206c. vagadyabhinayasyeha: NS 25.1: ahgadyabhinayasyaiva 
207a. yasmat: NSJa, 25.1, but textus constitution citra 
207b. citra: K omits‘ tra. 

208a. tarjanya: NS 22.82: tarjanim 

209a. mrdusaugandha : mrdv-arhsagandayoh} cf. NS 22.83: tathamsaganda- 
209a. sparsat: K sparsa 

209d. pracalita : C, K pravalita by graphic loss 
211a. coddistau: NS 22.85: cestau tu ; R. yoddistau 







PATHAVIMARSA 


179 


211c. svaccha: NS 25.28: svastha ; K omits ccha '. 

212a. kusumar'. NS 25.28: bhutala 

212d. cagnyabhilasatah: NS.25.29: suryagniputasevanat, L, R cagnydr 
213c. dantostha: K misses ‘to 9 

214a. kranditaisca: NS 25.30: kujitaisca ; C krandanaisca 

215b. grisma: NS 25.33.34describes the spring and summer thus (lacuna in all 
available collative sources of NN): 


I: I 

3WR3T ^FTt: #sq II 


216d. -rapi: NS 25.36: -stada 

217b. vinirdiset NS 25.36: samadiset 

217c. -scapi: NS 25.68: -scaiva 

219a. - viksepaih: NS 25.69: -haraisca 

219c. - rostranagasirhhasca: NS 25.69: -strasvatarasirhha- 

220c. bhutah pisaca yaksasca danavah: L, R bhutapisacayaksadanava 

220d. raksasastatha: NS 25.70: saharaksasaih 

221a. ityadya: L adds ‘dya’ at top of folio in revision. 

221a .-rdesyah: K, L -rdesya 
221b. gaih sa-\ L gaisca 

221ab. After savismayaih NS has three more hemistitches (25.71ab-72ab): 


3TJRW ^ II 




221c. parhsu: L prarhsu 

222a. bahubhyam: omitted in C 
222b. pradarsayet: NS 25.79: prayojayet 

223cd. sauryam samucchrayam: case endings are in the locative in C 
224b. -napradarsayet. :NS 25.80 \-nabhidarsayet. Two hemistitches (25.80cd-81ab) 
DCcur after this: 


II 



















180 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


224c. mukho-: L adds Mo’at folio bottom. 

225a. nidarsayet: NS 25.82: tvabhinayet 

225c. kama: NS 25.82: kamam; R omits kamasa- 

225c. grahagrasta: NS 25.82: -grastan 

225d. jvaropahatacetasah: C,M jvaropdvrttamanasdh 

226ab. tesam...cestitaih: NS 25.83: etesdm cestitam kuryadangadyaih sadrsairbudhaik, 
ibid. Ja: evam vidha naraye tu kurydt tesam vicestitam 
226c. nayanam: L - tanayanam ; K natayam 
226d. vilolanaih: NS 25.83 Ja: vilokanaih 

227b. rajjvd sarhr: NS 25.84: rajvasvdr\ ibid Ja: rajuprar; Pa: rajjva sam- 
227d. patakau svastika-: NS 25.84 Ja: svastikau parsvasam- 
228a. tena: L ta 

229b. jalasayan: K jalasayat by graphic deterioration 

230b. samanvitam: NS 25.4: samanvitah; C samucchritah 

231ab. After pradarsayet, NS has two more hemistitches (25.19). 

nindi+l ^ 'J^ii I 

tad'll■alPM ■Hjdl II 

235c. nava va das a vtipi syuh: C. nuvainadvddasadhd, caiva ,; K, R nava dvadasadhd 
caiva; L navadvada(~) dya caiva (-): lacuna indicated by blank but not supplied. 
236b. dharanaih; NS 25.19: dharanat 

236cd. budhaih...prati: NS 25.121: mayd prokta natye cabhinayah kramat 

237b. nataih K naraih , by graphic deterioration 

237d. loke svabhavajam: NS 25.121: lokatmakam tatha\ C, M loka- 

237e. tasmannatya: R tasmadatra 

237e. prasahge: K omits ‘ge’ 

237f. isyate: C, M ucyate 

237ef. tasman....isyate: NS 25.123: tasmallokapramanam hi vijheyam natyaprayo- 
ktrbhih 


















182 


PATHAVIMARSA 


In hastas the sequence of numbers refers to asamyuta, samyuta and 

Comparative Table for ahga, praty 


Authority NS 
Body-part 

SAC 

JSC 

ANA 

SSR 

HSS 

JNR 

SR 

1 

siras 

13 

13 

13 

- 

13 

9,13 

13 

2 

hasta 

24,13,30 

- 

64 

67 

64 

33,16,21 

64 

3 

hrdaya 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

3,5 

5 

4 

parsva 

5 

5 

5 

56 

5 

5 

5 

5 

katl 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

3,5 

5 

6 

pada 

5,1 

9 

5 

6,7 

6 

- 

5 

7 

griva 

9 

- 

- 

9 

9 

- 

9? 

8 

bahu 

- 

8 

10 

10,6 

10 

- 

10,6 

9 

jathara 

3,1 

4 

3 

4 

3 

2 

3 

10 

uru 

5 

- 

5 

■5 

5 

- 

5 

11 

jahgha 

5 

5 

5 

5,5 

5 

- 

5 

12 

drsti 

36 

8,8,26 

36 

26 

36 

28,36 

36 

13 

bhru 

7 

7 

- 

7 

- 

3 

- 

14 

puta 

9 

- 

- 

9 

- 

- 

- 

15 

tarn 

9 

- 

9 

8,8 

- 

- 

- 

16 

nasa 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

2,5 

- 

17 

adhara 

6 

18? 

6 

6,4 

6 

2,6 

6,4 

18 

ganda 

6 

6 

6 

6 

7 

- 

6 

19 

cibuka 

7 

- 

- 

8 

- 

- 

7 

20 

mukharaga 4 

5 

4 

4 

4 

- 

4 






NARTANANIRNAYA 


183 


nrtta ; in drstis lit. refers to rasa-, sthayir and sancari drstis 
ahga , upahga abhinaya 


NAD 

PSS 

vsc 

KSR 

SRK 

LSS 

BS 

HSH 



14,15 

9 

14 

13,9 

- 

13 

13 

14,5 

8,5 

14,5 

67 

32,23 

67 

64 

27,13,30 

80 

63 

- 

- 

24,13,30,3 

5 

- 

5 

5,4 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

3 

- 

5 

5,4 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

- 

5 

5,5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 


13 

- 

6 

6,5 

13 

13 

13 

13 

6 

6 

9 

4 

9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

-9 

16 

- 

10,6 

10,5 

16 

16 

16 

16 

10 

10 

4 

- 

4 

5 

4 

4 

4 

4 

6 ' 

4 

5 

- 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

10 

- 

5 

5 

16 

9 

10 

10 

5 

5 

36 

8 

36 

36 

36 

36 

36 

36 

36 

36 

7 

- 

7 

7 

7 

7 

7 

7 

7 

- 

9 

- 

9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

- 

9 

- 

9,9 

9 

17 

9,8 

17 

9,8 

9 

9,8 

6 

- 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

10 

- 

10 

6 

5 

10 

10 

6 

6 

6,10 

6 

- 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

8 

- 

8 

7 

8 

8 

8 

8 

7 

8 


- 

4 

- 

8 

4 

4 

4 

5 

4 








PATHA-VIMARSA 

TEXT-CRITICAL COMMENTS 


2. NRTTA-ADHIKARANA 

lc. karana : L adds ‘ na at folio bottom. 

l d. cala-: K, R bala/vala , by graphic deterioration 

le. karmani : L adds 'ni margin. 

l f. katyanghri : R katyamstri 

2ab. ta vyomaga....(kara)na : K lacuna 
2ef. laoma in C 

3a. rekha L resa ('kha always written ‘sa in L) 

3c. kalasa : L kalasa\ 

3d. -nam ca sabha : K lacuna 

3d. sabhasada K interpolates 3c-15b (including vijneyam) on ff. 106, 107 
4b. vmda: L adds on top margin. 

4c. varhsasya laksanam: omitted in K. 

4d. pravesanam : K omits ‘ sa\ 

6cd. -tamar\ B tam-ma 
7a. kampitam: omitted in R 
7b. hitam: R hitakam tatah 

9a. samam: K repeats ‘lolitam ca paravrttam parsvabhimukhcimi-' (8cd.) 

10b. tu: C, M ca 

11c. sanaih: L adds at bottom folio. 

12b. kampitam: R kampanat 
12d. -gurdhva: L -gurdhvam 
12d. -nitam K ninam 

15ab. sirasa vijneyam U*\ B sirasam magnagnvam nir cf. SR 7.65: utksipta bahusirasam 
magnagnvam nihancitam. 

15d. tiryah: R tiryag 
16a. tada: C sada 

17c. vrttanu: C, M vrttattu ; R vrtta tu , by graphic deterioration 
18c. vayu: L bahu ; omitted in R 
20a. sa: L ja, K, R yd 

25cd. Brahma'pi.... maksamah is an echo of SR 7.431: 

37TtTT: I 

fsrttatsfq II 








PAT HAM MARS A 


185 


26a. -t hrtpra-: C vadasu bo- 

30a. After putodvrtta K reverts to NN 4.2.3d from mudrapramanam. 

30c. nikuncita: B adds ( ta in margin. 

30cd-31ab. C bhayanaka is described for adbhuta. 

31a. akuncita: L adds ‘ to ’ in margin. 

31b. vikasini: L vilasini 

31c. - nusandhana: K, L, R sananda 

31cd. sabhru sini: infralineal addition in B 

32a. syat: B sya 

32c. patita: L &dds ( ti at folio bottom. 

33ab. kutila . taraka : lacuna in K 

36a. channa: C, M, R chinna 

36b. paksmala: C paksmaja 

37b. lajjita L, M -llalahta 

37c. gudha: K mudha , by graphic deterioration 

38b. -nmila: K -nmilo 

38cd-39ab. ardha . taraka: Ardhamukula is described after gland in K. 

39c. puta : K omits 'ta. Hypermetry for one syllable. ‘Kuncif is vulgate but 
solecistic. 

41b. tapa: L, R tvatha 

41b. sampluta: R samhyuta , by graphic deterioration 

42abcd. madhura . nimesini lacuna in K 

43d. vibhranta: B visranta 
44b. tara: L adds Wa at folio top. 

45abcd. madira..smrta: R 45ab, 45cd are interchanged; 45cd is repeated after 
45ab. 

46c. can: L vatl 

46d. mata: omitted in K 

47c. netraputa C, K invert: putanetra 

48a. rekha: K, L resa 

50a. -rekd: L resa-; R rekha 

51b. tu : L nu 

5Id. dvitiya: L dvitiya 

52a. -Ipaka: K, L, R - Ipaka; B -lepakapanda 

52c. n mula: L mulo; K, R -lot- 

52d. rusi: B rsi 

54d. -matho-: R -miho- 

55d. tu: K, R ca 

57c sobham: L sobhavam 

57c - guni- L guna 









186 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


57d. -naivcr. L neva, R leva, by graphic deterioration % 

61a. -ta iti K: omits ‘ ta i'- 
64c. ca: R breaks off abruptly. 

67a. -yutah samyutah: Kputah samputah. L adds ‘tali at folio top. 

67b. iti tridha: K lipography for V and ‘dha 
72b. skhalitd-: L valgutd- 
73c. bala K bhala 

75c-77d. gajadanto...mukhau: lacuna in C 

77d. -varalakhatakamukhau: K misses; W, ‘ la\ Ha and adds after ‘mu :khaih 
aviprakirnakhydra khatakamukhaih 
79b. - vubhau: C yutau 
79d. garudapaksakau: omitted in K 
84b. yadanyo: B, K yadalpo ; L yada co 
84cd. paksasya yadyu-\ omitted in K 
85a. caturo: lipography for Hurd in K 
85d. samlbhuta : C sama turdhva- 
88a. cet: C ca 

88d-89b. kahgustha . madhyama: parablepsia in K 

90d. -sasyantarasrita: K, L santarasandamsa 
92ab. khadgdsya....sirsakah: lacuna in K 
92c. kudma: C ksudra; B. kutma 
93d. kuncandd C, K, L kuncita 
95a. vakra: K vaktra 
96a. vakra: B, L, K vakra 

96a. suka....vakra: hypermetry for one syllable. ( sukatundamadhya?) 

97d. lagnagrau cen mayurakah: C -yadyau cet prapurakah 
98cd-99ab. kanistha . vestitah: lacuna in C 

99a. kanisthaprasarita musteh: hypermetry for one syllable: kanistha prasrta? 
lOOab-lOlab. yada....tundakah: lacuna in C 
104b. svastikau: loss in C by haplography 

105d-106b. ’raid tatha: haplographic loss in C 

107d. vestito: C vestito; L vestita ; L adds ‘ta’ at folio top. 

112d. talamukhau: lipography in K 
116ab. ekena....recitau: lacuna in C 
117a. tu: B na , by graphic deterioration 
118a. kapolagrau: C tato’nyolaldta 

119ab, karidanta...karah: C karihastau kasmakharako’lpo latakarah , followed by 
three hemistitchs (113cd-l 14cd) of corrupt and opaque text. 

K karida(-)ddha lau latandolau 'nyascet khatakakaranakah 
L karivaddhastau latandolau nyasyet khata(-)rnagah 






PATHAVIMARSA 


187 


122a. parsva: repetead in K 

122b. smrtau: B purah 

122c. - pavesta: omitted in K 

122c. -vu. K du 

122d. purah: C smrtau 

123c. -tastu: C tassu; B indecipherable 

123. yada . mandalau : lacuna in K 

125c. svastha: B cala- 

125d. desa: C dese 

126d. sampraptau: C samprapteh 

127b. -bhayadau tatha: C-tapalau tadi- 

128cd. anantyau....budhaih: lacuna in K 

129a. ' dhyatmam C ’dhyatmyam 

129cd. tasmat....isyate: lacuna in K 

130b. 'nye: K -ye , by graphic deterioration 

131b. khabdhisaptatah: B glosses : 740. 

132a. rolamba: B, L gloss : bhramara 

132ab. Rolamba . karah is probably an interpolation and belongs after 98cd; K 

lacuna 

133d-134a. artha....prayokta: lacuna in C 

134b. sambhavanti yada karah: C -tyasta yogatah 

139cd. kramasah....mucyate: lacuna in K 

140a-141a. - dyddyah...kanisthadya: haplographic loss in C 

142a. ca. K, L va 

142c-143a. - diyuktaih....vyasta: lucuna in K 
143d. samvrta: L sambhrtam\ K sambhutam 
143d. vartanah: K, L vartanah 
145a. -nam vikarsanam: K haplographic lacuna 
146d. visarja: L adds 4 sa in margin. 

146ab-147ab. samslesasca....tatha: lacuna in C 
146c. caiva: L adds ‘ va' at folio bottom. 

147b. motanam: K mohanam 
147c. tadanam: B, L tandavam 
148ab. - ccapa: lipography in K 
150b. recita: L adds ‘to’at folio top. 

152d. viksepa: K viksiptad 
154d. nu: K nutupatahva 
156d. -dhah smrtah: C -sea sah; L -dhastatah 

156b-156d. -gascagra . smrtah : K repeats. 

159d. ghattito matah: lacuna in K 









188 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


162b-163a. pada....yada: lacuna in K % 

162d. ucyate: L iritah 
163b. vrajan: B bhraman 

166b. ca mandalam: C vi manjanam, by graphic deterioration 
167c. brahmyam: C brdhmam 

171c. Tathahgulyau is lectio vulgata but ’ tatha gulphau ; C is preferred on extrinsic 
and intrinsic grounds. 

172b. samau va : B vicyutau 
173c. tryasra: C yasta- 
175c. rastryasrah: C -rat praptah 
175d. nya: C ’Ipa 
177b. budhaih K, L budhau 
I77d. desa: C dotra; L dosa 

178d. padetarah: B yaditarah C padottarah, by graphic deterioration. 

179b. padam: L adds ‘ dam at folio bottom. 

179b. tado •: C tatho 

181b. tryasra: C krtsna 

181c. sardha: C sardhe 

182a. vamasya: omitted in C 

184a. tadvidyadaUdham: L tadvidha-\ K-dasthiram 

184b. mahat: K mata 

185b. samlagnoru: C samlagnonu 

187c. tajnaih: C tatra 

191a. viyute. K vidhute 

191c. vrsabhasana: C vrsabhakhya sa- 

193-198. NN is indebted to NS 10.1-6, introducing only slight modifications. This 
is shown below: 

193ab. = NS 10.led; Lacuna in its collative sources Ka Kha Ga Gha Ca Bha 
193a. yatra: NS evam 

193cd. = NS lOcd: samanakarane cesta canti pariklrtita. Lacuna for - du- 
193d. pari-: omitted in K 
194ab. = NS 10. 2ab 

194a. vidhano B, L vighato , by graphic deterioration 
194cd. = NS 10. 2cd. 

195ab. = NS 10. 3ab, but b: carity-abhisamjnita 
195c. kramanam: K karanam ; B karanam vastutascari- 
195cd. = NS 10. 3cd but d: karanam nama tad bhavet. 

196a. karanai -: L adds ‘ ra at top of folio. 

196ab. NS 10.4ab, but a : karanam samayogah 

196a. Hypermetry for one syllable: ‘karanaistribhiti or ‘Karanais tribhis tuyuktahl 
196cd. =NS 10.4cd, but d : samyuktair 





PATHAVIMARSA 189 

197ab. =NS 10.5ab, but a : prasrtam , however, Ma: prastutam 
197a. prastutam: NS 10.5a prasrtam 
197cd. =NS 10.5cd but d: yuddhe tu 
197d. yuddhesu: NS 10.5d yuddhe ca 

198ab. =NS 10.6ab but a: yadetat, b: lectio vulgata is -can devasamsthitam vice cansv 
-eva- by graphic deterioration. 

198a. yadyetat NS 10.6a yedetat 

198cd. NS 10.6cd; d: natye ’hgam but- Na : natyahgam. 

198d. natyahgam: NS 10.6d natye ngam 
200a. casa: L adds ‘sa’in margin. 

20Id. - viddhika: K, L vrddhika 
205b. tala: K nata 

205c. - rdhapu K folio 114 concludes; it is duplicated in Ms copy; folio 115 is 
missing. 

209a. purah: L surd 

209c. lahghanika: C -lambanika 

212a. padaih NS 10.14a padaih 

213a. krstena: NS 10.15a ghrstena 

213c. -tpadam: NS 10.15c danyam 

214a. yatroddhrtva: SR 7.920c yatra dhrtva 

214b. yada: SR 7.920d pado 

215a. vicyutya: SR 7.922a uddhrtya 

215b. padau: C pado 

216a. vama: NS 10.17a vamas 

216c. parsve: NS 10.17c caiva 

216d. tada: NS 10.17d budhaih 

217b. sarpitah: L sarpanah 

217c. - pasavya: C, NS 10.18c -pasarpi 

218. = NS 10.20 

218a. tada: NS 10.20d tu sa 

219ab. =NS 10.27ab; samosarita=samotsarita , always in C, NS, SR etc. 

219d. can sadbhirudahrta: NS 10.27d vyayame samuddhrta 
220ab. = NS 10.28ab 
221ab. =SR 7.930ab 

221b. ’ hgustha : L adds -'stha' in margin. 

221c. - karena: C carena 
222ab. = SR 7.934ab 
222b. -nyo’agra: B. nyonyasca 
222c. carano: SR 7.934c -scarano 
222d. =SR 7.934d 



190 


NARTANAN1RNAYA 


223ab. = SR 7.935ab 
223cd. = SR 7.935cd 
224ab. = SR 7.936ab 
224cd. = SR 7.936cd 
224c. valanam: C calanam 

225a. ubhabhyam valanam yasyah: NS 10.21c urubhyam valanam yasmat 
225a. valanam C calanam 
225b. = NS 10.21d 
226. = NS 10.22 

227a. caturasram: SR 7.972a caturasram , always in NS also. 

227b. bhulagno nghrih : SR 972c bhulagrau cet 
227c. vaiko: L caiko\ SR 7.972c vahghn 
228abc. = SR 7.973abc 

228b. pasrto: folio no.116 in K commences here. 

228d. prasiddha lokavartmani: SR 7.973d sarhgadevena sodita 

229. = SR 7.974 

229c. recitau caranau : K recito carano 

230. = SR 7.975 

230c. sarato: K inverts: rasato 

231. = SR 7.976 

231d. vidhiyatr.C 'bhidhiyate, SR 7.976d -mabhidiyate 

232. = SR 7.977 

232d. kari: omitted in K 
233ab. = SR 7. 978ab 
233cd. = SR 7.978cd 
234ab. = SR 7.979ab 

234a. yadva: B defectio up to 262a (‘ kundtam) 

234cd. = SR 7.979cd 

235. = SR 7.980 

235c. can: L adds ' ca at folio top. 

236. = SR 7. 981 

236a. sthite: SR 7. 981a sthitah 

237. = SR 7. 982 

237b. bhuvi: SR, 7. 982b bhuvam 

238. = SR 7.983 

239. = SR 7. 984 

240. = SR 7.985 

241. = SR 7.986 

241 d. -mahuh sri bharatadayah: SR 7.986d snkaranesvarah 

242. = SR 7.987 




PATHAVIMARSA 


191 


242a. itastutasa: C, K, L itastetasca " 

242b. - yed bhuvi sarhsthitau: SR 7.987b -yeta visamsthulau 

243. = SR 7.988 

243c. samsarpya: SR 7.988c samsarpet, C, K, L samsarpa 

244. = SR 7.989 

244d. canjanisununa: SR 7.989d sodhalasununa 

245. = SR 7.990 
245b. ca: SR 7.990b cet 

246. = SR 7.991 

246d. jahghika: omitted in K 

247. = SR 7.992 

247d. -par SR 7.992d -va- 

248. = SR 7.993 

249. = SR 7.994 

250. = SR 7.995 

250a. samhata: C svastika 

251. = SR 7.996 

251a. nam SR 7.996a nat 

251b. -muddhrtabhyam: lacuna in K; SR 7.996b -muddhatabhyam 

252. = SR 7.997 

253. = SR 7.998 

254. = SR 7.999 

254d. -ksepa tadodita: SR 7.999d - ksepah tadoditah 

255. = SR 7.1000 

255b. -rdha: SR 7.1000b - dda- 
256ab. = SR 7.100lab. 

256a. = SR 7.1001a 
256cd. = NS 10.30ab 
257ab. = NS 10.30cd 
257cd. = NS 10.31ab 
257c. valanam: C,L calanam 
258ab. = NS 10.3 led 

258a. viniksipec-cainamapa: L omits '-na' and adds the rest at folio bottom. 
258cd. = N^ 10.32ab 

258d. pdrsvotta.no sthitam: NS 10.32b janustanasamam 

259ab. = NS 10.32cd 

259b. tu sa smrta: NS 10. 32d vidhiyate 

259cd. = NS 10.43ab 

259d. samutplutya nir : NS 10.43b cotplutya vini- 
260ab. = NS 10.43cd 



192 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


260a. any a jahghancita ksipta: NS 10.43 c jahghancita pariksipta 

260cd. = SR 7.949cd 

261ab. = SR 7.950ab 

261cd. = SR 7.950cd 

262ab. = SR 7.951 ab 

262cd. = NS 10.34ab 

263ab. = NS 10.34cd 

y * 

263b. tvatha va pare: NS 10.34d parikirtita 

263cd. = SR 7.1014 ab 

263c. urn SR 7.1014a urah 

263d. padam: B, K pader, L pado 

264ab. = SR 7.1014cd 

264a. tamahuh SR 7.1014c tamaha 

264b. tandava vedinah: SR 7.1014d srikanthavallabhah 

264cd. = NS 10.35ab 

264c. hyancitam: L adds ‘ tarn in margin. 

265cd. = NS 10.36ab 

266ab. = NS 10.36cd 

266b. tu sa smrta: NS 10.36d prakirtita 

266cd. = NS 1044ab 

266c. nupuram caranam: C nupuras 

267cd. = NS 10.44cd 

268ab. = NS 10.40ab 

268b. - dvrttam: NS 10.40b -ghrstam 

269cd. = NS 10.45ab 

269d. trikam L glosses: kati 

270ab. = NS 10.45cd 

270a. bhramanam: NS 10.45c bhramanat 

270cd. = NS 10. 42ab 

271 ab. =NS 10.42cd 

271a. vivartacca: B, K vivarta ca 

271cd. = NS 10.37ab 

27ld. cotksipya NS 10.37b aksipya 

272ab. = NS 10.37cd 

272b. bhavet NS 10.37d smrta 

272cd. = NS 10.38ab 

272d. kunntastu: \S 10.38b kuncitasca 

273ab. = NS 10.38cd 

273a. patayte. NS 10.38c nipate— 

273a. —ddhah sa”viddha: NS 10.38c -viddhamaviddha 





PATHAVIMARSA 193 

273b. namatah: NS 30.38d nama sa » 

273cd. =NS 10.39ab 

273d. utplutya vinir : NS 10.39b samutplutya ni- 
274ab. NS.10.39cd 

274b. carika mat a: NS 10.39d caryuddhrta 

274cd. = SR 7.1002cd 

275ab. = SR 7.1003 ab 

275cd. = SR 7.1003cd 

276ab. = SR 7.1004ab 

276b. suribhirmata: SR 7.1004b sarhginodita 

276cd. = SR 7.1005ab 

276d. prsthetarat: L adds - ‘ta’ at folio bottom; after ‘-tarat’ K interpolates ‘tasya 
siddhaye Unam samankha chi- from 289d-290a; SR 7.1005b sprstvetarat 
277ab. = SR 7.1005cd 
277a. nikate: SR 7.1006a nikatam 
277cd. = SR 7.1006ab 
278ab. = SR 7.1008cd 
278cd. = SR 7.1009ab 
279ab. = SR 7.1007cd 
279cd. = SR 7.1008 ab 
279c. tala: B adds ‘ ta folio top. 

280ab. = SR 7.1009cd 

280b. lahghayet: SR 7.1009d lahghite 

280cd. la tin ... bharatddibhih: not found in SR 7.1009 

281ab. = SR 7.1010ab 

281cd. = SR 7.1010cd 

281bc. ’hghre... bain: lipographv in R 

282ab. = SR 7.101 lab 

282b. tada: SR 7.101 led inserts one more hemistich after this: ‘ tadeva valanam 
kecid vadanti nrttakovidah 
282cd. = SR 7.1012 ab 
283ab. = SR 7.1012cd 
283b. -tah prstha- lipography in K 
283cd. = SR 7.1013ab 
284ab. = SR 7.1013cd 
284cd. = SR 7.1015ab 
284c. -kasyai: SR 7.1015d - ka'syai 
284d. -ndolitah purah: lacuna in K. 

285ab. = SR 7.1015cd 

285b. sud... smrta: C, L sudviddha bodhita budhaih; SR 7.1015cd ‘sa viddha bodhita 
budhaih ’ 



194 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


285cd. = SR 7.1016ab 

285c. valita: B, L calita 

286ab. = SR 7.1016cd 

285a-286a. kuncita... pravrtam: lacuna in K 

286cd. = SR 7.1017ab 

291c. urdhvadijanu: B ends abrupdy after this. 

293cd. = NS 4.66cd . 

294ab. =NS 4 67ab 

294a. nikuncitam carhsa: NS 4.67a nikuhcitamsa 
294b. talUna: NS 4.67b ca talUnam 

294b. karanam: In K ‘ nikun ■’ (294a) is written and blotted out in ink; citam 
vasakutavi is written and bracketted off. 

294b. bhavet: NS 4.67b smrtam 
294cd. = NS 4.65cd 
294d. latahastau: NS 4.65d karau capi 
295ab. = NS 4.66ab 

295a. yatra bhavet: C yatra cettu; L sa bhavet, K ca bhavet 
295cd. = NS 4.105cd 
296ab. = NS 4.106ab 
296cd. = NS 4. 138cd 

296c. kuhcitahgulitale: NS 4.138c. urdhvahgulitalau 
297ab. = NS 4.139ab 
297b. tat: NS 4. 139b tviti 
297cd. = NS 4.97cd 

297d. -grivau ca recitau: NS 4.97d griva ca recita 
298ab. = NS 4. 154cd 
298c. = NS 4.155a 
299b. = NS 4.155b 

299b. janitakaranam: NS 4.155b janite karane 

299cd. = NS 4.61 cd 

300ab. = NS 4.62 ab 

300cd. = NS 4.133cd 

301ab. = NS 4.134ab 

301cd. = NS 4.85cd 

301d. bhavet: NS 4.85d nyaset 

302ab. = NS 4.86ab 

302cd. = NS 4.94cd 

303ab. = NS 4.95ab 

303b. -nrtta: K nrtya 

303cd. = NS 4.116cd 



PATHAVIMARSA 195 

303d. samucchritah: L samucchitah; K samucitnh, lectio simplicior; NS 4.116d Pa, 
Ba samuchhritah but textus constitutio, prasaritah 
304ab. = NS 4.117ab 

304cd-305ab. vidyudbhranta ... pankrame = AM 1238 

307ab. = NS 4.124cd 

307b. -statra NS 4.124d -scaiva 

307cd. = NS 4.125ab 

307c. karam sthapya: NS 4.125a karah sthapyah 

308a. = NS 4.11 lc but belongs to krantakarana; NS 4.110c vrscikam caranam krtva 

308b. = NS 4.110d 

308cd. = NS 4.11 lab 

309ab. = NS 4.104cd 

309b. -rdhvam: NS 4.104d -rdhva 

309cd. = NS 4.105ab 

309d. vrsciko: K, L vrscike 

310c. padah: K, L pada- 

311a. raktim car. K saktitvam : C yatkim ca 

31 led. = SR 7.892 ab 

312ab. = SR 7.892 cd 

312cd. = SR 7.893ab 

313ab. = SR 7.893cd 

313cd. = SR 7.894ab 

314ab. = SR 7.894cd 

314cd. = SR 7.895ab 

314c. viralah: SR 7.895a virala- 

315ab. = SR 7.896ab 

315cd. = SR 7.895cd 

320d. dirghata: 1, dlrghatah; K dirghata 

321b. titheh: L tithi 

321d. tatra: L tantrah 

322a. tatra: L tattat 

322b. racitam kanakacitrakaih: hypermetry for one syllable; citraih ? 

322d. prakara: C prakara: K prakara , lectionnes simpliciors 

323a. -dhagaru: L -dhagura 

325c-326d. laya ... tatha: lacuna in C 

326b. viviktata L adds second ‘-vi- at folio top. 

326d. truta: L about eleven characters are erased after this. 

327d. taddehasya: K tadrahasya 
328a. akubjatvam: K akubjam ca 
329ab. -tvam rupavatvam: lacuna in K 



196 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


329c. dehe : C, L deho 
330a. puma K, L guna 

330a. guna ... abhavam: hypermetry for one syllable : - laksma -? 

330cd. = SR 7.1224ab 
331ab. = SR 7.1224cd 
331a. mugdham etc. : K mughdha etc. 

33led. = SR 7.1225ab 
333ab. = SR 7.1226ab 
333a. sotsaham: C protsaham 
335b. -di: L adds at folio top. 

335bc. -disujivitam manmathasyoktam: lacuna in K 

335cd. = SR 7.1227ab 

336ab. = SR 7.1127cd 

336a. yuktam: SR 7.1227cd jus tarn 

336cd. = SR 7.1228ab 

336d. matam: L, K viduh 

337ab. rekha ... tatha: cf. SR 7.123lab: sausthavam rupasampattis caruvistimavak- 
trata 

337cd. = SR 7.123led 

338ab. = SR 7.1232ab 

337b-338b. kanta ... lata: lacuna in K 

338cd. = SR 7.1232cd 

338c. madhyatara: SR 7. 1232c madhyonnata 

339ab. = SR 7.1233ab 

339b. rahityamasiralata: C rajatvamabhiramata 

339cd. = SR 7.1234ab 

340ab. = SR 7.1234 cd 

340b. -salla- : omitted in K 

340cd. = SR 7.1235ab 

340d. vadyagita: inverted in L: gitavadya 

341 ab. = SR 7.1235 cd 

341a. -nim cahgair : C ni vyahgya 

341cd. = SR 7.1236ab 

341 cd. sumana... dadhat: lacuna in K 

342cd. = SR 7.1237ab 

342d. - namesam : L namyesam 

343ab. = SR 7.1237cd 

343cd. = SR 7.1216ab 

344ab. = SR 7.1216cd 

344a. manohan sa rekha parikirtita: SR 7.1216c: manonetrahan rekha prakirtita 



PATHAVIMARSA 


197 


345a. calivata: L calivadha: SR 7.120Qa calivada , always 

345b. cuka: SR 7.1206b suka , always 

345b. muro'nganah: K, L muroganah 

345cd. =SR 7.1206cd 

346ab. = SR 7.1207ab 

346cd. = SR 7.1207cd 

346d. samya = SR 7.1207d lasya 

347ab. = SR 7.1208ab 

347cd. = Sk 7.1208cd 

348ab. = SR 7.1209ab 

348a. calih sa saighryam: K repeats ’sa saugapadyeka cdlanam calih’ because of 
homoeoteleuta 

348a. saighrayam sammukhyam prayah SR 7.1209a saighryasammukhyaprayd; L - 
sammukha- 

348cd. = SR 7.1209cd 
349ab.= SR 7.1210ab 
349cd. = SR 7.1210cd 
349d. lasalli: K lasali- 
350ab. = SR 7.121 lab 
350b. cukam SR 7.1211 b sukam 
350b. cdlanam: K rdlanam 
350cd. = SR 7.121 led 

350c. -bena: K repeats ‘vilambena cukam tallayaralanam ’. 

35 lab. = SR 7.1212ab 

351b. uro'nganam: K, L uroganam 

35 led. = SR 7.1212cd 

351c. dhasakah: SR 7.1212c dhasakah 

351d. -dhascalanam SR 7.1212b -dho namanam 

352ab. = SR 7.1213ab 

352a. satala: SR 7.1213a satala- 

352b. kayardhayomatih: C, K, L kdryd dvayo-\ L -nnatih 

352cd. =SR 7.1213cd 

352d. bharateneti kirtitam: SR 7.1213d -did nihsankabhasitam 

353ab. = SR 7.1214ab 

353cd. = SR 7.1214cd 

354ab. = SR 7.1215ab 

354b. suksmah: SR 7.1215b suksma- 

354cd. = SR 7.1215cd 

355ab. = SR 7.1037ab 

355cd. = SR 7.1037cd 





198 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


356ab. =SR 7.1038ab 

356b. sthiti: SR (7.1038cd-1039ab) has two more hemistitches after this: 




365a. yau kau: C proktau 

366b. kirti: L adds at bottom 

366d. - trayavisaradah: C -trikavisesajnaih 

368c. nimnatsarah: L adds ‘tsa - at folio bottom. 

371d. - carakah: K, L carikah 

374d. tatah : L repeats ‘ sannivesah sabham evam tatah\ 

379cd. -vaksyami prasahgad: lipography in C 
380ab. = SR 6.424cd 
380cd. = SR 6.425ab 

380c. -syajo raupyo vamsah : lacuna in C; K repeats after ‘syat \ 

381ab. = SR 6.425cd 

38 led. = SR 6.426ab 

381c. kanisthdhgulivistdram: lacuna in C 

382ab. = SR 6.426cd 

382cd. = SR 6.427ab 

383ab. = SR 6.427cd 

383b. -ahgula\ L adds '-la 1 at folio bottom. 

383cd. = SR 6.428ab 
383c. -ttara: L, K -ntaram 

383d. sadangulantaram bhavet SR 6.428b bhaved ekangulantaram 

384ab. = SR 6.428cd 

384cd. = SR 6.429ab 

384c. tanyatra: SR 6.429a tanyastau 

385ab. = SR 6.429cd 

385a. varhsotthah: SR 6.429c varhse’dhah 

385b. pariseso : SR 6.429d parisesya 

385cd. = SR 6.430ab 

385d. manvate: K, L manyate 

386ab. = SR 6.430cd 

386b. -astakam: lectio vulgata but emended to -astamam on extrinsic probability. 

386b. bhavet : SR 6.430d matam 

386cd. = SR 6.431ab 

386c. vayuh : K, L vayu 

387ab. = SR 6.431cd 

387a. randhraih: K randhrau 






PATHAVIMARSA 


199 


387b. sanmukhadyo nigadyate: SR 6.43! d-rekaviro nigadyate 
387cd. = SR 6.432ab 
388ab. = SR 6.432cd 

388ab. ekaihd....lat cf. SR 6.432cd: ekaikangulavrddhya syuranye varhsascaturdasa 
388cd. caturvirhsa..vardhanam cf. SR 6.433ab: astahgulad vamsad etadahgula- 
vardhanam 

389cd. = SR 6.435ab 
390ab. = SR 6.435cd 
390. = SR 6.436ab 

390d. caturdasah : NN athetises three hemistitches after this from SR 6.436cd, 
437abcd: 

<*diPilsi: qlsd I 

391ab. = SR 6.438ab 
391a. paro : SR 6.438a paraih 

391b. sritah NN athetises three hemistitches after this from SR6.438cd,439abcd: 

^lPclVidl^dl5T3RTt | 

tf ^ ^fdPiPi '^RT: I 

ll 

391cd. = SR 6.448ab 

391d. vamsi sthapya: SR 6.448b varhse sthapyam 

392ab. = SR 6.448cd 

392cd. = SR 6.449ab 

393ab. = SR 6.449cd 

393b. kramat: SR 6.449d karat 

393cd. = SR 6.450ab 

394ab. = SR 6.450cd 

394a. -dhyama omitted in K 

394a-395b. yasya...phutkardn ma- lacuna in K 

394b. nisadavat: SR 6.450d nisadavan 

394cd. = SR 6.45 lab 

594cd. nispattiste ca: SR 6.451ab: I edn, but II edn .,nispattir naiva- 
395ab. =SR 6.45led samksiptena : 

395sl samuksiptena : SR 6.451c susiksitena 
595a. racita: K racitat 











200 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


395cd. = SR 6.452ab 

396ab. = SR 6.452cd 

396cd. = SR 6.453ab 

397ab. = SR 6.453cd 

397cd. = SR 6.454ab 

397d. -karsat tu: L -rpho gu; K -rsa tu 

398ab. = SR 6.454cd 

398cd. = SR 6.455ab 

399ab. = SR 6.455cd 

399cd. = SR 6.456ab 

399d. pancadha purvasuribhih: SR 6.456b sarhgadevena pancadha 

400ab. = SR 6.456cd 

400cd. = SR 6.457ab 

400c. vamsasya: lacuna in C 

401ab. = SR 6.458ab 

401a. sancari: C,L samvadi; SR 6.458a. sancari 
401cd. = SR 6.458cd 
401c. -lahguli: C le'hguli 
402ab. = SR 6.459ab 

402a. ardhamukte 'rdhamukta: SR 6.459a ardhamukta'rdhamukteh 

402b. vidha: L pidha- 

402cd. = SR 6.459cd 

403ab. = SR 6.460ab 

403cd. = SR 6.649cd 

404ab. = SR 6.650ab 

404cd. = SR 6.650cd 

404d. yo dhvanih: K,L yadyatih 

405aK = SR 6.65 lab 

406cd. = SR 6.654ab 

406d. dhvanau: SR 6.654b dhvaneh 

407ab. = SR 6.654cd 

407cd. = SR 6.655ab 

408ab. = SR 6.655cd 

408b. sabdaphutkaroyoriti: SR 6.655d phutkare sarnginodita 
408cd. = SR 6.656ab 

408d. -svetad-ekddasaka: SR 6.656a -svevaikadasaka proktalaksandh 
409ab. = SR 6.656cd 

409a. phutkare cava- : SR 6.656c phutkaraih sava¬ 
ged. = SR 6.658cd 

409c. kapila: SR 6.658c and adopted by Kallinatha (p. 358) but 'kampita' as read 
by Simhabhupala (p. 359) 





PATHAVIMARSA 


201 


410ab. = SR 6.659ab 

410b. ucire bharatadayah: SR 6.659b aparanucire pare; C omits bharatadayah 
410cd. = SR 6.659cd 

410d. bhavet: K folio 124 is missing; consequently, lacuna from this point to 
4.2.432. 

41 lab. = SR 6.660ab 
411a. kapilo: SR 6.660a kampito 
41 led. = SR 6.660cd 
412ab. = SR 6.661ab 
412cd. = SR 6.661cd 

412c. nyunadhiko dvayo: SR 6.661c uno’dhiko vayo 

413ab. = SR.6.663ab 

413a. sarana: C sphurana 

413cd. = SR 6.663cd 

413c. vyakti : C vyakta 

413d. druta'gatah SR 6.663 (I edn.) vegad gatagate; D (variant reading in SR 
II edn.) vegad yathagataih; SR I edn. foot note variant (according to II edn., but not 
actually found in I edn.): vegayata gateh. 

414ab. = SR.6.664ab 

414b. sthana: adopted by Simhabhupala (p. 359) but SR (constitutio textus) and 
Kallinatha (p. 380): tana 
414cd. = SR 6.664cd 
415ab. = SR 6.665ab 
415b. -dbhutih = SR 6.665a - dbhuti - 

415cd. = SR 6.665cd; cf. vamsikasya gunan etdn vakti snkaranagranih 
415d. dosa: L dosa 
416ab. = SR 6.666ab 
416cd. = SR 6.666cd 

416c. sthananivasasca: SR 6.666c sthananavaptisca 
417ab. = SR 6.667ab 

417a. vamsikasya tu: SR 6.667a vamsikasyeti 
417c. sahgitajnaih A commences at this point. 

418a. ca: A to 

419c. -syarhtata: C syantara 

419c. tuduka: A kuduka ; L adds ka in margin. 

419cd. -scantardhane: A f scantardhvanau 
421 c. jyesthanvayo: A jyesthasca ye 
422a. mantapa: A mandapa (always) 

423a. karyam tatra: A inverts: tatra karyam 



202 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


425c. svaramantha A svaramandra 

426c. bandhakasya L adds 'ka at folio bottom. 

431d. -dini yojayet A -ni niyojayet 
432cd. layocitam: C.L: layayojitam 
433a. aviddha: L adds '-ddha at folio top. 

433c. K commences again at - stripadim\ 

433c. gacchen: K gacchan 
434d. ca: omitted in K 
436d. kramato: L kramato 
436d. hrdi: A yadi 

439a. talamadhyordhvasancdkhyah: cf. SD.7. 41a : talamadhyordhvasancas syuh 
442d. -kam nayet: A nam nayet reditorial emendation: vadet 
446c. samam: L sabham by graphic deterioration; An editorial emendation to 
samam. 

447a. mandala: A, K mandalam 

448b. vartanakam, K omits nakam ; L adds 'rta' at folio top. 

448d. ca: K va 

449c. sanmukha: A sammukha 
449d. yutau: A putau 
451a. sthitih A sthitah , K rfuftTi 

451d. turdhvo-: An editorial emendation to - rdhvam ’ 

452d. sabham: established by collative unanimity, but 'samam preferred because 
of both documental and extrinsic probability. 

453d-455a. visesatah....masadya: lacuna in C 

454d. caiva: C vaiva 

455d. capi: C vapi 

457d. viprakirnau: A viprakirno 

457d. tatha: K ends here abruptly. 

459b. kukuhrem: An editorial emendation to ‘ kaukkutlm 
461b. puspanyatra prapurya A puspanyaprapurya tatra 
463b. bhahgi: An editorial emendation to bhrhgi 

463pr. muditah-puro...vamena: 5SD 7.38pr lacuna; A-stadurdhvotthitena-\ L-tthitena 

463p r. manasa: SD 7.38pr vyavrttaparivartita\ A, L vyavartita parivartita 

464. SD adds (loc. cit.) W I l” ^ 

464cd. kamala...tatah: hypermetry for one syllable in both c and d 
469a. - ruccalitau: A ruccalitau 
469c. laksye: SD 7.113 laksya 
470d. calati: A vasati 








PATHAVIMARSA 


203 


472a. yatra: A tatra 

473c. maraVim: A maraVim 

473d. purvakam: L puruakam 

474d. mandalam: A mandate 

475b. kaukkuti: L kaurkkuti 

475d. 7‘anw: A editorially emended from janu 

476d. caritva: A editorially emended from carittu 

478a. tato: C talo 

479c. - dhastala: C -dhastana 

480c. yati: C, L niyata 

480d. tu yat: C trayam 

481a. tannrtta C tatra tam u- 

481c. bhitram: L mitram 

482a. tullam: C turllam 

482d. kartan: L adds ‘-rf at folio top. 

490d. gopucchadyamtatah: A gopucchadyam tatah 

491a. sacalakah maralah syat: A sa balamakara sa lasyar\ L kara lasya 

493d. citram tat sthitinpsita: C citritah sthitinrita 

498a. tad jneyam: C tad geyam 

498d. yad: C pad 

499a. kuvadakhyam A dhuvadakhyam 
501c. vanya: L canya 
502d. laghu: C lasva 

504a. caramam caramam: C caramam ca samam 
504a. vardham: L cardham 
505b. tatah: C tu 
509a. tribhir : A trivi- 

509d talapindakan: C data-; A -khandakan 

513cd. iti...rupakam: It is doubtful if this line is part of a sloka in NN and is shown 
in A, L as two subtitles. 

514d. prasaranam: A samprasaranam 
516c. lilasca: L lilaca 
522a. palasi: L glosses: mamsada 
523a. tad: C tu 

523b. dhuvadamitlritam: A dhuvadah samiritam 
524c. bahya: A vatya by graphic deterioration 
525c. bherundam: A bhairudam; L bhairundam 
526c. ityuddistam krtam: A ityurdhvadhah 
530d. bahyar : A vatya- 
539c. dviravrtya L adds at folio bottom. 



204 


nartananirnaya 


541c. thehkika: A, L dhehkika 
543a. bhramayitva: SD 7.167 bhramitva ni- 
543d. divi: SD 7.167 yadi 
545a. nipatatah: C nipatitah 

547b. datu: A emended by the editor to dantu; L danta 
547c. militau: A emended by the editor to ’pihiu 
548d. ucyate: A, L -mucyate 
549d. yada: A yadi 

551a. patayeccitram: SD 7.173 padayostitram 
551b. thenki: A, L dhehki 

552a. cavanau vyovnni tam bisam munirabravit: SD 7.174 -caranam cavu tam visam 
caturo ’bravit 

553 b. mungaranam kukkutasane. hypermetry for one syllable. 

553 d. hingaranam kedducire: hypermetry for one syllable. 

554b. -mucire: A -mucyate 
555c. -vrtya A -vrttya- 

556b. cakradya bhramarika yatha: hypermetry for one syllable. 

557b. bahyabhraman: C bahyabhramarika 

561cd. desadaparam: SD 7.119 desadapyagram puratah karam 

563a. pura: SD 7.180 purah 

563c. gatya: SD 7.181 -scannyasya- 

564c. gatramatra-'. SD 7.177, gatre nataly, L —matraih 

564d. bhava: C bhavan 

564d. cestitaih: L vestitaih, by graphic deterioration 
569c. brahmakhya: SD 7.207 brdhmakhya 
570d. kantabhidhe: SD 7.207 krantasthanake 
571cd. patakau....ca : lacuna in SD. 

572b. -cchinnena: C, L -ksinnena 
572b. va: A ca 

572c. dhiro: collative sources are unamimous on ‘dhiraih’ 

572d. -bhineyo madhyamah svarah: SD 7.209 -’bhinayen madhyamam svaram 

573cd. vaisnava....tatha: lacuna in A, L 

575a. paravrtta: A pardvritena 

575a. murdhna: SD 7.212 dinaya 

575c. vinirdisto: SD 7.212 vinirdesyo 

576b. katihastena: A lacuna ; C kara-, L kari- 

576b. Vilaya: SD 7.212 dinaya 

577d. rodhatah SD 7.214 -saratah 

578b. pranrtya: A tannrtyam 

582c. gitena: C galena by graphic deterioration 







PATHAVIMARSA 


205 


584ab. hastakair....bhavan: hypermetry for one syllable; but A: hastairabhinayed 
ardhan(? arthan) 

584c. padaih: A tattad 

588cd. tiruvanicindukah: hypermetry for one syllable: tiruvanicinduh? 

591d. vidu: A bindu 

593d. timvanicinduko:hypermetry for one syllable: tiruvanicinduh? A. tiruvanividuh 

594b. tatkatha: C tattatkatha 

602c. saranam: C saranam 

604d. khandanam: SR 7.1312 kuttanam 

607d. -hgallola : - hgollola ? -hgalola (cf. SR 6.871, 872) 

610b. khandanam: SR 7.1306 kuttanam 
613c. kattane: A kaddadi , always 
615b. su-: A tu 

616a. Dhatvadi has collative unanimity; Wahitam 'xs emended to ‘ sahitam on both 
documental and extrinsic probability. 

619d. bhasaya: C - kapriya 
620a. patti: A pattih 

620d. plutamanaihA drutamanaih; L leaves blank for naiK 

629c. trir: AS 1.165 dvi 

629d. - srayam: A emended from krtha 

630a. -vddhyam: AS 1.166 bhavadyam 

630b. -gatala: AS 1.166 -galapa 

630d. yamakam ca va: A yamdkam tatha; AS 1.166 yugakam 
631c. -gantaram: A gantara- 
632b. hava: SD 7.272 gite 

633d. gayeddantodyotitardgakam :C rayaddantagetirahgakam; SD 7.273 mukhardgadi 
samyutam 

635d. sucakah: C, L sucika 

636a. sagnvair : L sagriva- 

636c. nrttasya: A nrtyasya 

637d. nerika: A nerikah 

638c. malakam: A kamalam (inversion) 

638d. mudupam: L mudapam 

639d. tattat digasrita iti: A tattat diksastrata iti 

640c. tivatigraha: C tavadi(ggraha); L tavata set 

641 d. lagair-: L bhagair 

642d. -lambic'. L adds at folio top. 

643c. sa eva: solecism sanctioned or ignored by collative consensus 
647a. motayet: L motayat 




206 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


647b. muhuh: L omits - huh 9 

647d. kathita: A kathyate\ L adds ‘ka’ in margin. 

650d. gaditam: A kathitam 

651c. reca: A rekha 

652a. -grasa-: A grasa; L -grasca 

654c. ‘-manrtya-is established by collative unanimity; -mavrtya is preferable by 
both intrinsic and extrinsic probability. 

655c. jahghikam: C, L jahghika 

656b. ghargharibhih: L adds ‘-bhih 9 in margin. 

656b. tadaitat: L tadetat 
658a. pada: A pader, L pava 
658b. -stardha: L syardha 
658c. tatkayam: C, L tatkaryam 
661a. gajara: L adds Wa in margin. 

661a. -ktam tva-: A -ktamkrtya 
662d. sampa: A sarnyd 
663b. nrtyam: A nrttam 

663d. Svara established by collative unanimity; but ‘svasva 9 is preferable by both 
intrinsic and extrinsic probability. 

664a. yad: A tad 

667b. - sahguli: A sahgulaih 

668c. - desanu: L adds ‘-nu in margin. 

674. hi: A ends here. 

675d. sukham: L susam 
675ab. 18 syllables 
675cd. 20 syllables 






COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


1. NARTANA-ADHIKARANA 

la. desabhasakala of his own and of wherever else the art is practised cognately; 
cultural background, customs, manners etc. of the region which endow nativity on 
the art; language and literature; cognate and associated or affiliated arts. Some of 
these may be gathered from various sources: 

Gita vadya nrtya alekhya (painting), visesakacchedya (leaf-painting to adorn fore¬ 
head), dasana-vasana-ahgaraga (painting teeth, clothes and body), udakavadya 
(musical instruments using water e.g. jalatarahg ), malyagrathana (making gar¬ 
lands), nepathyaprayoga (costumery and make up applied to oneself or others), 
bhusanayojana (makingjewellery or ornaments), hastalaghava (dexterity), perform¬ 
ance of vina damaru etc., prahelika (riddle), ndtakakhydyika darsana (knowledge of 
dramaturgy and of akhyayika i.e. story telling) sukasarika-praldpana (teaching 
parrots etc. to talk), desabhasavijnana (knowledge of regional language/s), dharana- 
matrka (power of mental retention), puspasakatika (creating miniature carts, 
horses, elephants, palanquin, caskets etc. to convey love epistles), abhidhanakosa 
chandovijnana (knowledge of grammar, lexicon and metrics), kriyakalpa (poetry 
and poetics), vyayama (body exercises) etc. (Vatsyayana’s KamasutraandJayamahgala 
commentary on ibid, by Yasodhara.) 

Gita vadya nrtya citravidhipustakarma (cloth-painting, embroidery etc) , patracchedya 
~Jilyavidhi rahgaparijnana (stage expertise), lokajhanasanrasamskara (beautifying 
the body with clothes, ornaments and unguents), visesakausala (extraordinary skill 
m some art), purusabhavagrahana (understanding the proclivity of others), pras- 
- Adnugamana (following the beloved), punahpunaminksana (casting repeated 
j.^nces at the beloved) (Venkatasubbayya, A., The Katas , pp. 41-44). 

Kdiyalamkara nataka gayakatva kavitva kamasastra citrakarma (Keladi Basavappa 
Mvaka, Sivatattvaratnakara 1.2.43-45) 

Hdrvabhdvadisamyukta-nartana anekavddyavikrtirtad-vddanajnana vastralamkara 
sandhdna anekarupavirbhdvakrtijhana anekasanasandhana ratijhana citradyalekhana 
rr.atyadyaneka yantravadya-krti hinamadhyadi-sarhyoga-varnadi rahjana kancuk- 
adisivanavijnana nanddesiya-varna-susamyaglekhana-jnana adana pratidana 
(Sukramtisara, p. 126) 

Leham (writing), ruvam (creating shapes from wood, cloth, gold etc.), giyam 
(singing), vayiyam (playingon musical instruments), nattam (dancing), saragayam 
(knowledge of seven svaras ), pukkharagayam (knowledge of the percursive instru¬ 
ments puskara) , samatalam (special knowledge of cymbals) , janavayam (colloquial 
language), paheliam (riddle), abharanavihim (ornamental procedures), taruni- 
padikamma (beautifying a young woman), itthilakkhanam (-strilaksana ) 


208 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


kaganilakkhanam (expertise on jewellery) vattakkheddam (sport of singing vrttas), 
pattaccheyya (= patracchedyam) (Nayadhammakaha , p. 26) 

la. bhava-rasa: see NN 4.1.36ff and commentary. 

lc. nartana: Nrt, a verbal stem of the 4th ( divadi) class is parasmaipadi (.Dhatupatha 
26.9) and means body disposition; under ‘gharV (Panini, Astadhyayi, 3.3.18) it 
becomes ‘ narta and in bhave ( ‘lyut’) it evolves into nartana (Panini, op. cit. 3.3.115). 
It takes on forms such as nrtyati under Panini (op. cit. 3.1.145, ‘ svun ) and assumes 
the causative form 1 nartayati ’ under Panini (op. cit. 3.1.133, nic, nvul ). It acquires 
the particular suffix -ka’ in svartha and becomes nartaka. Thus a dancer is 
prescribed to be a dance teacher also. 

2c. angaviksepa vaisesya: Viksepa means the act of throwing asunder, away or 
about, casting, throwing, moving to and fro, waving, shaking, tossing, letting loose, 
extension, projection, inclination etc. When performed in a special (out of the 
common) way ( vaisesyam ) which is aesthetically pleasing to the minds of people 
(janacittanuranjanam) such body-act becomes dancing. 

3a. natyam... prakirtitarm seems to be inspired from SR 7.3: ‘natyam nrtyam tatha 
nrttam tredha tad-iti klrtitam . This is why the seventh chapter in SR is named 
‘ narianadhyaya . Natya is defined therein (7.16-18) thus: 



efWffxPTt I I 

Nrtya is defined as (7.26, 27) 

while nrtta is defined thus (7.27, 28): 



3fir#'+lTb!4<=bR"J II 

I have discussed the semantic flow, polarisation , nuances, and diversification of 
these terms in detail in my ‘ Bharatiya-sahgitadalli Paribhasaprayoga’ (pp. 79-108). 

4c. apusta: It is not clear why pusta is exempted. This exemption is not found in 
other authorities. Probably it should read 'apustam (though apusta is the lectio 
vulgata). 

5d. angasobhitam: Pure formal beauty is the raison d’etre of nrtta; any body 
movement cannot qualify for nrtta; to be so regarded it must fulfil the conditions 
of janapriyam (popular appeal), tyaktabhinayam (freedom from word meaning or 
from referability) and anandakaram (giving joy). 






















COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


209 


The term ‘ natya' is largely employed in NS and in dance parlance to mean the 
ten kinds of dramatic presentations ( dasarupaka ) which are the confluence of 
several art forms such as music, dance, words and abhinaya, i.e. in the sense of a play. 
Its use in the sense of a dance form is inaugurated by Purandaradasa in the 16th 
century when he says ‘ bharatanatyava natise' in his song ‘ adidano rahga adbhutadindali ’. 
Bharata uses the term nrtya very sparingly (e.g. NS 1.45,4.24,9-50). The aphoristic 
but lucid definitions of natya, nrtyaznd nrtta by D h an ariij aya (Dasarupaka, 1.7-9) and 
of Dhanika ( Dasarupavaloka , comm. Dasarupaka, loc. cit.) are noteworthy: natya 
consists of imitation of avastha (mental, emotional and physical states; activity of a 
state of existence, bhava) and abides in rasa-, avasthanukrtir-natyam, but nrtya is 
bhavasraya; nrtta abides in neither but only in tala and laya and consists of 
ahgaviksepa performed only to these; nrtya, on the other hand, is born to explain, 
expound, augment or suggest word meaning; it is marga, i.e. has a disciplinal 
tradition; (Sarngadeva concurs on the synonymity of nrtya and marga. SR 7.26,27). 
nrtta is desv, Dhanamjaya seems to use marga and desi in the sense of being based on 
prescribed or ascribed referential equations and being free from such equations 
respectively, rather than in the sense of ‘preserved archaic’ and ‘varying with 
regional popular taste’ respectively; for, Bharata himself describes angikabhinayaoi 
ahga, pratyahga and upanga etc. (chs. 4 etc.) as a sdstra. In reply to a question by the 
sages, ‘Wherefore is it justified since nrtta conveys no (discursive) meaning?’, 
Bharata avers that its existence is justified because it adds splendour to the 
performance and is liked by-everyone naturally; it is also auspicious and (an 
excellent) means of entertainment (NS 4.262-266). 

6d. visama, vikata,laghu: These are not mentioned in NS. SR (7.11,12) describes 
visama as nrtta involving revolution with or around a rope etc., vikata as nrtta 
involving oddity in appearance and dress and laghu-nrtta as consisting of light 
karanas, leaps etc. Later authorities, including NN have adopted these definitions. 
Visamais also included as a component of peranl dance (e.g. SR 7.1303). An example 
of rope-dance of visama nrtta is the kohlatika (Kan. kolatiga) who is described as 
rajjusancaracatura (skilled in movement with rope) well versed in dagger dance 
( churikarnartanakrta-parisrama) and expert in dangerous, intimate use of weapons 
( sdstra-sahkatasampata-patu) by SR (7.1330,1331). Ids well known that folk dances 
of Karnataka such as viragase, Virabhadrae tc. .involve vigorous dance movements in 
which the dancers simulate battle or strike themselves with swords when possessed. 
Folkdances of Manipur include a form in which two male dancers hold daggers and 
simulate a very realistic, terrifying dagger fight. Astabhasakavi Candrasekhara 
15th century) describes in his Pampasthanavarnanam, (p. 33) dances involving 
climbing up and down a rope with one or both feet employing complex and difficult 
bhucans and akasacans. 

8 c. tandavam lasyam: Bharatamuni derives the word ‘tandava' as ‘expounded by 


210 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


Tandu’ (NS 4.17, 18). After staging the samavakara variety of rupaka called 
Amrtamanthana. Bharata is asked by Brahma to stage the dima variety of rupaka 
entitled Tripuradaha before Siva. Bharata does so together with his sons at the foot 
of the Himalaya mountain. Now Siva calls Tandu and commands him to teach 
Bharata the angaharas-which he himself has performed in his twilight dance. Tandu 
does so and the dance came to be known as tandava, i.e. the ahgaharas and its 
constituent karana, recaka, can, vartani, mandala, bhraman, sthanakae tc. These are 
described in chapter 4, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 of the NS. 

Abhinavagupta seems to feel, while commenting on the above (NS 4.17) that the 
NS has somewhat overstretched the derivation of the word in tandava from the 
mythical Tandu and has rather overemphasized this (because Bharata is doubtful 
of the origin of the word and imposes a mythical origin; and he endeavours to 
display prominently a weak theory by repeated, consistent reference to Tandu ?): 

‘sarvatrapathe tandusabda evayuktah, tandava sabdavyutpattivasaV (Abhinavabharati 
on NS loc. cit. p. 88). It sounds somewhat suspicious that two words, tandava and 
lasya, signifying complementary and cognate forms of dancing should have a rudhi 
and yoga modes of derivation respectively. 

This situation was worsened by an unwilling editorial conjecture by Ramakrishna 
Kavi who endeavoured to fill a lacuna in this part of the commentary; 

‘tandumunisabdau (—) tayor aparanamani’ ( loc. cit.). He offers, on pure conjecture 
to fill this lacuna with the reading ( nandibhara) (?). He offers no reason or authority 
for the equation Tandu - Nandi. On the other hand, he expresses, with a question 
mark a doubt about his own conjecture. This question mark does not seem to have 
received from modern scholars the attention it deserves, for they regard this 
equation more or less uniformly as fait accompli. 

Bharatamuni mentions Tandu some seven times: as a bharataputra (1.26): 
Sambhu commands Tandu to teach his ahgaharas etc. to Bharata (4.2.17, 18), 
Sambhu creates recakas, ahgaharas and pindibandhas and gives them to Tandu, who 
is referred to as muni and) puts them together in the form of a dance and gives it 
to Bharata (4.260) which is hence called tandava (4.261, 267); Tandu as a 
promulgator of tandava (4.269); he refers to Nandi (and Bhadramukha) as 
(bhuta)gana. Abhinavagupta quotes a passage from Tandu to say that a mrdahga 
performer who is ignorant of kala, tala and sastrais only a skin beater ( carmaghataka; 
Abhinavabharati on NS 34.252, p. 456). He makes no independent mention of 
Nandi, except once to quote a passage from Nandimata to say that the twofold recita- 
ahgaharas propitiate the gods (op.cit. on NS 4.248-259, p. 169). It is thus clear that 
both Bharata and Abhinavagupta regard Tandu and Nandi as different authorities, 
and to Bharata, Tandu is a purely mythical one. 

However, there is good evidence to believe that a Bhatta-Tandu is a historical 
authority who flourished with, or before KIrtidhara. Jayasenapati identifies him 




COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


211 


with the same Tandu who received angaharas, recakas and pindibandhas from Siva 
and transmitted the same to Bharata ( NrttaratnavaU, 1.73, 4.253, 372). In the 
chapter of NrttaratnavaVi devoted to the elucidation of karanas he mentions Bhatta- 
Tandu as many as 21 times (4.43, 73, 75, 78,105,114,125, 133,138,147,148,150, 
164, 165, 177, 181, 184, 188, 219, 232 and 236) but does not mention Nandi/ 
Nandikesvara at all. Again, Kallinatha, while extracting a long passage from 
Kohala’s Sahgitameru on vartanas and calakas shows that Kohala compiled the views 
of Bhatta Tandu on at least four occasions ( Sangitakalanidhi , commentary on -SR 
7.349, pp. 108, 112, 117, 118). 

Ponangi Srirama Appa Rao suggests (Ndtyasdstramu, p. 130) that Brahma 
originated natya and Siva, nrtta. The latter suggested to Bharata the adaptation of 
his own nrtta to the latter’s natya performances. Thus nrtta came to be used to 
in terpret word themes in natya. So Bharata should be regarded as originating nrtya, 
a word which, according to him does not occur in the NS. 

However, it may be noted that the entire 4th chapter of the NS. deals with only 
nrtta elements and has been called tandava repeatedly. Interpretative material such 
as hasta viniyoga, drsti etc. is separated from this and dealt with in separate chapters, 
the karanas and angaharas described in the 4th chapter are not meant for 
vakyabhinaya or rasabhinaya. As indicated above, Bharata himself uses the word nrtya 
definitely, though sparingly, in the selfsame chapter 4 and elsewhere; the word is 
not replaced with ‘nrtta' in any of the critical apparatus. 

Bharata does not regard tarujavaand Idsya as opposite (or complementary) kinds 
of dances, or even as closely related. Such polarisation is a later occurrence, found 
in Nandikesvara ( Abhinayadarpanam, 5-7), Sarngadeva (SR 7.4-8) as also the two 
separate lines of transmission of tandava: Siva-Tandu-Bharata-Bharataputras, apsaras 
etc.; Iosya: Parvati-Usa womenfolk of Saurastra etc. Bharata does not mention Idsya 
anywhere in the 4th chapter of the NS; but does not in connection with the mpaka 
called bhana in which a single character performs twelve lasyahgas viz. geyapada, 
sthitapathya, asina, puspagandika, pracchedaka, trimudha, saindhava, dvimudha, 
uttamottama, uktapratyukta, citra and bhavika in erotic situations, in relation to 
itnnrttanirmana, i.e. plot construction (NS 19.116-138). 

8d. dvidha dvidha: NN is probably indebted to SR (7.28cd) for extending 
tandava and Idsya varieties to both nrtta and nrtya, though this is already found in 
earlier authorities such as Dhanamjaya ( Dasarupaka, 1.10). 

9a. Udbhata is replaced with uddhata (vigorous, agitated) in parallel authorities. 

9d. Lasya is derived from ‘las’, a verbal root of the first (‘ bhvadi ’) class, a 
carasmaipadi which means to cling ( las-samslesane. Dhatupatha, 17.64). Among 
: thers, it means ‘to rise, to shine, to sound, to sport and to become perceptible’. It 
cognate with the Latin lascivus, lascivire. It also occurs in the 10th (‘ curadi ) class 
- u bhayapadl (Dhatupatha, 33.55), and means ‘to dance’. It is composed of graceful 



212 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


angaharas, soft tempi, and kaisikl style of presentation. It cQnsists of soft cans , gentle 
words, soft diction and bhava glances such as hela. It has 64 elements, called 
lasyahgas , to suit various roles, including puspahjali , ghonda , regional (vernacular) 
instrumental play and tempi, dance representation of suddha , salagawnd. suda gitas, 
gundaVi dance etc. according to Saradatanaya ( Bhavaprakasanam , 10,137,138,147- 
149). It may be noted that Bharata describes (NS 19.116-138) twelve out of these 
sixtyfour with the same general description. Saradatanaya also describes (op. cit. 
1.192-199) tandava with details not encountered elsewhere: it is composed of 
excited, violent or intense (uddhata) karanas and angaharas ; the style is arabhati if 
associated with song theme. It is of three kinds: if not uddhata , it is canda ; if uddhata, 
it is uccanda ; if very uddhata , it is pracanda. Not uddhata (anuddhata) should be 
understood as somewhat less intense or violent than in uddhata , but not sukumara. 
Tala graha and tempo prescribed for these are canda-: vilambita-atita , uccanda: 
madhya-sama , pracanda: druta-anagata. 

For a discussion of the conceptual dichotomy of tandava and lasya , vide 
Sathyanarayana, R., ‘The Connotations of the Terms Tandava and Lasya in Studies 
in Indian Dance , pp. 40-444. 

10ab. abhi...nimaye ef. Bharata (NS 8.5 pr.-7) Grammatical elucidation of this 
term ( abhinaya) sheds light on its many semantic dimensions or ramifications which 
are quite relevant to its applications in dance and dramaturgy. 

The verbal root ‘ nin is ubhayapadi , of the first ( bhvadi ) class, transitive and is set 
(with‘i/) and evolves into forms such as nayati-nayate etc. It means ‘to lead to, to 
convey, to fetch, to reach, lead towards, to bring into any state or condition, to 
subject to, to while away’ etc. Its fruits accrue to other than the subject (paragdmin ), 
i.e. parasmaipadi ; however, in seven semantic contexts namely sammanana , utsahjana , 
acaryakarana, jhana , bhrti, viganana and vyaya , it becomes atmanepadi , with self 
accrual. It takes on forms such as niyate in the passive voice, ninisati-ninisate in ‘sari 
(intentive), nayaniyah-netavyah in krte tc. When the prefix ‘ abhi is added, it yields 
meanings such as to convey through body acts the thoughts, feelings, implications 
etc. of the mind; to imitate, to lead face to face (with the spectator) etc. All these 
and similar meanings may be attributed to ‘abhinaya (to conduct towards, to bring 
near, to represent dramatically, to act, to adduce, to indicate an emotion or purpose 
by look, gesture etc., to perform, to ornament highly etc. etc.) to comprehend its 
numerous semantic ramifications and inter projections proposed by the ancient 
masters. 

llabc. caturdha...sceti: These four forms of abhinaya are unanimously recog¬ 
nised by Bharata and later authorities. 

lld-13. tanmadhye ...’bhidhlyate: Such superiority of discursive ( vdcika) repre¬ 
sentation is not mentioned elsewhere. Natya , nrtya and nartana are arts which 
purport to represent with rasathe transactions of the referential world. And so, they 




COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


213 


are necessarily involved with word themes. The whole world is, in its transactions, 
dependent on speech in its broadest sense (of self-expression and communica¬ 
tion); this passage seems to echo the overtones of SR (1.2.1): 

cTsrcft aL)c^Kl^T || 

and upanisadic concurrence on the primacy of speech in human life ( Chandogya 
Upanisat 1.1-9): 

I 

as well as the grammarian theory that all knowledge (and therefore all human 
activity) is inseparately bound up with, and illumined by the word (Bhartrhari, 
Vakyapadiyam 1.123): 

H iqtS'feT ycq4) I 

^ *TRlcf II 

However, nrtta which is exclusively based on movement of (the whole or part of) 
the body has for its autonomous (untranslatable or irreferable) meaning pure 
formal beauty, unobliged to word meaning. Therefore, the foregoing eulogy of 
vacikabhinaya is inapplicable to nrtta. Bharata has himself given half consent to the 
autonomous expressiveness of nrtta (NS 4.261-268). However, Bharata applies 
abhinaya largely to natya which preponderates in re-presentation of word meaning. 
This is somewhat unthinkingly extended to nrtta also by later authorities. 

13c. Sarthakaih is superfluous because of the use of words gadya, padya , samskrta, 
prakrta etc. It is perhaps used for added force. 

13c. Va’nyo includes regional/vernacular languages. 

14b. naipathyajo: The assertion that all dharyabhinaya stems from nepathya is 
found only in NN. 

14c. Nepathya includes jewellery, ornamentation, facial and body coloration, 
other kinds of make up, retiring room and green room etc. 

14d. Pusta means several things: clay modelling, assembling several parts or 
things together under a single cover, plastering, painting etc. 

14d. Alamkara includes jewels, clothes, staff, sword and such other accessories 
used to suit the particular requirements of the dramatis personae , situation, region 
and time. 

15a. Sarijiva also called sajiva , sajfiva elsewhere, is to bring live animals such as 
horse, elephant, cow or birds e.g. parrot, dove, peacock on the stage. 

15a. Angaracana is preparing the body by applying a suitable colour to the face 
and body, adding or removing hair, moustache etc. to appear like the dramatis 
yr^sonae to be represented. 










214 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


15c. sandhima: stage property or costume prepared by sewing. 

15c. Bhajima called vyadhimd elsewhere, means property or article prepared or 
moved by machines (by pulling strings etc.). 

15d. Vestima is any desired shape or object obtained by surrounding, turning, 
stuffing etc. with cloth, e.g. cloth doll. 

15d. Cestima is indicating or representing an object merely with the gesture, 
moving, turning, round etc. of parts of the body. 

14-19. Bharata (NS. 21.1-70) andjayasenapati ( NrttaratnavaCi , 1.36-46) are quite 
elaborate in describing pusta, alamkara and sanjiva, with which the NN concurs. 
Bharata deserves a careful and serious study here and is quite suitable for reviving 
(especially in the design and application) of floral and other garlands. Since pusta 
and sanjiva are not very relevant to nartana, Sarngadeva (SR 7.21) is content with 
saying ‘ aharyo harakeyurakiritadi vibhusitam. 

20b. svabhavaja: natural colours; here, primary colours, i.e. irreducible to 
simpler colours. 

20c. samyogtya: compound colours derived by mixing two or more primary 
colours. 

20d. upavarna : hue, tint? 

21-23a. sita.. .varna: A more authoritative account of two-colour combinations is 
found in NS (21.78-86). White, blue— karandava (a kind of duck or swan); white, 
yellow— pandu; white, red — padma (lotus); yellow, blue 4 — harit (green); blue, red 
kasaya (duli red); yellow, red— gaura. Jayasenapati (op. cit. 1.41) gives syama 
(intense green) as a primary colour instead of blue. 

According to Visnudharmottara Purana (3.40.16-26) primary colours are five 
white, yellow, red, black and blue, which yield, when severally mixed in varying 
proportions, hundreds of colours. Some examples are: blue, yellow palasa (pure, 
whitish and bluish; which by varying the proportion of any one is again of the 
colours yellowish green, light green and dark green); white, blue— virahga of 
different hues like the blue lotus or blackgram; red, white—reddish white hues like 
lodhra, red lotus and dark red; the materials used to prepare these colours are gold, 
silver, copper, mica, red lead, tin, yellow orpiment, lime, lac, light green sapphire, 
indigo and cinnabar. The Vaijayantikosa (5.3.11-25) gives a detailed list of colour 
mixtures. 

Various other minor sources give different colours and hues as follows: 
Padmasamhita (ch.14) enumerates sveta pita rakta harita and krsna (cf. 
Visnudharmottarapurana, supra): The Brhadaranyaka upanisat (2.4.4.7) enumerates 
sukla nila pihgala harita lohita. Tattvaratnapradipika gives krsna nila pita sukla, sonita 
(5.242). Sivanubhavasabdakosa (41, 206) counts nine: pita, sveta, harita, mahjistha, 
kapota, manikya, jyoti, mahajyoti, aganita. Sarhjharthatattvakosa mentions twelve: (53): 
white, yellow, red, green, black, blue, dusty rose, red, blood-red, smoky, reddish, 
brown and tawny. 




COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


215 


Bharatamuni associates facial (and body) colour with the nature and character 
of the dramatis personae, this is found practised even today in Kathakali dance and 
yaksagana. Such association has some basis in psychology. In the context of highly 
developed modern technology in stage lighting, it is worthwhile, on experimental 
basis, to revive such colouring in both dance and drama. 

26c. Bhava means sattvika-bhava here. However, it has an independent, technical 
meaning in the parlance of Indian Aesthetics; according to Bharata (NS 7.0pr.). 
The bhavas are so named because they infuse ( bhavayanti ) the poetic meaning.into 
the spectator’s mind through words, gestures and representation of mental dispo¬ 
sition ( sattva ); he further defines it (NS 7.1-2) as that poetic meaning which is 
initiated by external stimulants ( vibhava ) and is perceived through behavioural 
response ( anubhava ), becomes (‘ bhu') bhava when accompanied bywords, body 
disposition and representation of mental disposition. Bhavais that which makes the 
spectator experience the poet’s innermost aesthetic/affective idea/feeling through 
facial expression <mukharaga> with the help of the threefold abhinaya viz. vacika, 
ahgika and sattvika. 

26d. Sattva has multiple meanings among which essence, kernel and nature are 
relevant here. In a rasa-bhava situation sattva arises as an involuntary psychophysical 
state when the mind is in samadhi, i.e. when focused, pointed. It is only when the 
mind has attained to this state that the actor is able to simulate or personate 
horripilation, tears, blanching etc. corresponding to rati and other stationary 
moods in natya in accordance with the human nature. It is with the aid of this sattva, 
:.e. making the mind pointed or focused, that the actor is capable of representing 
tears, horripilation etc. which signify sorrow or pleasure, even through he may not 
feel them himself; in other words, even though he does not experience such a 
psvchophysical state out of his own personal stimulations {vibhava), he is able to 
display such states which are natural to people by a mental focus and its pervasion 
bhavita = pervaded). This is why such induced or felt psychophysical states are 
designated sattvika bhavas. (cf NS 7.93pr.) 

Saradatanaya (op. cit. 1.147-152) offers a psychological analysis of this phenome- 
- n. The mind experiences sense-perceptible objects viz. sound, touch, form, taste 
in d smell by pervading sattv a and by clinging to intelligence. Sattvais of three kinds, 
intelligence ( buddhi ), knowledge (jhana) and joy {ananda). Sattva is the phenom- 
tr.on of experiencing the pleasure and pain of others in tadbhava (actually 
be c »ming the same, i.e. identifying oneself with somethingelse or someone else). 
There are methods to facilitate the experiencing the pleasure and pain of others 
n ladbhava through behavioural responses {anubhava). These are called sattvas. 
Tbe : ~ ika-bhavas have similitude with anubhavas (e.g. stambha, asm, romdnca etc. 

;h ire of the nature of anubhavas) ; they should be regarded as distinct from 
h - M bxxzj since they take birth in sattva. 



216 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


Sarrigadeva (SR 7.1645-1654) discusses the origin of sattvika bhavas from a 
philosophical viewpoint and takes up an interesting stance. He elucidates the 
meaning of sattva from three directions: sarhvit-jnana (knowledge or consciousness 
which has receded from experiential objects), related to prana (vital force), sattva 
gunaas enunciated by the Sarhkhyas and prana as related to the primordial elements 
( bhuta ). These may be designated as adhyasavada (theory of illusory super¬ 
imposition), sarhkhya-vada (theory of discrimination) and bhautikavada (physical 
theory) respectively. According to adhyasavada , citta (mind stuff) is modified 
(distorted) by stationary moods ( sthayi-bhavas ) such as rati and is superimposed on 
prana. This superimposed consciousness pervades the entire gross body through 
prana. Then arise the modifications such as stambha. Under these circumstances, 
rati etc. become savourable, stimulated by external agencies, become behavioural 
responses taking the form of stambha etc. and are so perceived. Such anubhava 
(behavioural response) is the exterior of sattvika-bhava while the modalities of 
consciousness which are of the form of sattva are its interior. These modalities are 
manifested in the sarhvit which is superimposed on prana. 

According to samkhyavada , sattva is goodness ( sadhutva)-sattva guna, that is, 
unblemished body and soul, the psychophysical states ( bhavas) which are born 
( bhavdh) in such sattva are sattvikarbhavas. Generally, pranavayu abides in the other 
bhutas — prthivi , ap , tejas and akasa. Among these, prthivi is the most dominant; 
pranavayu is also dominant and moves about in the body. When it abides in the 
various other bhutas , various sattvika-bhavas are born thus: prthivi-stambha , ap- 
asru, tejas-vaivarnya and sveda , akasa-pralaya\ (prana) vayu by itself— romahca from 
feeble prana , vepathu from moderate prana and svarabheda from intense prana. 
These sattvika-bhavas are readily born in individual souls (jiva ) who out of illusion 
identify themselves as the body in common men; but they are only rarely 
manifested in the non-egotistic seers. 

29ab. tasya karma: Anubhavas as well as the acts involved in representing them for 
sattvika and other bhavas are described by all the ancient masters from Bharata 
onwards. 

A comparison of generating causes or external stimulants ( vibhava ) which excite 
aesthetic affect and the activity which promotes its stage representation ( anubhava) 
in this adhikarana of NN will now be taken up with some major textul sources on 
the subject. The following abbreviations are used: 

NS Natyasastram of Bharatamuni (GOS edn.) ch. 7 
SR Sangitaratnakara of Sarngadeva, ch. 7 
DR Dasarupaka of Dhanarhjaya, ch. 4 
BP Bhavaprakasanam of Saradatanaya, ch. 1 
PR Prataparudnyam of Vidyanatha, ch. 4 
RG Rasagahgadhara of Jagannatha, ch. 1 






COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


217 


In order to preserve accuracy and to enable ready comparison, the original 
samskrta terms in these sources are retained. Only sloka numbers (but page 
numbers in RG) are given in brackets. (+) indicates additional items not found in 
NN; ‘—’ indicates the absence of items in the source (but occurring in NN); (/) 
divides vibhavas (which are given first) from anubhavas (which follow). 

28cd-30ab. stambha: NS — mada ; + soka ; SR + raga duhkha viksepa\ BP + krodha- 
garva. 

30cd-32ab. sveda.NS:+ ghataklamaSR + moha manastapa moha-duhkha ; BP +jvara 
gtani sukha. 

32cd-33. romanca: NS + sparsa krodha ; SR +alihgana acchurita krodha;—roga BP - 
pulaka. 

34. svarabheda: NS: +rauksyaroga; SR +ugrata~;rogaE? -jara +jvara/visvara=bhinna 
(svara) gadgada skhalita-nisvana. 

35. vepathu: NS +roga\ — jara; +rosa; SR -valingana acchurita (loud laughter, 
scratching with finger nails, angered, excited) -sparsa BP: -roga-sita. / vepana 
sphurana kampana (in which trembling is more than in the previous one). 

36-37ab. vaivamya: NS +srama tapa; SR: moha-klama/ facial colour may be altered, 
besides by pressing the arteries, also by the application of vermilion etc. BP atapa- 
tapa+ahgasaundarya viplava ahgakrsata. 

37cd-38. asru: NS: baspambuplutanetra -asruti ; SR: harsa-ananda/asru sravana 

39-40ab. pralaya: NS +mada/+avyaktasvasita-asmita; SR: +mada/+bhumipatana 
BP; +prahara mada roga-srama murcha moha abhighata/+ duhkhabhisahga 

40cd-58ab. DharmI is itikartavyata , mode of abhinaya ; realistic abhinaya (repre¬ 
senting things exactly as they are in the world) is lokadharml; abhinaya using other 
signs or symbols, ascribed or artificial equations is natyadharmi. Imitation of 
external objects is bahyavastv-anukarini ; consigning (arpika) the external object to 
a modality of consciousness ( cittavrtti) without explicitly expressing it but impelling 
it to understanding (and conveying) the sense is cittavrtty-arpika. The details of these 
two as given in NN are not found elsewhere. Pandarlka Vitthala has systematically 
organised and extended the descriptive commentary by Kallinatha on SR (7.22-66). 

The concepts of bahyavastv-anukarini and cittavrtty-arpika appear in a musical 
form, probably for the first time in Abhinavagupta (NS GOS edn. vol. 2, pp. 214- 
218). But Sarngadeva is explicit in such classification (SR 7.22-66). It is useful to 
collect here the elucidation of lokadharml and natyadharmiby Bharata (NS 13.70-86) 
for comparison: Lokadharml is that mode of stage acting in which the majority of 
actors and actresses represent the objects and events of the external world 
unrehearsed (spontaneously), exactly as they are, without modification or transfor¬ 
mation and without (practised) grace of limbs (movements). Natyadharmi consists 
of representing words of unnatural style, marvellous, adventurous, strange things 
and events), long perorations, characteristics of natya , graceful ahgaharas, 






218 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


svaralamkaras, acting or behaving what is not natural to one’s self, adopting well 
known things to histrionic representation, soliloquy, acting as if one is listening to 
speech which in fact is not uttered, chariots, transportation, mountains, weapons 
etc. looking real even though made of leather etc. etc. 

58-150. vyabhicari bhavas: It is a methodological inadequacy of NN that the 
following account of bhava-rasabhinaya is taken up without introducing first the 
elements bhava, sattvikabhava, sthayibhava, anubhava, vibhavaand vyabhicari ( sahcari ) 
bhavas. 

Of these bhava and sattvika-bhava have been explained above (commentary on 
NN 4.1.26c, 26d). Rasa is manifested by the combination of vibhava, anubhava and 
vyabhicaribhava with each other, and by the participation of sthayibhava (NS 6.31 
pr.). Sthayibhava is the affective state which constantly underlies an aesthetic 
situation. The external stimulants which serve as generating cause for the sthayibhava 
constitute vibhava', anubhavais the behavioural response which is the consequence 
of experiencing rasa. Vyabhicaribhavas are the transitory affective states which 
appear and disappear during an aesthetic situation. 

In the following account of vyabhicaribhavas, NN. closely follows NS in both order 
of presentation and the text; it borrows both from the slokas and in patches from 
prose passages, sometimes changing the sequence of the NS. It borrows from SR 
somewhat less and not at all from other sources. 

The following comparative study commences in each case with a brief and lucid 
definition of the vyabhicaribhava (which is not found elsewhere). Then the vibhava 
elements and finally the abhinaya karma (activity involved in the stage acting) for the 
corresponding anubhavas are taken up. (For abbreviation see commentary on NN 
4.1.29ab). Vibhavas and anubhavas are copious in NS, less so in SR and scant in DR, 
PR etc. 

62-64ab. Nirveda is insulting oneself, deprecating oneself out of worldly detach¬ 
ment, being depressed, losing heart out of sadness, or being bored. 

SR (1523-1526) RG (87). tattvajnana in uttama prakrti (SR—self insult; other 
vibhavas in riica-prakrti) RG — krodha avamana duhkha; DR + tattvajnana apat irsya 
svavamana; PR +duhkha irsya tattvabodha. 

64cd-67ab. Glani is tiredness, mental weakness, body emaciation. RG special 
form of duhkha which generates blanching, slackness of body, rolling of eyes etc. 
which in turn arise from adhi (mental disease) and vyadhi (sickness) which cause 
loss of strength (80). 

NS (30pr-32) +niyamatapaatisayamadanasevana/ ksama in nayanakapolaudara. 

SR (1526-1529) +niyama atisaya rati; jara—strasta nayana ostha, kapola', kampa. 

DR (10) Glani is the fatigue induced by tiredness which is caused by rati, and 
tiredness caused by thirst and hunger. 

PR (271) Glani results from lack of strength: blanching (paling) occurs due to 
body emaciation. 



COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


219 


67cd-70. Sarika is the modality of consciousness which assumes the form of 
apprehension of possible impending danger to self (RG 80) 

NS (32 pr-35) -vabhigrahana — priyavyaVikata ; when sahka is directed at others 
(atmasamuttha), it should be repesented with drsti and cesta; when one is suspected 
by others (parasamuttha) it should be stage acted with trembling body, looking at the 
sides furtively with raised head, face turned dark and with heavy tongue. 

SR (1530-1537) +akarya (both atmasamuttha and parasamuttha) /guruvihvala — 
jihvata ; a superior female role should stage act sahka in bhayanaka rasa when afraid 
and in srhgara-rasa when separated from the beloved. 

DR (11) Sahka is a flash of possibly impending danger to self as a result of cruelty 
in others or of one’s own evil doings. 

PR (241, 242) Sahka is the presagement of possibly impending danger to onself 
because of the acts of others or one’s own ill- behaviour. 

71-72. asuya: RG (95): the modality of consciousness which arises by observing 
propserity in others and which is the cause of decrying others is asuya. 

NS (35pr, 36, 37) +Rla nanaparadha vidvesa/caksuhpradana upaghata avajha 
kutsana krodha parivrttanetra. 

DR (17) Garva daurjanya and krodha causing intolerance of the prosperity in 
others is asuya : evil words anadara kopa krodha bhrukuti. 

SR (1541-1543) + nanaparadha vidvesa 

PR (272) Asuya is intolerance of the prosperity of others. 

73-76. Mada: RG 82) is the modality of consciousness which generates enthu¬ 
siasm, sleep, laughter etc. as a.consequence of partaking of liquors. 

NS (37 pr-46) SR (1543-1551) Mada of superior character is called taruna. There 
is complete correspondence between NN and NS and SR in the vibhavas and 
anubhavas of the three kinds of nature of the roles. NS ( uttama prakrti) +akulita 
vakya; (adhamaprakrti ) +disgustfrom chardita , hikka and kapha , and sleeping (NS, 
SR). 

DR (21) harsa , utkarsa accruing from drinking liquor /skhalitahga vakgati\ 
taruna:- nidra ; madhya-hasita ; adhama-rodana. 

PR (273) Mada is the modification of the mind resulting in moha , harsa and 
attavikara caused by drinking. 

77-78. Srama is a particular form of exhaustion or lassitude which is born of 
excessive body activity or strain and gives rise to sighing, rubbing of (own) body and 
sleep (RG 83). 

NS (46 pr.-47) completely identical 

SR (1552, 1553) + seva — mada utksepana sitkara netravikunana. 

DR (12) only adhva rati/sveda mardana 

PR (273) only adhva rati/sveda ‘ atibhumikrt' 

79-80ab. alasya: Turning away of the spirit from activity due to atitrpti garbha- 
ihdrana) vyadhi srama (RG 94) 



220 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


NS (47 pr., 48) + garbha srama sauhitya/ + asana —dohada 

SR (1569, 1570) + garbha srama atitrpti; — kheda/+ asana rta; -sayana dohada 

DR (220) Alasya is inertia due to srama garbha/jrmbhana acalata 

PR (274) Alasya is being dull in duties to be performed. 

80cd-82ab. Dainya is the modality of consciousness which is generated by duhkha 
daridrya aparadha etc. and results in speaking with contracted body (RG 80). 

NS (48 pr., 49) identical/* gatra gaurava;—hahakara vijhapti pranama ; + anya 
manaskata , negligence of dehalamkara suci. 

SR (1539, 1540) — duhkha/+sirobhramana —hahakara vijnapti pranama 
dehopaskaranatyaga. 

DR (15) caused by durgati , resulting in tejohinata andhakara malinya. 

PR( 275) Anauddhatya caused by manas-sattva-tyaga , generates karpanya. 

82cd-83. Cinta is the modality of consciousness which is caused by the happening 
of the undesired and not happening of the desired and causes dhyana aparaparyaya 
vaivarnya bhulekhana and adhomukha (RG 82) 

NS (49 pr-51) identical 

SR (1553cd-1555) identical /+dehalamkaratyaga, smarana adhrti\ vitarka in previ¬ 
ous or next moment. 

DR (16) Cinta is contemplation of unattained object and generates sunyata 
nihsvasa and tapa. 

PR (276) as in DR 

84-85. Moha is caused by bhaya , viyogae tc., and causes lack of avadharana 'm vastu 
an d tattva (RG 79). 

NS (51pr-53) -\-upadrava from daiva, abhighata roga avega\ absence of pratikara in 
spite of many kinds of trasa. 

SR (1565-1569) vyasana vyadhi\ -\-upadrava from daiva, dehapida viraha 
marmaprahara in asthana evoking no retaliation /hrdayacancalya. 

DR (26) :caused by bhaya duhkha avesaand cintamagnataand causes ajnana aghata 
bhrama ghurnana adarsana. 

PR (276) Moha is murchana of the form of vicittatawhich results from anucintana 
of bhiti duhkha and avesa. 

86-87. Smrti is jnana born of samskara (RG 77). 

NS (53 pr.-55) -\-svdsthyajaghanya ratrinidraccheda samanadarsana udaharanaci- 
ntabhyasa/ —harsavalokana tarjanyagropacara. 

SR (1559-1561) as in NS Vsadrsah srutidarsane 

DR (20) expands RG 77: caused by sadrsajhanacintana etc. and by related 
samskara ; it causes bhrusamunnayana etc. 

PR (277) Smrti is the jnana of the object of prior experience. 

88-89. Dhrti is the modality of consciousness which is the cause of warding off the 
tumult of the mind which is born of lobha soka bhaya etc. (RG 79). 




COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


221 


NS (55 pr.-57) identical; +absence of bhaya soka visada. 

SR (1556-1559) +viveka sruti sampatti gurubhakti tapasvita ; obtaining more than 
desired; not worrying over the unattainable, lost, worn out, past object or event; 
absence of sorrow. 

DR (12) Dhrti is born oijnana sakti etc. and causes enjoyment without vyagrata. 
PR (277, 278) Dhrti is nisprhata of the mind (absence of desire). 

90-92ab. Vrida is the mode of consciousness which comes into being in women 
who look on the face of man; in men, who break their vows or are defeated; it causes 
vaivarnya adhomukha etc. (RG 78) 

NS (57 pr-59) +pratijndta(a)nirvahana nigudhavadana 
SR (1562cd-1565ab) as in NS. 

DR (24) is manifested by duracara and lack of dharstya/ contracting and covering 
the body, vaivarnya adhomukha etc. 

PR (278) Vrida is cetahsahkocana and is born of shyness, of timid love, praise by 
others, loss of acara which is traditionally established. 

92cd-94ab. Capalata is manifested by harsh words born of amarsa (RG 96). 

NS (59 pr-60) +pratikula/-ajnapana 
SR (1571, 1572) + pratikula/ —ajnapana nirbhartsana 
DR (33) - amarsa irsya/ bhartsana parusya/svacchandacarana 
PR (279) Capalata is born from raga dvesa etc. 

94cd-97ab. Harsa is a particular kind of sukha born of istaprapti etc. (RG. 6) 

NS (60pr-62) +aprapyaprdptirdjaprasada bhojanaacchadanaupabhoga —ipsitavapti 
dhanalabha bhogalabha/—ananda ialitakaratadana. 

SR (1573-1575)+ putrajanana —ipsitavapti tosa dhanalabha bhogalabha; /—ananda 
dlihgana Ialitakaratadana vicitrangahara. 

DR (14) Harsa is prasannata accruing from utsava etc./+ asm sveda gadgada. 

PR (279) as in DR + kampa—gadgada 

97cd-108ab. Avegais complete bhrama of the mind due to excessive anartha (RG 
93). 

NS (62pr-65), SR (1616-1628), DR (28) PR (280, 281) 

(i) utpataja: NS widyut/ —vaivarnya visanna; -\-vaimanasya vismaya 
SR + vidyut bhukampa/-vaivarnya visanna + vaimanasya vismaya 
DR /+srastahga 

PR 

(ii) vataja : NS identical 

SR -\-vastrasahguhana —vastra sahgraha 
DR — pamsupadigdhah 
PR 

(iv) agnija : NS -\-ahgasahkocana atikranta apakrdnta 
SR -\-atikrdnta apakrdnta ahgadhuti 



222 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


DR + dhumakulasya 

PR 

(v) priyasravanaja : NS, SR identical; DR +harsa; PR 

(vi) kuhjarodbhramana: NS, SR +bhaya — laya\ DR bhaya stambha kampa apasarana 

PR 

(vii) ghata (vairidarsana ) NS }+prahara; SR— ratharohana; DR (+abhisarana raja- 
vidrava) , PR 

(viii) apriyasravana: NS + visamavivartana —paridevana vaktraparivartana 
SR + paridevana; DR +soka; PR 

NS: Avega should be represented with firmness by superior and middling roles 
and with running away by inferior roles. 

108cd-l lOab. Jadata is the modality of consciousness which is generated by cinta 
utkanthata bhaya viraha , istanistadarsana but is uncertain as to the necessary course 
of action and becomes vikala (RG 93) 

NS (65pr-66) +avibhasana istanista sravana;-darsana —ajhanavasa 
SR (1585-1587) as in NS ; +prativada - apratibha akathana 
DR (13) — vyadhi ajhanavasa paravasa apartibha akathana 
PR (281) apratipatti in istanista 

110cd-112ab. Garva is decrying others, being lost in an awareness of self¬ 
prosperity in beauty, wealth and learning (RG 84) 

NS (66pr-67) identical/ +vibhrama apahasa vacanaviccheda\ low characters should 
perform this with glances and movements of limbs. 

SR (1612-1616) -Vyauvana , exceeding the guru/abhasana parusya; -\-ldvanya 
ahganetravikara adhiksepa ; garva flashes like lightning in superior and middling 
roles; it occurs in women as vibhrama , born of harsa anuraga mada and garva. 

DR (19) + lavanya —dhanalabbha guruvikrama/+adharsana savilasadrsti 
PR (282) ‘anyadhikkaranad atmotkarso garvo baladijah. 

112cd-114. Visada is caused by unattainment of the desired, crime against the 
king and guru (92). 

NS (67pr-69) -\-arthahdni karyanistarana/ — svarabhahga. Superior and middling 
roles should represent visada by contemplating Vaicitropaya and inferior roles by 
running away, dry mouth, sleep, sighing, worry, licking the corner of the lips. 

SR (1578-1581) as in NS 

DR (31) failure of work commenced/ nihsvdsocchvasa hrttapa sahayanvesana 
PR (283) ‘ visadas cetaso bhahgah upayabhavacintanaiK . 

115-116ab. Autsukya is the intense desire that the wish must be fulfilled imme¬ 
diately (92). 

NS (69 pr-72) anusmrti udyanadarsana gatragurutva 

SR (1591-1592) dirghanihsvasa sayanabhilasa adhovadanacintrana +gatragurutva 
cinta. 







COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


223 


DR (32) Autsukya is intolerance of delay; its vibhavas are desire for charming 
objects rati sambhrama] its anubhavas are ucchvasa-nihsvasa sveda tvara hrttapa 
vibhrama. 

PR (284) ‘ kalaksamatvam autsukyam manastdpatvaradikrt. 

116cd-118. Nidra is ‘cetah sammilana ’ and should be represented in srama and 
nidra (RG. 85) 

NS (70pr-72) + mada; — mandardtrijagara/+sariravalokana;—gatralolana +mandya 
SR (1643-1645) wailaksanya due to mandavyakhyana etc.; —manda ratrijagara; 
-\-srastagdtra 

DR (23) ‘Manah sammilanam ’is nidra ; caused by cinta alasya klama ; causes jrmbha 
angabhahga aksimilana utsvapna. 

PR (284) ‘nidra cittanimilana . 

119-122ab. Apasmara is a particular illness caused by graha avesa etc. (RG 96). 
NS (72pr-74) -\-ucchista asuci vyadhi/+sahasa-bhumipatana pravepana —sphurita 
asruvyucchista 

SR ((1581-1584) + naga asuci dhatuvaisamya ; —yaksa preta pisaca/+ spandana 
nihsarhjna 

DR (25): is avesa caused by graha duhkha etc. and causes bhupata kampa sveda laid 
phena 

PR (285) ‘aveso mohaduhkhadyair apasmarongatapakrt .’ 

122cd-123. Svapna (Supta) is nidravibhavotpannajnana (RG 86). 

NS (74pr.-76) +upagamanaof nidrabhibhavavisayamohanaksititalasayanaprasarana 
anukarsana etc. 

SR (1590-1591) -vnibhrtagatra svapnapralapa bahyaksalinata; —bahyendriya sam- 
moha 

DR (22) Supta is born during nidra.] —/ svasocchvasa 
PR (286) ‘ suptir nidrasamudrekafi . 

124-126ab. Vibodha is awareness when sleep is ended (RG 87). 

NS (76pr-77) + svapnanta-duhsvapna bhujaviksepana ahgavalana 
SR( 1598-1601) svapnanta - duhsvapna/-\-svdsa 
DR (24) Vibodha is born of parinama etc./ jrmbha aksimardana 
PR (286) ‘ vibhodhas cetanavaptih jrmbhaksi parimargakrf. 

126cd-128ab. Amarsa is the modality of consciousness which is generated by 
various insults by others and which causes silence, harsh speech etc. 

NS (77pr-79) identical 

SR (1575-1577) + desire for revenge/ nirlaksacittata upayanvesana cittotsaha 
DR (18) ninda apamana/sveda sirahkampa tarjana tadana 
PR (287) ‘amarsah saparadhesu cetah prajvalanam matam ’ 

128cd-129. Avahittha is the particular psychophysical state which causes conceal¬ 
ment of anubhavas such as harsa because of vnda etc. (RG 89) 


224 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


NS (79pr-80) Avahittha involves concealment of form +apajaya gaurava/ +katha 
bhahga agana nativottarabhasana; —ahgagopana * 

SR (1593-1595) Avahittha is pidhanarthaka; + kautilya gaurava 
DR (29) caused by lajja etc. and results in ahgavikara 
PR (288) ‘ harsadyakarasanguptir avahittheti kathyate 

130-13lab. Ugrata is born of ninda tiraskara avamana etc. and consists of the 
mental state of seeking means to retaliate (RG 89) 

NS (80pr-81) — niyoga/+vadha 
SR (1538-1539) -\-upadharana\ — niyoga/-\-vadha 

DR(15) Krodha against those who practise aparadha dustata and kraurya/ sveda 
sirahkampa tarjana tadana 

PR (288) ‘drste ’paradhe candatvam ugrata tarjanadikrf. 

131cd-132ab. Mati is determination of meaning arising out of sastrae tc. (RG 85) 
NS (81pr-82) + uhapoha/+ samsayacchedana 

SR (1595-1598) Mati is self-assurance born of extraordinary flash of insight and 
contemplation of pros and cons. Uhapoha is self-asurance which comes after logical 
thinking. It should be stage acted with catura hastas and raising of eyebrows. 

DR (27) Mati is tattvabuddhi arising out of sastrae tc. /+ bhranticcheda;—arthakrta 
PR (289) ‘ tattvamarganusandhanad arthanirdharanam matiti . 

132a. slesma-kapha both are synonymous in ayurveda sastra). 

132cd-136. Vyadhi is the manastapa born of roga viraha etc. (RG 85) 

NS (82pr.-83) — slesma samnipata bhaya/+ hanuvalaya; — asra srastahga viksepa 
( sitajvara) 

SR (1601-1605) Vyadhi such zsjvara results from vikopaoi the dhatus pitta vata or 
kapha ; jvara may also result from (unfulfilled) sexual love; agnyabhilasa 
+mukhasahkocana mukhasosana ambupipasa nihsvasa vepana ahgasrasa ( sadahajvara) 
DR (29) Vyadhi results from (disorder of) sannipata,e tc. (as elaborated elsewhere 
i.e. in ayurveda sastra) 

PR (290) ‘ manastapady-abhibhavat jvaradir vyadhir isyate . 

137-140. Unmada is born of vipralambha mahapitta or paramananda but appears 
as something else (RG 90) 

NS (83pr-85) — vyasana/rudita hasita which are causeless; wearing of kucela cira 
ghata kapala etc. 

SR (1607-1611) Unmada arises from istajanaviyoga in uttama roles but from 
vibhavanasa and abhighata in nica roles; it consists of various mental distortions. 
Unmada is a form of vyadhi but is conventionally regarded (in this sastra) as a 
separate vyabhicari bhava. 

DR (30) Apreksakarita , samnipata , grahae tc. are vibhavas ; rudita gita hasita etc. are 
anubhavas. 

PR (290) ‘ tulyavartitam cetanacetanesv-api . 







COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


225 


141-148. Marana is that state which is preceded by swooning due to disease etc. 
(RG. 90); that is, abhinaya should consist of murcha and not actual marana. 

NS (85pr.-90) i. vyadhija +antrasula gandajvara/+visannagatra avyayata 
anaveksitaparijana avyaktaksarakathana 

ii. abhighataja +pasuyana patana/ sahasabhumipatana 
DR (21) ‘ maranam suprasiddhatvad anarthatvac ca nocyate 
NS, SR Ten states karsnya etc. leading to death are identical. 

SR (1629-1636) i. vyadhija : + vatapittakophadosa/prasrtahga , urdhvasvasa vamana 
ii. abhighataja : —/—ratha + pasuyana/agni atyaccapatana 
PR (291) 4 maranam maranarthastu prayatnah parikirtitaK. 

149. Trasa is that modality of consciousness which is born in timid persons by 
witnessing ghorasattva or hearing terrible sound (RG 86) 

NS (90pr-91) +vidyut ulka sannipata nirghata pasurava/+ahgotkampana vepathu 
stambha romahca godgada pralapa 

SR (1637-1639) as in NS but +bhtsana-darsana nimilitalocana pralaya ; — ulka 
pralaya 

DR (16) Trasa is manahksobha arising out of garjita etc. and is shown by utkampita 
etc. 

PR (292) 4 akasmikabhayac cittaksobha trasah parikirtyate . 

150. Vitarka is surmise which follows doubt (RG 91). 

NS (91pr-92) +vipratipatti/+vividhacaritaprasnasampradhdrana mantrasahguhana 
SR (1587-1589) as in NS but —prasna sampradharana mantrasahguhana ; should be 
represented with catura hasta. m 

DR (29) Tarka is knowledge arising from doubt; it is stage acted with jumping 
of head, eyebrows and fingers. 

PR (292) 4 sandehotkalpananantyam vitarkah parikirtitaK. 

151-163ab. Sthayibhavas: NN. extracts from only the slokas of NS in this topic 
omitting prose passages. Material from these passages also (NS 7.8 pr.-26pr) will be 
presented here for the sake of completeness. 

152. rati amoda rtumalya sugandhady-anulepana abharana priyajana bhojana vara- 
bhavananubhavana apratikulya etc./ smitavadana madhurakathana bhruksepa kataksa 
(8 pr.) 

153. hasa paracestanukarana kuhaka asambaddhapralapa paurobhagya maurkhya/ 
hasita etc. as described previously (9 pr.) 

154-155. soka istajanaviyoga vibhavanasa vadha bandha duhkha/ asrapata paridevita 
vildpa vaivarnya svarabheda srastagatra bhumipatana sasvanarudita akrandita 
dirghanihsvasita jadata unmada moha marana (10 pr.) 

156-157ab. krodha adharsana akrusta kalahavivada pratikula/ vikrsta-nasaputa 
udirrttanayana sandastosthaputaganda-sphurana (14 pr.) 

157cd-158ab. Utsaha: uttama prakrti : avisada sakti dhairya saurya etc. / dhairya 
tydga vaisaradya (20 pr.) 


226 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


158cd-160ab. Bhaya: stn,nicaprakrti: guru-raja aparadha, svapada sunyagara-atavi- 
parvata-gahana-gaja-ahi-darsana nirbhartsana kantara dufdina nisa andhakara uluka 
naktahcara aravasravana/ prakampita-kara-carana-hrdayakampana stambha mukhasosa 
jihvaparilehana sveda vepathu trasa paritrana anvesana dhavana utkrusta (21 pr.) 

160cd-162ab.Jugupsa: stri, nlcaprakrti:ahrdya-darsanarsravanaetc./sarvahgasahkoca 
nisthivana mukhavikunana hrllekha etc. (25 pr.) 

162cd-163ab. Vismaya maya: indrajala mdnusakarmdtisaya-citra-pusta-silpa-vidyati- 
saya/nayanavistara animesapreksita bhruksepa romaharsana sirahkampa sadhuvdda etc. 
(26 pr.) 

164cd-190ab. Kamavastha: NN. extracts the ten states of sexual love (in separa¬ 
tion) from NS (22.173-193) with slight changes (which are shown in Text Critical 
Comments), athetising the respective cestas and types of nayika (heroine). 

201. Bhayanaka rasa. The constitutio textus of NN reveals much loss or 
athetisation in anubhavas. This material may be gathered from NS (6.68 pr; 6.70- 
72): trembling of hands and feet, horripilation blanching (or change of colour) loss 
of voice; its transitory states are paralysis sweat choked voice horripilation trembling 
loss of voice change of voice (turning pale) fear stupefaction dejection agitation 
restlessness inactivity fear epilepsy death etc. Other anubhavas are slackening of 
limbs mouth and eyes, immobility of thighs uneasy glances dryness and drooping 
mouth palpitation of heart and horripilation; these are real behavioural responses; 
they should be stage acted mildly. 

215a. Vayoh: the textus constitutio reveals a lacuna caused by homoteleuta for 
the spring and summer seasons. This lost material is supplied from NS (25.33, 34): 


I: l 


[Spring should be stage acted with such acts as generate joy and representing 
various flowers.] 

TBjfpr oTPlt: II 


[Summer should be histrionically represented by the learned with wiping of 
sweat, heat of the earth, fans and feeling the hot air.] 

223b. Pradarsayet: NS (25.78,79) requires to be shown with both hands in pataka 
pose thrown out sideways. 

223b. Pataka: For various hand poses, movements of the head, glances etc. vide 
NN. 4.2.4-149 

231b. Bhumisthanashould be shown with pataka hasta, adhomukhaand downcast 
glance. At this point the text may have suffered a lacuna for one sloka (NS 25.6): 










COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


227 


prefer cT«Tt^#T ^ I 

^•sWlrbli Wl T*T ^ ^ PlR$l< II 

[Moonlight, pleasure, air, taste and smell (etc.) should be indicated with the 
same gestures as are used to represent touch and horripilation.] 

236cd-237ab. evam ete...nataih: This is an echo of Bharata (NS 25.119): 

ttoFT^ -m ^TteT: sFTf^ I 

cn1f^) < =w % % criWi^TJllJT: II 

and is more relevant to citrabhinaya (special histrionic representation) in the 
context of natya, i.e. drama. Pandarlka Vitthala brings citrabhinayawithin the ambit 
of nartanadhikarana because he defines nartana, unlike Bharata and others, to 
comprehend natya , nrtyaand nrtta (NN 4.1.3ab) and as that which is enacted by an 
actor ( nata ) (NN 4.1.2cd); it includes tales from natakae tc. (NN 4.1.3cd). This is 
why he uses the term ‘nata’ here and not ‘nartaka’. He includes citrabhinaya in this 
adhikarana to enable a dancer to present dramatised themes or story elements in 
the dance which are ‘bhavarasasrayam ’ (NN 4.1.3d), and because ‘ natakadikalaksanam’ 
is one of the five accessories of nartaka (NN 4.1.4ab). 

237. Pramana has many meanings including proof, standard, norm, authority, 
model, exemplar. In philosophical enquiry it signifies ‘means to valid knowledge’. 
Different numbers and forms of pramana are admitted by different philosophical 
systems and sastras in India. According to the Carvaka, only pratyaksa (perception) 
is pramana. The Bauddha and Vaisesika admit two: pratyaksa and anumana (infer¬ 
ence) . Jaina, Samkhya, Visistadvaita and Dvaita have three: pratyaksa , anumana and 
sabda or agama (verbal testimony). These three are accepted by Manu and some 
other Smrtikaras also. Four pramanas are admitted by Naiyayikas viz. pratyaksa , 
anumana , sabda and upamana (assimilation, analogy, comparison). The Prabhakara 
Mimamsakas adopt a fifth besides these four viz. arthapatti (presumptive testi¬ 
mony) . A sixth viz. anupalabdhi (nonperception) is added to these by the Kaumarila 
Mimamsakas and Advaitins. Pauranikas admit two more besides these six viz. 
sambhava and aitihya while Tantrikas add a ninth viz. lihga or samjha. 

Among the sastras , the Apastamba Grhyasutra postulates six karmabhedabodhaka 
cnramanasv iz. sabdantara , abhyasa, samkhya , samjha , gunaandprakaranantara. Ayurveda 
has three: madhya, alpa and mahocca . Purvamlmamsa (Lougaksi Bhaskara) enumer¬ 
ates sruti , lihga , vakya , prakarana , sthana and samakhya. According to yet others, 
cramanas are twelve, including lipi, loka-prasiddhi , cesta and pratibha in addition to 
the eight listed above. 

Bharatamuni postulates three pramanas (authorities) for the natya sastra. 

Pandarlka Vitthala adapts them for nartana.) These are Veda, adhyatma and loka. 













228 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


By and large, natya abides in Veda and abhyatma in both word and meaning through 
sabda and chandas. It may be recalled that according to Bharata, Brahma constituted 
the natyavedairom the four Vedas and that Veda is synonymous with chandas. Natya 
is simulation of the world, of people in their various states and stages. Therefore, 
when it is approved by people, it is a success. Adhyatma means spiritual faculty or 
individual or self-experience. This is an authority because, as the very essence of the 
Veda, the summum bonum and raison d'etre of natya is rasa which is Brahman. Or, it 
is adhyatma because its themes, expressions and emotions appeal to, and lie within, 
individual experience or self-experience of people. For this reason, lokais admitted 
as the third pramana. When human character with all its variety and all its different 
states is represented on the stage in an aesthetic frame, it is called natya. Loka is 
pramana both because it is the model, standard or the norm and because it is also 
authority. For, whatever is established in popular usage in the world ( lokasiddha ) is 
irrefutable, because itis validated by experience (NS 25.120-123with Abhinavagupta’s 
Commentary pp. 286, 287). 

Loka as pramana may appear redundant at first sight because the very purpose of 
sastra (dgama ) is to teach the entirety of human knowledge. Thus the authority or 
norm for literary usage in the natya is vyakarana and alamkara, for metres, the 
chandahsastra; for nyaya (battle modalities), dhanurveda', for music, gandharva veda, 
for movements, nrtta sastra etc. It is not redundant because individual character, 
nature and temperament differ from person to person. Sastra (agama) cannot hope 
to comprehend all this. This is why Bharata insists again and again that the natya 
exponent should model his art on people (NS 25.123cd): 





I 


Pandarika Vitthala extends this dictum to the dancer (NN 41.238cd) in the 
context of citrabhinaya: 


^ NHl u i cTfai I 







COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


2. NRTTA-ADHIKARANA 
Anga-pratyanga Abhinaya 

INTRODUCTION 

For purposes of dance ahgas are six: head, two hands, chest, sides, hips and the 
two fact; according to some, the shoulders are also reckoned as ahga; pratyahgas are 
also six: neck, two arms, back, belly, two thighs and two shanks; some authorities 
include wrists, knees and ornaments (elbow: Nandikes’vara, Ab hinayadarpanam, 4); 
upahgas are twelve: eyes, eyebrows, eyelashes, pupils of the eyes, cheeks, nose, 
breath, lips, teeth, tongue, chin and mouth; these are upahgas of the head; upahgas 
of other ahgas are heels, ankles, toes and soles of the feet, and fingers of the hand. 
(SR 7.38-42) 

Treatises on dance divide their subject matter into abhinaya of the aesthetico- 
affective and aestheticophysical. The former represents the modalities or states of 
the mind and the latter suggests meaning (discursive) or pure formal beauty with 
movements, gestures, postures, stances, positions etc. of the moveable parts of the 
body. The latter includes abhinaya of ahga, pratyahga and upahga. This again occurs 
in two ways: formations and figurations of the various parts of the body and 
kinematics such as cans , bhramaris, mandalas etc. Karana and ahgahra include both. 

NN has arranged its subject matter of chapter IV in the following scheme: rasa 
(aesthetic affect), nrtta and description of dance forms, i.e. s attvikabhinaya and 
ahgikabhinaya. Vacikdbhinaya and aharyabhinaya are left untouched, except for a 
small portion in the latter part (e.g. nandisloka in mukhacali, words implied in sabda , 
gita , dharu, cindu etc.). Density of distribution of the topics is sattvikabhinaya : 237 si. 
(including citrabhinaya approx. 30si.), ahgikabhinaya: 315si. (includingkinematics, 
approx. 90 si.), description of accessories or auxiliaries approx. 120 si. bandha nrtya 
210 si. (approx.), anibandha nrtya and conclusion approx. 40 si. 

NN has borrowed for this chapter extensively and almost exclusively from only 
two authorities viz. NS and SR for nearly 300 slokas with minor variants. For some 
descriptive or definitive portions in Nrttadhikarana , it has abridged or recast the 
material from these sources and is quite original in the description of dance forms 
from sloka 427 onwards. This material is found (e.g. mukhacaR) in a contemporary 
work viz. Sahgitasuryodaya of Laksminayana, SahgttamukravaRi of Devendara and 
with considerable correspondence in Sahgitadarpanamof Damodaraand with more 
details in Sahgitamakaranda of Veda. 




230 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


A content analysis of ahgikabhinaya portions of NS and SR would be helpful in 
understanding the selective borrowals and athetisation carried out in NN. 

NS a hgabhinaya: tasya siro hastorahparsvakatipadatah sadahgani (8.13ab). siras 
8.17-38; hasta: asamyuta 9.4-122; sarhyuta 9.128-160, hastakarma hastapracara, 
hastakarana 9.165-181; nrttahastas 9.184-209; hastakaranas 9.213-218; vartand re¬ 
lated thereto 9.219-220; urah 9.223-231; pdrsva 9.232-239; jathara 9.239-243; kati 9. 
244-248; urn 9. 250-254; jahgha 9.257-262; padakarma 9.265-281; kinematics: can, 
introductory 10.1-11; bhumicaris, 10.14-287, akasa cans 10.30-45; sthanaka 10.48-71; 
mandala 11.2-68; karanas and angaharas ch. 4; citrabhinaya c h. 26. 

NS u pahgabhinaya: netrabhrundsddharakapolacibukdny-upahgani (8.13cd) netra 
(drstis): 8.46-94; tarakarma 8.95-104; darsana 8.105-109; putakarma 8.111-115; bhru 
8.i 19-129; ndsa8. 130-136; ganda8. 137-138; adharaS. 141, osthaS. 143-146; cibuka 8.147- 
150; mukha 8.153-161; mukhardga 8.170-175; ( sattvikdbhinaya , chs. 6 and 7) 

SR ch. 7 an gdbhinaya (49-328): siras 47-78; hastas: uddesa 78-101, asamyuta 102- 
184, sarhyuta 185-216ab, nrtta 21cd-285ab, miscellany in hasta prakarana 285cd- 
296ab; vaksas 296cd-303ab; pdrsva 303cd-306; kati 307-312ab; carana 312-325; 
skandha 326-329ab. 

SR p ratyahgabhinaya, ch. 7 gnva 329cd-335ab; bdhu 325cd-347 ( vartand 348- 
349ab, ca/ate349cd-350ab) ;jathara35$-356; urn 357-360; ;angM361-368; manibandha 
369-372ab; janu 372cd-377ab. 

SR u pahgabhinaya ch. 7 drstti: uddesa 377cd-382, rasa drstis 383-392, sthayibhava 
drstis 394-402, sahcdndrstis 403-432ab; bhu 432cd-438; ndsdputa439-446ab; tarakarma 
446cd-454ab; Aaj(?o/a454cd-465ab; ndsika 465cd-471 ab; anila 47lcd-487; adhara 488- 
496ab; jihva 496cd-506; cibuka 507-512; vadana 513-517ab; pdrsni gulpha karuhguli 
varieties 5l7cd-526ab; mukhardga 526cd-531; hastapracara 532-537ab; karakarana 
537cd-543ab; karakarma 543cd-545ab; hastnkselra 546-547ab. 

Kinematics SR ch. 7 nrttakaranas 547cd-748; uiplutikaranas 749-788; angaharas 
789-891; recakas 892-896; cans 897-1016 ( bhumicaris 897-942, akdsacans 943-961, 
desicaris 971-1016); sthanakas 1017-1110 ( purusa -, stri-, desi-, upavista-, supta-)', vrtti, 
nyaya 1111-1141; mandalas 1142-1205 ( bhauma -, akasa-). 

Thus it is seen that NN restricts itself to siras, hasta, kati and ahghri (pada) among 
the ahgas and to drsti, bhru and bdhu among pratyahgas, omitting the upahgas 
altogether; all viniyoga (application) of these ahgas and pratyahgas is directed to 
nrtta (as the title of the adhikarana indicates) and not to nrtya. 

The following commentary attempts a brief comparison (mainly numerical) of 
the ahga-prayahga abhinaya of NN with other major authorities. This is summarised 
in the table given below, adopted from Ponangri Srirama Appa Rao (Natya sastramu, 
p. 390) who has borrowed it from a comprehensive comparative list prepared by 
Ramakrishna Kavi (ibid., p. 324): 



COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


231 


Abbreviations used for the sources aje given below: 

NS Bharatamuni’s Natyasastram 

SAC Somesvara’s Abhilasitarthacintamani 

JSC Jagadekamalla’s Sahgitacuddmani 

ANA Asokamalla’s Nrtyadhyaya 

SSR Somarajadeva’s SahgUaratndvaVi 

HSS Haripaladeva’s Nrttaratnavali 

JNR Jayasenapati’s Nrttaratnavali 

SR Sarngadeva’s Abhinayadarpanam 

NAD Nandikesvera’s Abhinayadarpanam 

MSK Moksadeva’s Sahgitasdra (frasa?) Kalika 

PSS Parsvadeva’s Sahgitasamayasdra 

VSC Vemabhupala’s SangUacintamaii 

KSR Kumbhakarna’s Sangitaraja 

SRK Srikantha’s Rasakaumudi 

LSS Laksnunarayana’s Sahgitasuryodaya 

BSR Basavappa Nayaka’s (Keladi) Sivatattvaratnakara 

HSH Hammira’s Srhgarahara 

In hastas the sequence of numbers refers to asamyuta , samyuta and nrtta ; in drstis 
it refers to rasa-, sthayi- and sancari drstis. 


Comparative table for ahga-pratyahga-upahga abhinaya 



Authority 

Body-part 

NS 

SAC 

JSC 

ANA 

SSR 

HSS 

JNR 

SR 

NRD 


1 

2 

3 

4 

3 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

1 

siras 

13 

13 

13 

- 

13 

9,13 

13 

14,15 

9 

2 

hasta 24,13,30 

64 

64 

67 

64 

33,16,21 

64 

67 

32,23 

3 

hrdaya 

5 

5 

8 

5 

5 

3,5 

5 

5 

- 

4 

parsva 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

3 

- 

5 

kati 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

3,5 

5 

5 

- 

6 

paxia 

5,1 

9 

5 

6,7 

6 

- 

5 

13 

- 

7 

griva 

9 

- 

- 

9 

9 

- 

9? 

9 

4 

8 

bahu 

- 

8 

10 

10,6 

10 

- 

10,6 

16 

- 

9 

jathara 

3,1 

4 

3 

4 

3 

2 

3 

4 

- 

10 

uru 

5 

- 

5 

5 

5 

- 

5 

5 

- 

11 

jahgha 

5 

5 

5 

5,5 

5 

. - 

5 

10 

- 

12 

drsti 

36 

8,8,26 

36 

26 

36 

28,36 

36 

36 

8 

13 

bhru 

7 

7 

- 

7 

- 

3 

- 

7 

- 

14 

puta 

9 

- 

- 

9 

- 

- 

- 

9 

- 






232 


NARTANANIRNAYA 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

.7 

8 

9 

10 

15 

tarn 

9 

- 

9 

8,8 

- 

_ 

_ 

9 

_ 

16 

nasa 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

2,5 

- 

6 

- 

17 

adhara 

6 

18? 

6 

6,4 

6 

2,6 

6,4 

10 

- 

18 

ganda 

6 

6 

6 

6 

7 

- 

6 

6 

- 

19 

cibuka 

7 

- 

- 

8 

- 

- 

7 

8 

- 

20 

mukhardga4 

5 

4 

4 

4 

- 

4 

7 

- 


Authority 

Body-part 

MSK 

PSS 

vsc 

KSR 

SRK 

LSS 

BSR 

HSH 

i 

siras 

14 

13,9 

- 

13 

13 

14,5 

8,5 

14,5 

2 

hasta 

67 

64 

27,13,30 

80 

63 

- 

- 

24,13,30,3 

3 

hrdaya 

5 

5,4 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

4 

parsva 

5 

5,4 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

kati 

5 

5,5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

6 

pada 

6 

6,5 

13 

13 

13 

13 

6 

6 

7 

gnva 

9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

- 

9 

9 

8 

bahu 

10,6 

10,5 

16 

16 

16 

16 

10 

10 

9 

jathara 

4 

5 

4 

4 

4 

4 

6 

4 

10 

uru 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

11 

jahgha 

5 

5 

16 

9 

10 

10 

5 

5 

12 

drsti 

36 

36 

36 

36 

36 

36 

36 

36 

13 

bhru 

7 

7 

7 

7 

7 

7 

7 

- 

14 

puta 

9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

- 

15 

tarn 

9,9 

9 

17 

9,8 

17 

9 

9 

9,8 

16 

nasa 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

17 

adhara 

10 

6 

5 

10 

10 

6 

6 

6,10 

18 

ganda 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

19 

cibuka 

8 

7 

8 

8 

8 

8 

8,7 

8 

20 

mukharagaA 

- 

8 

4 

4 

4 

5 

4 


5cd-18. In the description of the abhinaya of ahga and pratyahga which follows, a 
brief comparison is made with the following authorities: NS NAD NBA 
(Nandikesvara’s Bharatarnava ), HSS, PSS, SAC, SR, JNR and SRK. Non-occurrence 
is shows by and extra-occurrence by ‘+\ Numbers refer to the items enumerated 
at the beginning for NN. 







COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


233 


NN siras: 1. sama 2. dhuta 3. vidhitia 4. avadhuta 5. adhomukha 6. akampita 
7. kampita 8. adhuta 9. parivahita 10. utksipta 11. udvahita 12. ancita 13. nihancita 

14. tiryahnatonnata 15. skandhanata 16. aratrika 17. lolita 18. paravrtta 19. parsva- 
bhimukha 

NS— 1 14 15 16 19; + Prakrta 
NAD— 3 4 6 8 12 13 14 15 16 19 
NBA no change 

HSS— 1 4 78 10 13 14 15 16 19 
SAC—1 14 15 16 19 
PSS—139 11 13 to 19 

SR no change; 1 13 14 16 19 compiled from ‘mat antara’. 

JNR — 10 14 15; 15 19 compiled from ‘ matantara\ + nairajita tiryaktata unnita 
sakampa-parivaita sakampa-dhuta uddhuta parsvakampita parsvakampita 
KSR—11 14 15 16 19 
SRK— 1 15 16 17 19 
ANA lost 

5cd, 18cd, 19ab. Definition of ahga or pratyahga as well as mention of auxiliary 
parts which necessarily move with the ahga or pratyahga under consideration is 
unique to NN only. 

19cd-47ab. NN r asadrstis: 1. kanta 2. hasyd 3. karuna 4. raudra (- n) 5. viva 
6. bhayanaka 7. thbhatsa 8. adbhuta 
NS 1. srhgara 6. bhlta 

NAD NBA SAC SR KSR SRK ANA, no change 

sthayibhavadrstis\ 1. snigdha 2. hrsta 3. dina 4. kruddha 5. drpta 6. bhayanvita 
*ugupsita 8. vismita 

NS NBA NAD SAC SR JNR KSR SRK ANA no change 

iyabhicari drstis: 1. sunya 2. malina 3. sranta 4. lajjita 5. sahkita 6. mukuta 7. ardha 
-\kula 8. glana9. jihma 10. kuhcita 11. vitarkita 12. abhitapta 13. visanna 14. lalita 

15. akekara 16. vikosa 17. vibhranta 18. vipluta 19. trasta 20. madira. 

NS 13. \isddinl 

NBA SAC PSS SR KSR SRK ANA no change 
JNR lacuna 

NAD HSS give only alokita avalokita pralokita vilokita ullokita sad nimilita and 
snuirtta; ANA gives these as mukhadarsanas f sans alokita 
47cd-52. bhru: NN 1. sahaja2. redtaS . utksipta A. kuhdtab. catural. bhrukuti. 

NS HSS SAC SR KSR SRK no change 
JNR lacuna 

53-58. mukharaga NN 1. s vabhavika 2. prasanna 3. rakta 4. syama 

NS SR JNR SAC KSR SRK no change 

SAC 1. s ahaja 

NAD NBA HSS PSS ANA 



234 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


59-65. bahu NN 1. u rdhvasiha 2. adhomukha 3. tiryak 4. apaviddha 5. prasarita 
6. ancital . mandalagatiS. svastika 9. udvestita 10. prsthanugata (- nusari) 11. aviddha 
12. kuhcita 13. sarala 14. namra 15. andolita 16. utsarita 
NS SAC SR JNR KSR SRK ANA no change 
NAD NBA HSS PSS 

SAC + pronnata nyahcalalita lolita uccalita paravrtta 
66-127. hastas 

NN a sarhyuta hastas:. 1. pataka 2. hamsapaksa 3. gomukha 4. catura 5. nikunca 

6. sarpasiras 7. pancasya 8. ardhacandra 9. caturmukha 10. trimukha 11. dvimukha 

12. sucyasya ( sudmukha) 13. tamracuda 14. samdamsa 15. harhsavaktra ( hamsasya) 
16. ranagrdhra 17. khadgasya 18. mrgasirsa 19. mukula 20. padmakosa 21. urnanabha 
22. alapallava 23. alapadma 24. arala 25. sukasya ( sukatunda) 26. skhalitaTl . tripataka 
28. kartanmukha29. mayuraSO. kahgulaSl. bhramara32. musti33. krodasya34. sikhara 
35. kapittha 36. kakatunda 37. balacandra 38. khatakamukha. 

Among these, 3. gomukha 5. nikunca 7. pancasya 9. caturmukha 10. trimukha 
11. dvimukha 16. ranagrdhra 17. khadgasya 26. skhalita 33. krodasya 36. kakatunda 
37. balacandra are found only in NN and will not be therefore mentioned again in 
the following comparison. Only SR compiles nikuricita from matantara. 

NS —29 

NAD + ardhapataka suti candrakala simhamukha trisula vyaghra palli 
NBA + ardhapataka bana simhamukha 

HSS + ardhapataka bana simhamukha apaveltita udvestavyavartita damaru vartani; 
apavestita udvestita vyavartita are hastakaranas. 

SAC — 12 20 29 

PSS no change (but - 22) 

SR no change 
JNR —29 

KSR — 29 + upadhana simhamukha kadamba nikunca 
SRK—29 
ANA —22 29 

Description of asamyuta hastas usually follows the progressive method, i.e. a 
convenient hand is taken up first and simple minimal modification is made 
progressively from one hasta to the next, so that any hasta is derived from its just 
previous one by the smallest, simple change. The one most favoured is pataka- 
tripataka-ardhacandra etc. sequence. NN however takes up the sequence p ataka- 
hamsapaksa (- gomuka) - catura (- nikunca) - sarpasiras ... 

NN sarhyuta hastas 1. ahjali 2. kapota 3. karkata 4. svastika 5. dola 6. puspaputa 

7. utsahga 8. khatakavardhamana 9. gajadanta 10. avahittha 11. nisadha 12. makara 

13. srhkhala 14. vardhamana 15. dardura 16. yogamusti 17. dvisikhara. 

Among these, srhkhala (13) is described only in NN; this is true of dardura (15) 



COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


235 


also. Only KSR describes yogamusti (16); dvisikhara (17) is compiled by SR and KSR 
from matantara. 

NS no change 

NAD — 9 to 17; + sivalihga kartansvastika sakata sahkha cakra samputa pasa kilaka 
matsya kurma varaha garuda nagabandha khatva bherunda devatahastas viz. brahma 
isvara visnu sarasavati parvati laksmi vinayaka sanmukha manmatha 
+ dikpala hastasx iz. indr a agniyama nirrti varuna yayu kubera isana 
+ dasavatara hastasx iz. matsya kurma varaha nrsimha vamanaparasurama ramacandra 
balarama krsna kalki 

jatihastas viz. raksasa brahmana ksatriya vaisya sudra 

bandhava hastas viz. dampati matr pitr svasru svasura bhratr nananh jyesthabhratr 
kanisthabhratr putra snusa sapatni 

navagraha hastasx iz. surya candra kuja budha guru sukra sani rahu ketu 
NBA + caturasra * tripatakasvastika kartansvastika patakasv as tika kalasa paksavahdta * 
tilaka nagabandha** vaisnava uttanavancita* ^considered as nrtta hasta elsewhere 
(** is a sthanaka ). 

HSS + caturasra*kartansvastikapatakasvastika uttanavancita* tilaka nagabandha** 
vaisnava kalasa paksavahdta * 

KSR compiles yoga pradana alingana dviskhara kalapa kinta cakasa and lepa from 
Brhaddesi 

NN nrttahastasr. 1. caturasra 2. udvr.tta 3. talamukha 4. svastika 5. viprakirna 
6. aralakhatakamukha 7. aviddhavaktra 8. sucyasya 9. redta 10. ardharedta 11. nitamba 
12. pallava 13. kesabandha 14. uttanavancita 15. lata 16. karivat 17. paksavahdta 
18. paksapradyota 19. dandapaksa 20. garudapaksa 21. urdhvamandali 22. parsva- 
*vandali 23. uromandali 24. urahpdrsvardhamandali 25. mustikasvastika 26. nalini- 
cadmakosa 27. alapallava 28. alapadma 29. ulbanaSO. lalitail. varadabhayaS2 . valita 
Names of samyuta hastas and nrtta hastas are reduced from the dual to the singular 
' umber for facility in translation. 

NS —28,31 
NAD — 

NBA — 1 4 5 14 17 18 20 24 25 25 27 to 32; + gajadanta* jhana mudra kapota* 
mtkara* ^considered as samyuta hasta elsewhere). 

HSS — 1 4 14 1718 20 24 25 27 to 32 
SR — 2. uddhata — 3 27 28 30 to 32 + vicyuta pallava 
SR — 27; compiles 31 from matantara 
JNR—11 (?) 27 31 

KSR — 28 31 + ardhacaturasra ahjana candrakanta jayanta 

SRK—28 31 
ANA — 27 31 

66-127. Minor differences if any, with corresponding handposes the various 


236 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


authorities should be studied with detailed reference to them and are not taken up 
in this commentary. 

94. Alapallava-alapadma differ only in hastakarana , executed with vyavartita and 
parivartita respectively according to SR (7.144, 145). For these hastakaranas vide 
infra 136-142. 

105c. Anyo’nya: left hand at right shoulder and vice versa. 

106d. Vyatyasau: left hand at right shoulder and vice versa. 

112a. Hamsapaksa: According to SR (7.218-220) two caturasra hastas are held 
first, then transformed to hamsapaksa ; the hand facing up is lowered and the one 
facing down is brought near the chest. 

12lab. Garudapaksa: Other authorities do not concur in this laksana as also in the 
mode of employing the hands. The convention is to assume pataka hasta whenever 
a hand is not specifically mentioned. Pandarika Vitthala does not subscribe to this 
convention and describes nrtta hastas in terms of various specific hand poses. 
Garudapaksa is described in SR (7. 259-260) as two pataka hastas facing down, held 
at the (respective) hips with bent of pataka , but this is not acceptable to Bharata- 
muni. 

128-129. Pramanam: cf. SR 7. 286, 287: 





and NS as extracted by Kallinatha (under SR 7.287, p. 83) 

■=ftrBT % ^ W IT? ctan^illSIlfcl ^ I ab 
effajt Wi ftfsfti I cd 

II ef 

[This extract affords an interesting case in textual transmission: compare ‘b’ 
above with 4 noktaye tu maya te 'pi ’a variant in Pa for ‘natya cabhinayah kramat , 25.119b, 
GOS edn.; ‘cd’ corresponds to 25.120ab, ibid; compare ‘ef above with ‘ tasmal- 
lokapramanam hi vijheyam natayoktrbhih \ 25.123cd (ibid)]. 

The passage i anantyad...isyate' in NN (4.2128, 129) is an instance of Pandarika 
Vitthala’s colligative skill in harnessing the utterances of different previous au¬ 
thorities to bring out his own meaning. Thus 128ab is culled from SR (7.287ab), 
128cdfromNS (extr. Kallinatha, ‘ab’ supra), 129abfromNS (25.120ab) and 129cd 
from NS (extr. Kallinatha, ‘ef supra). Among these, the first hemistitch relates to 
hastas and is therefore appropriate. The remaining three hemistitchs are 
Bharatamuni’s statements in the context of citrabhinaya ; these are involved by 



















COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


237 


Kallinatha to explicate Sarngadeva on 'hastas and brings out the same notions of 
limitlessness of the subject matter, inability of the sastra to describe it exhaustively 
and the consequent justification of popular, empirical usage as the ultimate 
authority. Pandarika Vitthala uses this as preface to elacidate the importance of 
elasticity or relaxation of prescriptive rule in sastra : exact adherence to the forms 
of hastas as described in theory is not obligatory in performing abhinaya for word- 
meanings. This is so because different persons use characteristically differing 
approximations of hand gestures in different regions and times to express different 
shades and forces of the same meaning. This is why empirical practice is resorted 
to as authority in citrabhinaya/vacikabhinayam nrtya or natya. However, in nrtta, the 
objective is the expression of meaning which is authonomous to it viz. pure form, 
and not heteronomous meaning such as discursive. Therefore, sastra (agama ), not 
loka is the authority here. 

On the subject of pramana, Bharata says (NS 25.120-123) that natya is based on 
the triple authority of Veda, personal experience ( adhyatma ) and the world 
(people); it is based on the objects and meanings, by and large, contained in Veda 
and adhyatma. Natya originates from the Vedas (NS 1.17,18) and is rooted in the 
collective consciousness and behaviour of people in a society (1 okavrttanukaranam) 
and aimed at worldly precept ( lokopadesajananam) (NS 1. 108-119); it is successful 
i siddha) when accepted by people. So people (loka) are the ultimate authority for 
natya performances (of which nrtta and nrtya are integral parts). Feelings and 
activities of the movable and immovable world can never be categorised and 
defined in sastra exhaustively; people have varying dispositions and behaviour and 
natya and hence nrtta and nrtya rests on these. This is why composers and 
performers of natya should regard people as authority (See comm, on NN 4.1.238). 

130cd-131ab. sajatiya: If both hands assume the same asamyuta hatas, the sarhyuta 
asta so formed is sajatiya-, if they assume different asamyuta hatas, the samyuta hasta 
is vijatiya. Since there are 38 asamyuta hatas, there would be 38 sajatiya samyuta 
hastas. Since each asamyuta hasta may be combined with each of the remaining 37, 
'-he number of vijatiya hastasis 1406 but among them each pair is duplicated, leaving 
only 703. Together with the 37 sajatiya hastas (it is not clear why all 38 are not 
reckoned), the total is 740 Pandarika Vitthala gives the number as ‘khabdhisapta ’, a 
n umerogram which yields 740 and this is corroborated by the glosses in the collative 
si urces B and L which mention 740 in figures. 

132b. Linga hasta is different from sivalihga hasta and is described according to 
taun-mata thus (extr. Bharatakosa, p. 573): 

fwq ^ I 





238 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


3^F?T I 

&M<Wlfa^T: cf? $ II 


132cd-134ab. nasti... visesatah: These words relate only to representation of 
word meanings: in which case, the gestures (formations of the hand etc.) are 
indeed endless because these are matters of individual peculiarity, disposition, 
character and manner (cf. Bharata’s ‘ nanasildhprakrtayah , NS 25.123a). Because of 
the spontaneity of expression, these hand formations are necessarily approximate 
and such departure from the ideal form will not affect the conveyance of the 
intended meaning: for, after all, they are employed only for augmentation, 
emphasis, suggestion, support etc. of the principal mode of meaning viz. the 
spoken word. This is why ‘ tesam abhinayah nanyata isad vikarake\ and 
‘natyarthabhinayam prati kascid-ahastas tu nasti. This latitude is limited however, by 
three factors viz. desa (place), kala (time) and prayoga (nature of performance). But 
these considerations do not apply to nrtta , where strict conformity to the ideal (or 
idealised) form is of the very essence in the conception, realisation and expression 
of beauty. 

134cd-135ab. arthasya... prayoktrbhih: This has a close correspondence with NS 
cT2[T cT^T wf: TPTtrJjfa: I. 


136-142. karakarana NN 1. apavestita 2. udvestita 3. vyavartita 4. parivartita 
NS HSS SAC PSS SR JNR KSR ANA no change 
NAD NBA — 

Abhinavagupta derives the meaning of karanam this context thus ( Abhinavabharati 
under NS 9. 210, p. 79): 

(eRW) Pst^ UHl^cl AlHI^TdcidHfshdirdVltlui Puid>l^-Mi 

I 

Karana is the special act of raising ( moving,) the fingers by which a special 
abhinaya is generated by itself such that at the end (of the act) the sense is 
completed. 

cf. also ‘sadhakatamam karanam’ (Panini, Astadhyayi, 1.4.42). Vaijayantikosa, 
3.9.98: 

<MU|M^g| : ^ I 

and Sabddrthakaustubha extracts the following passage (p. 605): 




















COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


239 


facial tl^T ^ TTtT^T II 

143. Calaka laksana has been abridged here at the cost of lucidity. Compare, for 
example with SR (7.348-350): 

sffivdT eb<u)HI«T I 

9FTI^^nfc ^f^TFSIFRtS-? TtfW: I 

% }<sllHHfa*u| *J3|T: I 

^ eWtaielP: cblftdKcRl II 

144. hstapracara: NN 1. u ttana 2. adhomukha 3. agramukha 4. parsvamukha 5. 
tiryahmukha 6. sammukha. 

NS only three: u ttana parsvaga adhomukha 

KSR 1 to 5 + sammukhatala urdhvamukha adhastala parahmukha parsvatala* agraga 
urdhvaga adhogata parsvagata 

NAD NBA HSS PSS SRK ANA — 

SR — 5 + adhastala urdhvadhomukha 
JNR —3 46 

According to some, mainly Bhatta Udbhata, hastapracara is of five kinds viz. 
uttana adhastala tryasra agraga adhomukha among which adhastala and agraga merge 
into adhomukha and uttana respectively. According to yet others, hastapracara is 
fivefold: uttanatryasra ( triangular ) sthita vartulaand adhomukha. 

145-147. Karakarma NN 1. utkarsana 2. vikarsana 3. akarsana 4. parigraha 5. nig- 
raha 6. ahvana 7. rodhana 8. samslesa 9. viyoga 10. raksana 11. moksana 12. viksepa 
13. dhunana 14. visarjana 15. tarjana 16. chedana\l. bhedana 18. sphotana 19. motana 
20. tadana 
NS 7. todana 

SR 7. tolana 9. vislesa 12. ksepa 

JNR 7. todana 9. vislesa 

NAD NBA HSS PSS SRK SAC — 

KSR 7. tolana 
ANA 7. tolana 

The above mentioned manual functions are translated by Manomohan Ghosh 
thus (p. 185): 1. drawing upwards 2. dragging 3. drawing out 4. accepting 5. killing 
6. beckoning 7. urging {todana) 8. bringing together 9. separating 10. protecting 
11. releasing 12. throwing 13. shaking 14. giving away 15. threatening 16. cutting 
17. piercing 18-19. squeezing 20. beating (in the same order as above). 



















240 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


Radha Burnier (SR Eng. Tr. p. 89): 1. raising up 2. drawing towards 3. drawing 
inwards 4. accepting 5. restraining 6. beckoning 7. weighing 8. contact 9. separation 
10. protecting 11. releasing 12. throwing out 13. shaking 14. dismissing 15. 
threatening 16. cutting 17. splitting 18. bursting 19. snapping 20. beating. 

The above mentioned terms of k arakarma are in many cases polysemantic and 
admit of alternative translations. For example, nigraha means to hold down, lower, 
depress, to keep or hold back, draw near, attract, to seize, catch; hold, hold fast, 
stop, restrain, suppress, curb, contract and so on. 

149-154ab. kati: NN 1. sama 2. chinna 3. nivrtta 4. recita 5. kampita 6. udvahita 
NS—1 
NAD NBA — 

HSS — 2 to 6 + nata unnamita 
SAC — 1 5; 3 vivrtta + andolita 

PSS—1 

SR — 1; 3. vivrtta 

JNR— 1 

KSR — 1; 3. vivrtta 

SRK — 

ANA— 1; 3. vivrtta 

154-164ab. arighri: NN 1. sama 2. ancita 3. kancita 4. suet 5. agratalasancara 
6. udghattita 7. ghattita 8. ghatitotsedha 9. tratita 10. mardita 11. parsniga 12. agraga 
13. parsvaga 

NS — 4 7 to 13 + tryasra 
NAD — 

NBA —7 to 13 
HSS —7 to 13 

SAC — 2 3 5 7 1. nija 9. tadita 
PSS —4 7 to 13 
SR 9. tadita 

JNR + ahguUprsthaga talahati 
KSR no change 
ANA no change 

The following anghri (foot movement) varieties of desi style are described in 
parallel works but athetised in NN 

1. sarfta2. svastika 3. ullola4. sphurikab. ardhapurdti 6. purdti 7. vestanaS. udvestana 
9. khutta 10. ardhaskhalita 11. pravrta 12. prsthatah 13. ksepa 14. lataksepa 15. nikutta 
16. samaskhalita 17. utksepa 

NN NS NAD SAC KSR SRK ANA — 

NBA HSS no change 

PSS + damaru kartari tattala garudapaksa lalatatilaka perana alagapada 




COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


241 


SR — 237811 13; the rest are available as bhumicans. 

164cd-193. sthanaka NN 1. s amapada 2. parsnividdha 3. svastika 4. samhata 5. 
utkata 6. vardhmdna 7. nandyavarta 8. mandala 9. caturasra 10. vaisakha 11. ayata 12. 
avahitha 13. prsthottanatala 14. ascakranta 15. ekapada 16. brahma 17. vaisnava 18. 
saiva 19. atidha 20. pratyaUdha 21. khandasuci 22. samasuci 23. visamasuci 24. 
kurmasana 25. nagabandha 26. garuda 27. vrsabhasana 

NN describes these poses without classifying into male, female, standing, sitting, 
reclining, marga or desi. 

NS describes only 6 viz. 18101719 20 

NAD gives only 1 15 16 25 26 + a indra 

NBA — 4 5 9 27; + motita vinivrtta aindra candrika (candika) vaisnava (other than 
17) samyapada (different from 1) ekajanu ekaparsvaparivrtta; 2. parsnipida 13. prsthot- 
tanapada 

HSS — 4510 to 141618 to 20 23 27; + samapadaka (different from 1) parsnipdrsva 
ekajanu parivrtta 

SAC — 581011 1319 20 24 25; + parsniparsvagata ekaparsvagata ekajanu paravrtta 

PSS—4579 to 141617 to 2327;+ paravrtta tribhangipadmasana visamapadmasana 
antarapadmasana 

SR describes 51 sthanakas under the following heads: 

a. purusa : 1. vaisnava 2. samapada 3. vaisakha 4. mandala 5. atidha 6. pratyaUdha 

b. stri 1. ayata 2. avahittha 3. asvakrantha 4. gatagata 5. valitab. motital . vinivartita 

c. desi 1. svastika 2. vardhamana 3. nandyavarta 4. samhata 5. samapadu 6. ekapada 
7. prsthottanatala 8. caturasra 9. parsnviddha 10. parsniparsvagata 11. ekaparsvagata 
12. ekajanugata 13. paravrtta 14. samasuci 15. visamasuci 16. khandasuci 17. brahma 
18. vaisnava 19. fmt/a 20. garuda 21. kurmasana 22. nagabandha 23. vrsabhasana 

d. upavista 1. svastha 2. madalasa 3. kranta 4. viskambhita 5. utkata 6. srastalasa 
7. janugata 8. muktajanu 9. vimukta. 

e. supta 1. sama 2. akuncita 3. prasarita 4. vivartita 5. udvahita 6. nata 

The sthanakas of NN have correspondences with the above as follows: 

1<5,2-cl0,3-cl, 4-c4,5-d5,6-c2,7-c3,8-a4,9-c8,10-a3,11-bl, 12-b2,13-c7,14-b3, 
13-c6,16-C17,17-cl8,18-cl9,19-a5,20-a6,21-cl6,22-cl4,23-cl5,24-c21,25-c22,26- 
c20, 27-c23 

JNR-2 to 79 13 15 16 1821 to 27; + g atagata valita motita vinivartita pronnata 

KSR follows SR exactly in number, classification, order and description. SRK 
describes only 1 8 10 11 12 14 17 19 20 

ANA: as in SR, but adds pronnata in (b) and completely omits (d); entries are in 
different order. 

169d. Vitasti is a length between a) stretched thumb and little finger b) between 
the wrist and tip of fingers i.e. thirteen ahgulas or roughly nine inches. 

173d. tryasra: obliquely triangular 


242 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


178a. Va has lost its disjunctive force and the sense is left uncompleted because 
of injudicious abridgement from SR (7. 1066): ‘samas talantare sthitaW therein 
(1066b) is substituted with ‘ svakrantam sthanakam tada ’ (178b): This text of SR gives 
a lucid and consistent meaning: a swdfoot is placed at the heel of a sama foot or on 
its own side in sama separated by a tala (span). 

183-184a. alldha. If translated exactly this text would yield the improbable 
meaning (which is also contrary to the description of atidha'm parallel treatises): left 
thigh is bent and is held still in air one cubit from the ground; the right foot is five 
spans away from it to the left. So the sense of SR (7. 1049) which is largely abridged 
by NN in this part of text is translated here. 

185b. ‘ruparsnikah is a strong variant:’ 'nuparsinikah'. This translates as follows: 
One foot is kuncita ; the heel of the other foot is placed on the ground and the foot 
is stretched obliquely; then it is khandasud. 

193-228ab. cans: NN hhumicarisr. 1. samapada 2. sthitavarta 3. sakatasya 4. vicyava 
5. adhyardhika 6. casagati 7. elaka ( edaka) kndita 8. samo(t) saritamatalU 9. mattalU 
10. utsyandita (utspandita ) 11. addita 12. syandita (spandita) 13. avasya-(-spa-)ndita 
14. baddha 15. janita 16. urudvrtta 17. rathacakra 18. paravrttatala 19. nupuraviddha 
20. tiryahmukha 21. marala 22. karihasta 23. kuliraka 24. vislista 25. katara 26. parsni- 
recita 27. urutadita 28. uruveni 29. talodvrtta 30. harinatrasita 31. ardhamandali 
32. tiryakkuncita 33. madalasa 34. sancarita 35. utkuncita 36. stambhaklndanika 
37. Iahghitajahghika38. sphurita 39. apakuncita 40. samghattitd 41. khutta 42. svastika 
43. taladarsini 44. purati 45. ardhapurati 46. sa(sa)rika 47. sphurikd 48. nikuttaka 
49. lataksepa 50. ardha ( adda) skhalitika 51. smaskhcditika 

NN a kasacans: 52. atikranta53. apakranta54. parsvakrantabb. mrgaplutabb. urdhv- 
ajanubl. alatab8. sucibQ. nupurapadika 60. dola(dold)pada 61. dandapada 62. vidyu- 
dbhrantab 3. bhramari 64. bhujahgatrasita 65. aksipta 66. aviddhabl. udvrtta 68. purah- 
ksepa 69. viksepa 70. apaksepa 71. damari(-ru!) 72. jahghdlahghanikd 73. ahghritadita 
74. alatika 75. jahghavarta 76. vestana 77. udvestana 78. utksipta 79. prsthotksepa 
80. sucividdha 81. pravrtta 82. ullola ( ullala ). 

NS describes 1 to 16 and 52-67 only. These are regarded as m argacaris by later 
authorities and the rest as desicaris. 

NAD describes only calana cahkramana sarana vegini kuttana luthita lolita and 
visamasancara uniquely and none other. 

NBA 1-16; 14. vaktrabandha\ + ksamaprehkuhana sarika (46) agrapluta vidyullila 
khadgabandha rekhabandha luthitollalita (cf. Ithita lolita of NAD), kundalavarta 
vicitra; 

HSS 1-16 only; 11, asthita 

SAC describes only 16 to 43 66 68 to 73 75 82; + samanakha harinapluta 

PSS calls these palas’ and describes 29 (talotksepa) , 41 42 44 to 51, 69 71 76 77 79 
81 82; + kartari tattala garudapaksa lalatatilaka perana alagapala nissarasa(-na?) 




COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


243 


SR describes 86 cam which include all the foregoing and gives four more; these 
latter are repetitions of vidyudbhranta dandapada alata sud viddhaa in both rndrga 
and desi cans. They are classified thus; mdrga bhumi cans 16, marga akasiki-caris 16, desi 
cans 54; this treatment is both eclectic and exhaustive. 

JNR as in Sr; but 41 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 76 77 78 79 are described under 
desipadas ; it repeats 56 62 63 and adds somanakha danda suci viddha andolita 
harhsamta tittirigati and antarapadmasana. Kulirika (23) is according to some the 
same as talasarpanika 

KSR as in SR No. 10 is called u tkhandita; repeats dandapada vidyudbhranta; sud 
viddha harinapluta. 

SRK describes only 1 to 16 and 52 to 67 with lacuna for 55. 

ANA as in Sr; repeats 61 62; + harinapluta sud viddha 

193cd. NS 10.1 ‘samanakarane cesta cariti parikirtita’is a better reading. 

194d. vyayama: The word cari is derived from the verbal root 'car' (Class 1, 
'bhvadi) which means to move; to eat (‘ gatibhaksanayoh ); it is intransitive in the 
former and transitive in the latter sense; it is 'set) it takes the form 'carin' in the 
adjectival, (ninih' Panini, Astadhyayi 3.1.134) and 'carayati'e tc in the causative. In 
the natyadharmi the rule ( vidhana) is laid down that the foot movement should be 
graceful and asethetic; procedures ( vidhana ) are also described for this. So cari is 
vidhanopagata. 'Vyayacchante' i s derived from 'vyayacch' which orginates from the 
verbal root 'yam. The cans are joined to (committed to) each other (samayukta) by 
a sequential relationship i.e. what occurs before and what occurs after; the previous 
cari logically leads to the next one; hence the next logically includes the previous 
one. It is hence called vyayama , drawing out, extending. Thus vyayama is used in a 
collective sense for a sequence of cans. Abhinavaguptajustifies such derivation with 
the aid of grammatical rules (op. cit. on NS 10.2. p. 93) thus: 

IffcT cJRM4^ I ^ cZTFTm 

195d. Karana is here simply the activity involving both feet and must be 
distinguished from nrttakarana which is 'hastapadasamayoga . 

193cd-198. samana... sampravartate; NN borrows this passage from NS (lO.lcd- 
6 . Can is not merely a technique of dancing: 'canbhih prastutam nrttam) it is used 
in natya\ indeed, whatever is presented in natya , it abides only in, or is transacted 
with only cans i.e. in stylized movement. Such formalisation (through natyadharmi) 
is a necessary condition of expression in (classical) art. 

199-211. Uddesa of cam: JNR offers, in its 3rd chhapter, alternative vernacular 
orovincial) names or names from other Masters (sloka numbers are given in 
- racketts). Janita-musalaghatika (21); additd-agrathd according to Klrtidhara (33); 












244 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


samo(f)-saritamattalli-mattapada in popular usage; mattalli-skhalitapada according to 
some; apasarpana according to others (38); parsvakranta-parsnicandaghata accord¬ 
ing to Kirtidhara; aksipta-valana according to KIrtidhara (45); aksipta-cintapara? 
(55); udvrttd-bhucaramanovarta (60). 

212c. Samapada is replaced with ‘samanakha’ with more appropriateness in NS 
(10.13) and other works. 

213c. punah: It is possible to translate the sthitavarta laksana in two ways: 

a. An inward circle should be described with an agratalasancara foot till it forms 
a svastika (crosses) with the other knee. Then the other foot is raised and made to 
describe an inward circle (in agratalasancara) till it forms a svastika with the other 
knee. Thus is sthitavarta. 

b. An inward circle is described with a foot touching the ground; then the other 
foot is moved in the same way. 

The latter is based only on the text of the NS (10.15) The former is based 
Abhinavagupta (op.cit., loc., cit., p. 97) and SR (7.919,920) which follows him 
closely. Abhinavagupta interprets ‘punah’thus: 


WTT$f ^nWRFTlMT 'cT«TT I 


The name sthitavarta is apt because circle ( avarta) is described from a stationary 
(sthita ) pose. 

214c. Udvahita is to raise the chest upward lightly without shaking it (SR 7.302, 
303) 

215a. vicyuta: Vicyutat, vicyavat (NS 10.19) also means to let drop; SR (7.922) 
reads ‘u ddhrtya’. This may be conciled as consistent if these are regarded as 
preparation for ‘nikuttayetam ’ occurring in the next hemistich. 

216a. Savya ordinarily means left. But the left foot can not be placed behind the 
left foot! (Unless of course, it does so in succession). So recourse is taken to a rare 
lexical usage (Monier Monier-Williams, A Sanskrit-English Dictionary, p. 11 19) to 
translate savya as right. SR (7.923) is quite explicit on this: ‘daksinahghreh parsnidese 
vamah pado nidhiyate \ 

216d. ardhyardhika ( adhy-ardha i.e. half more than (one) is one and a half. The 
right foot moves fully; the left foot, only half; hence, adhyardhika. 

2l7d. casagati: The right foot slides one span to the front and then two to the 
back. The left foot also moves (back) along with the right; both execut a small leap 
and recede backward, and are joined (while moving together) according 
toAbhinavagupta (op. cit. p. 98). Casa menas the bird blue jay (Coracias Indica) 
variously called omen bird, kikidivi, hahganahakki in Kannada. 

218d. Elaka ( edaka) kndita means the frolicsome frisking of a lamb. 

219a. Padabhyam is explicated by Abhinavagupta (op. cit. on NS 10.28, p. 101) 
as both soles (pressing the ground) and is so accepted in SR (7.930) etc. But they 









COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


245 


(or later authorities) do not take up Bharata’s description that the hands should 
hold the u dvestita and apaviddha poses. 

220d. mattalli: SR (7.932) further adds that the feet should move backward and 
forward. 

222d. Addita means to join; asthita means to abide, to stay on. 

224a. Viparyasad i.e. right foot in sama pose, the thigh is still, left foot moves away 
five spans (length between tips of stretched thumb and midfinger). Spanditd and 
apaspandita are called syandita and avasyandita elsewhere. 

225b. Baddha carl SR (7.936,937) is more detailed: both thighs make a valana 
movement (turning round) with knees inward; the shanks are then crossed; or, the 
shanks are released from svastika (crosswise formation), circles are described with 
both forefeet which then resume their position on their own side. 

225d. janita: Agratalasancara movement is here the dominant characteristic. NS 
(10.25) and SR (7.938,939) prescribe a musti-hastaat chest and any other beautiful 
pose with the other hand. 

- 226d^ Urudvrtta means raised up thigh and is therefore appropriate; it is 
‘uruvrtta’ in some treatises - thighs describing circular movement. SR (7.939-941) 
describes this somewhat differently: an agratalasancara foot is positioned to face the 
heel of the other foot. A shank is turned, with bent knee, to face the other shank. 

235a. Parsniparsvagata is not described in NN According to SR (7.1081) it 
consists of placing one heel at the innerside of the other heel. 

235b. Recitaof the foot consists of bending a foot in between the bigtoeand heel 
of the other, stretching and (thus) incessantly moving (vide 4.2.312cd-313ab). 

241d. Sribharatadayah is a spurious, anachronistic claim for ancient authority; 
for Bharata has not described the tiryak-sahcarita can at all. Pandarika Vitthala has 
replaced mkaranesvarah ’ (=Sarngadeva) with the name of Bharata in SR (7.983d) 
borrowing the rest of the sloka exactly. There are several such instances in the NN 
as shown in the Introduction to NN. 

244d. Afyanisununa is another apocryphal claim for ancientry of authority. This 
is ‘sodhalasununa’ in SR (7.989). 

257b. atikranta: Ramakrishna Kavi (NS vol. 2, p. 102 fn.l) says that this is called 
p arsnicandaghata by Kirtidhara who reads parsva eva patayet’ for ‘utksipya patayet’ 

258b. apakranta: Ramakrishna Kavi (loc. cit.) invokes Kirtidhara to say that this 
is also called viksepavalita. 

259d. Parsvakranta: SR (7.945-7) compiles two schools: a) according to its own 
view, a kuhcitafoot is lifted on its own side and its heel is brought down to the ground 
in udghattita. This is favoured by NN and is popularly known as parsvadandapada 
according to SR b) the foot is raised up to the other thigh and smashed on the 
ground in udghattita. 



246 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


The can descriptions of NN should be compared by the student with those in SR 
which are more detailed. 

264. Suci (ii) This alternative definition is found not in NS but in SR (7. 952) 

264. Vdyudbhranta: The foot revolves (bhranta) like lightning ( vidyut) , touching 
the forehead in front and back of the head from behind. Abhinavagupta (op. cit. 
on NS: 10.40, p. 104) presents two schools of practice: a) according to some acaryas 
‘prsthatah ’ means from the root of the thigh; b) according to his own teacher 
vidyudbhranta results when the foot reaches behind from the side, touches the (back 
of the) head and revolves in mandala form at the sides and below and stretches. 

269d. Trika is so called because it is the meeting point of the back and the two 
hips; the sense here is that the torso should be fully turned to a side. 

273a. Padam aviddham avestya: Abhinavagupta (loc. cit.) interprets this to say 
that the foot of the aviddha can is rendered kuncita; avestya means that the heel of 
such ( dviddha-kuncita ) pada should be placed in the region of the other thigh. He 
further requires a leap executed on the same foot, turning round fully and then 
touching the ground with it. Then the other foot is raised up and turned round. 
Sarrigadeva, who follows Abhinavagupta closely in the nartanadhyaya, adopts the 
same view (SR 7.964, 965). 

277d. Vamadaksinato bhramat: Left foot circularly to the left and the right foot 
circularly to the right? A single foot circularly to both the left and the right? SR (7. 
10006), takes the latter view. 

280d. Munibhih Bharatadibhih: NN is here indebted to Sarrigadeva (SR 7. 
1009), not to Bharata, who does not describe al ata can. 

285a. Kuricitasya: Sirhhabhupala ( Sahgitasudhdkara , comm, on SR (7. 1015), p. 
312) comments that the other foot is made kuncita-, he has probably read ‘purah'{SR 
7. 1015b) as ‘parah’. 

285d. Udvrttah: Siriihabhupala (op. cit. loc. cit.) has probably read ‘udvrttauy 
caranau’ and requires both feet to assume udvrtta pose. 

288b. Lalitarigakriyatmikah: This is an echo from Bharatamuni: ‘etas carya maya 
prokta lalitarigakriyatmikah ’ (NS 10.50 ab); this is largely true of only the 32 cans 
which Bharata has described and not of the 82 (or 86 of SR and others) many of 
which are complex and sophisticated, known to and practised by tandavavedins 
(NN 4.2.264b). 

288cd-310ab. Nrttakarana should be distinguished as combined movement’s of 
hands and feet and should be distinguished from hastakarana (NN 4.2.136-142) and 
can karana (NN 4.2.195). It is both postural and kinetic and is fundamental to 
dance as vocabulary. K aranas described by Bharata, numbering 108 are the most 
ancient and most well known. They are permanently enshrined in stone as 
sculptures in South Indian temples such as those at Chidambaram ( Nataraja ) and 
Tanjore (Brhadisvara) , Kumbhakonam (Sarahgapani ), Vrddhdcalam and Tiruvan- 
namalai. 




COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


247 


Nrttakaranas are described as components of ahgaharas. But they were also 
employed for general representation in a play such as in battle. Karanais composed 
of the movements of hands and feet primarily, but these involve the various 
formations of hips, sides, head, chest, back and belly also. Hand and foot move¬ 
ments are, among these, the most dominant and definitive. They proceed in two 
states viz. gati and avasthiti i.e. kinetic and stationary. The former is provided by the 
feet in terms of cans , and the latter by sthanakas i.e. stances. The hand movements 
are provided by nrtta-hastas (which are free from word meaning, and therefore 
contribute to formal beauty). In Havanas dominated by foot work, the left hand is 
at the chest, holding any (or appropriate or prescribed) pose while the right hand 
movements follows the right foot movement. Since the can includes various 
formations of the foot and the various kinds of movements ( ahghri , pracarae tc.) and 
the nrtta hastas imply hastakarana, hastakarma, hastaksetra as also the calaka and 
vartana varieties of the arms, all these and other auxiliary, subsidiary, secondary or 
adjunctive movements of the entire body go into the formation of the karana ; this 
is why Bharatamuni says (NS 4. 76-79): 

^ ^ JlfdMRsb^ I 

StVt eppjf ermt cfST: I 

RrTsrT I 

The above components (viz. sthanaka , ran and nrttahasta) are called matrkas the 
various combinations of which yield karana. 

It may be noticed that some same names occur among cans , sthanakas , foot 
movements and nrttakaranas. This is because when they are regarded as highlighted 
by one most prominent component, they are treated and named as the respective 
component also. 

The various authorities frankly admit that the numbers of these matrkas ( nrttahasta, 
can and sthanaka) they describe are indeed very small compared to the actual and 
the possible which are indeed endless. What is described is done so only because 
they are used in the more familiar Havanas like the more frequent letters occurring 
in familiar words. The combinations and permutations of all these (it may be 
remembered that the sajatiya and vijatiya nrtta-hastas derived from asamyuta-hastas 
alone number 740! - ‘nastikascid ahastas tu - NN 4.2.132cd) yield an extremelty (and 
impracticable) number of Havanas. This is admitted by the authorities themselves: 
















248 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


"anantyatkarananyapi 9 ( SR 7.56d ),' anantani catany-atra 9 {NN 4.2.289a), etc. Afinite 
number of k aranas is described in these treatises because they are more facile and 
better known and they are readily employed in angaharas. 

NN has omitted the treatment (or even the mention) of a hgaharas because it falls 
outside its scope or purpose, which is limited to bandha nrtya. NN is explicit on this 
point: ‘ atra prayogavasatah kati karanani pravaksyami bandhanrttasya siddhaye 9 (NN 
4.2.289 bed). 

For the sake of completeness, a few words on angaAara may be added here: ‘ anga 
refers to parts of the dancer’s body; %< 2 ra’means ‘of Hara i.e. Siva 9 , transposition, 
or originating from or accomplished with. Abhinavagupta (op. cit. vol. 1, p. 89) 
gives all three derivations of the term: 



The second is a mythical derivation: performed (or invented by Siva. NS 4.12-16). 
The others are physical: transposing a part of the body from one position to 
another, originating in or accomplished with various parts of the body. When, at the 
instance of Brahma, Bharatamuni staged the d ima called Tripuradaha before Siva 
at the foot hills of the Himalaya, Siva was very delighted with it and suggested that 
the purvarahga, which was largely conventional and ritual, could be made entertain¬ 
ing by including some dance. Then he rememberd the angaharas which were 
invented by himself and performed during sandhyatandavamd commands his gana 
Tandu to teach them to Bharata so that they may be included in the new ( extra ) 
purvarahga. 

Ahgahara is a sequence of two or more karanas , in which continuity and unity are 
accomplished through recakas of head, hands, feet and hips. Even though a very 
huge number, - if not infinite-of angaharas result from sequence combinations and 
sequence-permutations of karanas (which are themselves almost endless), only 
thirtytwo of them are recognised from the earliest times in literary tradition and 
sastra parampara. Sixteen of these are of teragonal ( caturasra) i.e. rectangular, 
quadrilateral, parallelogram, trapezoid etc., choreographic disposition while six¬ 
teen others are triangular (tryasra). These are: 1. sthirahasta 2. paryasta 3. sucividdha 
4. apaviddha 5. aksipta 6. udghattita 7. viskambha 8. aparajita 9. viskambhapasrta 10. 
mattaknda 11. svastikarecita 12. parsvasvastika 13. vrscikapasrta 14. bhramara 15. 
mattaskhalita 16. madavilasita 17. gatimandala 18. paricchinna 19. parivrttarecita 20. 
vaisakha recita 21. paravrtta 22. alataka 23. parsvaccheda 24. vidyudbhranta 25. udvrtta 
26. atidha 27. recita 28. acchurita 29. aksiptarecita 30. sambhranta 31. apasarpita 32. 
ardhanikutta. Among these 1 2 358 10 12 14 16 18 20 23 24 26 28 31 are set in 








COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


249 


4. apaviddha 5. aksipta 6. udghattita 7. viskambha 8. aparajita 9. viskambhapasrta 
10. mattakrida 11. svastikarecita 12. parsvasvastika 13. vrscikapasrta 14. bhramara 
15. mattaskhalita 16. madavilasita 17. gatimandala 18. paricchinna 19. parivrttarecita 
20. vaisakha recita 21. paravrtta 22. alataka 23. parsvaccheda 24. vidyudbhranta 25. 
udvrtta 26. dridha27. recital. acchurita29. aksiptarecitaSO. sambhrantaSl. apasarpita 
32. ardhanikutta. Among these 1 2358 10 12 141618 20 23 24 26 28 31 are set in 
caturasra choreography while 467911 1315171921 22 25 27 29 30 32 are set in 
tryasra chereography. 

Nrttakarana is the unit of nrtta ; segments or sections of nrtta are characterised 
and measured with the number of karanas assembled together. Thus two karanas 
give a matrka (to be distinguished from karana components), three karanas make 
a kalapa , four a khandaka called sandaka by Bharata, five a samghata (SR 7. 792- 
793). Angahara is conceived differently in NBA (544-582) in which it is associated 
with a drsti , can or sthanaka initially but details of the nrtta are not given in terms 
of karana ; they are related to rasas ; lalita (five varieties, srhgara-rasa ), vikrama (three 
varieties, vira-rasa ), karunika (four varieties, karuna-rasa ), vicitra (two varieties, 
adbhuta-rasa ), vikala (two varieties), bhima (two varieties), vikrta (two), ugratara 
(two, santaja (two). 

Bharatamuni describes the following 108 karanas'. 

1. talapusputa2. vartitaS. valitoruk apaviddhab. samanakhab. Una7. svastikarecita 
8. mandalasvastika9 . nikutta 10. ardhanikutta 11. katicchinna 12. ardharecita 13. vaksa- 
hsvastika 14. unmatta 15. svastika 16. pruthasvastika 17. diksvastika 18. alataka 19. kati- 
sama29. aksiptarecita2\. viksiptaksipta 22. ardhasvastika 23. ahcita24. bhujahgatrasita 
i0.padapaviddha3\.valita?>2.ghurnita32>. Ialita34. dandapaksaSb. bhujahgatrastarecita 
36. nupura?>7. vaisakharecita 38. bhramara39. catura40. bhujahgahcita4\. dandakrrecita 
42. vrscikakuttita 43. katibhranta 44. Iatavrscika4b. chinna 46. vrscikarecita 47. vrscika 
48. vyarhsita 49. parsvanikutta 50. lalatatilaka 51. kranta 52. kuncita53. cakramandala 
54. uromandala55. aksipta56. talavilasita 57. argala 58. viksipta59. avarta60. dolapada 
61. vivrtta62. vinivrtta63. parsvakranta64. nisumbhita§5. vidyudbhranta 66. atikranta 
67. vivartita 68. gajakndita 69. talasamsphotita 70. garudapluta 71. gandasuci 72. pari- 
inrtta 73. parsvajanu 74. grdhravalina 75. samanata 76. si/d 77. ardhasucni 78. si/d- 
: iddha 79. apakranta 80. mayuralalita 81. sarpita 82. dandapada 83. harinapluta 
84. prehkholita 85. nitamba 86. skhalita 87. karihasta 88. prasarpita 89. simhavikndita 
90. sirhhakarsita 91. ela(da)kakndita 98. urudvrtta 99. madaskhalita 100. visnukranta 
101. sambhranta 102. viskambha 103. udghattita 104. vrsabhakndita 105. lolita 
106. nagapasarpita 107. sakatasya 108. gahgavatarana. 

This is adopted by most post-NS authorities e.g. Sr. JNR, KSR, SRK, PSS etc. SAC 
describes only eighteen; ancita kartary-ahcita ekapadahcita bhairavahcita alagna 
antaralagna urdhvalagna natakapalasparsana prsthakapalasparsana lotita (four varie- 
es such as ekapada) dandapranata jalasayya enapluta. tiryakkarana matsyalolita. 




250 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


HSS adds twentyfive more karanas to the 108‘described in NS, SR etc. 

I. visamasvastike2. damaru 3. citrarecita 4. tripataka 5. saiva 6. mahesvaral. narayana 
8. manmatha9. vdruna 10. aindra 11. sudarsana\2. gandharva\S. sahkha 14. sundara 
15. simha 16. Ilia 17. heramba 18. candra 19. karuna 20. vicaracaturanana (created by 
Haripala) 21. adbhuta 22. jayanta 23. pindka 24. samirana 25. lasyankura. 

Besides the 108 karanas, SR. adds 36 more, called utplutikaranas involving leap, 
jump or hop. These are 1. ancita 2. ekacaranahcita 3. bhairavahcita 4. dandaprama- 
nahcita 5. kartaryancita 6. alaga 7. kurmalaga 8. urdhvalaga 9. jalasayana 10. lohadi 
( luthita) 11. kartarilohadi 12. ekapada lohadi 13. darpasarana 14. jalasayana 15. naga- 
bandha 16. kapalacumana 17. nataprstha 18. matsyakarana 19. karasparsana 20. ena- 
pluta2\. tiryakkarana22. tiryagahcita2?>. tiryaksvastik r;24. sucyantani2b. bahyabhramari 
26. antarbhramari 27. chatrabhramari 28. tiripabhramari 29. alagabhramari 30. cakra- 
bhramari 31. ahcitabhramari 32. sirobhramari 33. digbhramari 34. samapadahcita 
35. bhrantapadahcita 36. skandhabhranta. This is repeated in ANA with two additions 
viz. lahkadahahcita and samakartaryahcita. It may be noticed that the utplutikaranas 
of SR. consist of many which are already found in SAC in a somewhat corrupt and 
confused text; bhramarisare considered as karanas here. But other authorities such 
as NAI) and NN. treat them as a different topic. 

NN. describes only sixteen karanas ; its objective is not comprehensiveness, but 
just enough study material which would equip the dancer to perform bandha nrtya 
items which it describes presently. 

299c. Puspaputa is a samyuta hasta formed by joining two sarpasiras hands. (NS. 

II. 150). 

300c. Samahsthitah: ‘Samutthitah ’has been so emended to accord with parrallel 
descriptions elsewhere. 

307d. Nisumbhita is the name adopted in the uddesa in NS (4.46b) but in the 
actual description it is called nistambhita (NS. 4.125b) which Abhinavagupta 
confirms. However the collative force favours ‘nisumbhita’ (NS. Tha, Ma for 4.46b 
and Ba Ma Ta for 4.125b). 

311cd-316ab. recakas: NN. has borrowed the definitions of recakas from Sr. 
(7.892-896) literally, which has in turn, adapted the introductory hemistich 
‘caturorecakamscapigadatomenibodhata ’ofNS. (4.248ab) into ‘recakanathavaksyamas 
caturo bharatoditan’ ( SR. 7.892ab). But its descriptions differ slighdy from those in 
NS. The descriptions of recakas in NS. (4.248-249) may possibly be an interpolation. 

316c. Krti is translated here as expert (engineer) on the basis of its rare lexical 
usage (Monier Monier-Williams, A Sanskrit-English Dictionary, p. 303). Compare 
this word with kdru (Sathyanarayana, R., Bharatiya-sangitadalliparibhasaprayoga, pp. 

(5-7). 

317a. Sodhayitva: NN. has thus abridged the details of site examination and 
ground cleansing from NS (2.24-27ab): the soil should be plain firm hard (accord- 



COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


251 


ing to Abhinavagupta, anusara i.e., nonsaUne), black or white. Sodhana consists of 
light ploughing and removal of bones, pegs, potsherds, grass and shrubs. Cf 317ab 
with NS. 2.27ab: ‘sodhayitva vasumatlmpramanam nirdiset tatah’. 

317b. pramana NN. is indebted to NS. for nrttamantapa in general and pramana 
in particular (NS. 2.13-15), athetising danda (‘caturhasto bhaved dando’ NS. 2.16a). 

320cd-321ab. manam: This size (thirty three hastas E-W, and fifteen hastas N-S) 
is not found mentioned elsewhere and probably reflects the empirical usage in 
Karnataka whence the athor hailed. 

321c. vastusastravidhana: There does not seem to exist many treatises separately 
dealing with the architecture of a natyamandapa, other than the rules or descrip¬ 
tions provided by Bharata (NS. ch.2) despite profuse literary references in Sanskrit 
and other languages and numerous epigraphical references to natyasala, natakasala 
etc. Nrttamandapa is different of course, from natyasala and no architectural rules 
are available for erecting it. In his Guptabhdvaprakasika, comm, on NS, Ponangi 
Srirama Appa Rao complies, during an excellent and exhaustive discussion of the 
natyamandapa (pp. 28-65), a list of ancient and modern writers on the subject, as 
well as some historical remnants of such ndtyamandapas. Early authorities include 
Visnudharmottarapurana, Silparatna of Srikumara, Naradasilpa of Narada, Bhava- 
orakasa of Saradatanaya, Sahgitamakaranda of Narada, Sivatattvaratnakara of Immadi 
Basavappanayaka of Keladi, Vasudevasuri’s Prasadalaksana etc. Modern Writers 
include 

Raghavan, V, Theatre Architecture in Ardent India (Triveni, 4.6, 5.4, 6.1) 

Mankad, D.R., Ancient Indian Theatre (Indian Historical Quarterly, 1932) 

Pisharoti, K.R Ancient Indian Theatre (in Sir Annamalai Chettiar Commemo¬ 
ration Volume) 

Acharya, P.K. Hindu Play-House (Modern Review, April 1936) 

Sankar, S.P., Bharata’s Natyasastra: 2nd chapter (Bihar Theatre, Jan. 1954). 

Gupta, C.B. The Indian Theatre, Ph.D. Thesis 

Sastri, P.S., Natyagrhamu (Bharati, Sravana Issue, Nandana Year) 

Subba Rao, D., Essay appended to 2nd edn. of Natyasastra, 1st vol. (GOS). 

a. Measuring string (sutra) to measure out the dimensions of the mandapa is 
made of cotton, wool, munja grass or the bark of a tree and is made very strong; for 
if it breaks into two it is a portent of the patron’s death, if into three pieces a political 
disater in the land, and if in four, death of the performer ( prayoktr) himselE It is 
spread out on the ground on an auspicious asterism such as uttara, uttarasadha, 
. ttarabhadra, visakha, revati, hasta, pusya anuradha etc. 

b. Foundation is laid to the accompaniment of sounds of conch, mrdahga, 
'.znava, dundubhi etc. in an auspicious asterism, in which heretics, sramanas (jaina 
monks) etc. are excluded, food and other prescribed offerings are made to all ten 
directions to the accompaniment of mantra recitation. 





252 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


c. After raising the walls and pillars of the auditorium, construction of the s tag e 
is commenced. Its surface is of black soil, raised to the required height by filling up 
with earth. Such earth should be absolutely free from stone chips, gravel and grass. 
The earth should be carried in new baskets by persons free from physical defects 
and should be ploughed using two white beasts of burden (e.g. bullocks or horses) 
by persons who are free from physical defects. The stage floor should not be convex 
but level like the surface of a mirror. No pillar, bracket, window, corner or door 
should be constructed to face a door. 

d. After the plinth of the stage is constructed, woodwork and decoration should 
be designed by careful and repeated thinking. The mandapa should be designed 
with thorough artistry using decorative designs, carved Agues of elephants, tigers 
and snakes. Many wooden statues should be set up. Mechanised, lattice windows 
should be provided as also rows of good seats, dovecotes etc., according to NS. 
Jayasenapati (JNR. 7. 222-229) gives a detailed description of the decoration of the 
nrttmandapa which deserves to be fully quoted here: 



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COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


253 


325-330ab. Nartakalaksana: cf. NN> 4.1.1, 2; SR (7. 1327cd) is content with 
‘nartakah suribhih prokto marganrtte krtasramah ’. JNR (7. 165-171) is also quite 
detailed in the qualities or qualifications of nartaka : he comes from high family, 
expert in nrtyasastra , philosopher (cognoscente in the principles of dance?), in full 
control of his senses, capable of computing pros and cons, efficient in presenting 
a practical performance, himself a composer of instrumental compositions, and 
scholar in playing the instruments, cognisant of turning various instruments and 
expert in reciting all their patajatis , skilled in teaching desciples, himself learned in 
nartana , expert in orchestration, knowledgeable in various desi dances, not con¬ 
ceited, taught traditionally, skilled in tala, orator, adept in both song and instru¬ 
mental music, able to create new dance postures, expert in both song and 
instrumental music, able to create new dance postures, expert in both playing and 
reciting characteristic sounds of instruments, underformed, introvert, handsome, 
unenvious, wholly harmonious with the mind of the nartaki, well outlined, appeal¬ 
ing aesthetically, pleasant spoken - such is the nartaka. 

330cd-342. Patra description in NN. is compiled from NAD and SR. In NS. patra 
means any dramatis persona and synonymous with nata , prayoktr , abhineta, prayojaka 
etc. However, patra means a danseuse in NAD, SR and later works, as also in 
references in literature and inscriptions. 

331d. Yauvanatritaya: NN. has borrowed the passage intermittently from SR (7. 
1224-1230) and has combined patralaksana and patraguna under the single heading 
of patralaksana \ Bharatamuni, who describes these youthful stages of feminine love 
under ‘bdhyopacdra’ (NS. 23. 42-52) under prakrti (nature of men and women in 
dramaturgical roles), delineates four such stages for love situations in a play 
( nataka) but these are equally relevant in nrtya involving representation of love. 
These stages are manifested through four factors: inner quality, special (natural) 
lustre of face and limbs, movement of body parts and dress. 

(a) initial (first) stage: enthusiasm for sex acts, plump thighs, hips, cheeks and 
lips, firm and hard breasts; cannot bear pains (from teeth and fingernails), desires 
pleasurable qualities (while making love). 

(b) second stage: fully developed body, slender waist; is a stage which is the very 
essence of sexual love; shows a little pride, anger and jealousy; becomes silent when 
angry. 

(c) third stage: splendour in every part of the body: (desires) exciting love acts 
from the partner; age of natural sex indulgence and the body is splendoured on 
satiation of sexual love; is efficient in acts of sexual consummation; has many 
qualities and is not secretive about her proud acts. 

(2) Fourth stage: the first three stages have come and gone; her physical charm 
is now lacklustre because of shrunken cheeks, lips, hips and breasts; she has no 
enthusiasm for acts of sexual love; she is still capable of attracting a man but has no 



254 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


malice towards a rival even if the latter is an expert in enjoyment of sexual love; she 
always desires not to be separated from her lover. 

Abhinavagupta (op. cit. on NS. loc. cit. p. 240) gives the ranges of the above four 
stages as upto 20 years, 20-23 years, 30-40 years and 40-50 years. According to other 
authorities, these are upto 16 years, 16-25 years, 25-35 years and 35-45 years 
respectively. NN. has athetised the fourth stage as irrelevant for purposes of 
dancing. Saradatanaya ( Bhavaprakasanam , 5.5-24) gives parallel descriptions of 
these stages with minor differences. 

343d. Nrttasiddhi: Bharata’s view on siddhi (NS. ch. 27) relates to the presenta¬ 
tion of natya , but one, applicable mutatis mutandis to nrtta and nrtya also and may 
therefore be summarised here, because ‘prayogah sarvo’ yam siddhy-artham 
sampradarsitah’ (27. Id). It is of two kinds: siddhi (success) due to human effort 
( manusi) and due to divine dispensation (daivi ). Manusi siddhi , based on bhava and 
rasa may be due to body acts or due to words, in the form of audience/spectator 
response and originates in ten ways: smile, laugher, loud laughter, interjections 
such as ‘alas! ’, ‘bravo’ etc. clapping, loud clamour (verbal), horripilation, standing 
ovation jumping up in the seats, throwing gifts such as clothes, rings etc. on the 
stage (physical) (27. 1-5). Daivi-siddhi arises from intense effect from emotive 
abhinaya: the stage is fully pervaded by it (sampurnata rahgasya ); the audience/ 
spectators are a sense of completeness/absolutely silent and still (27-16). 

Obstacles to success (both human and divine) originate from the following: 

(a) beyond control of human agency e.g. hurricane, fire, rain, maddended 
elephant, snake, chaos due to panic, lightning, insect-swarms (e.g. bees, wasps etc.) 
wild animals, ants etc. (20) 

(b) caused by others (rivals) due to jealousy 6r hatred: shouting, screaming, 
bursting (explosives, firecrackers etc.), screaming with (rhythmic, nonstop) clap¬ 
ping, hurling dung, stones, grass, brickbats (tomatos, eggs, rotten vegetables etc.) 

(c) natural calamities such as earthquake, falling stars, storm etc. 

(d) one’s own erors: inattentiveness, performing some one else’s acts and words, 
selecting persons unsuitable for various roles (as in a ballet, in group dances etc.), 
drying up on words (or items, acts of dance etc.), employing wrong acts (hasta, pada, 
adavu etc.). Loosening and falling of headwear, jewellery, costumes (besmearing 
or running down of make up), stage-fright etc. (27. 21-26). 

Siddhi is again, of three kinds: misra (mixed), sarvagata (total) and ekadesaja 
(partial). Neither success nor failure should be considered alone, without fully 
understanding the circumstances. Total success or total failure will express itself in 
many ways. But a partial failure should not be held against the performance (27.39- 
40) 

Audience/spectators also contribute significantly to the success or failure of a 
performance. This is why ‘ sabhalaksana ’is integral to any treatise on performing arts 





COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


255 


such as music, dance and drama. Success or failure of a dance recital depends on 
the quality of the president (patron), audience, orchestra etc. This is why NN. deals 
with these topics (NN. 4.2. 360-378). Critics, judges or umpires ( prasnika) also have 
an important role to play in influencing the quality of a performance. Bharata is very 
systematic in his analysis of siddhi and deals with these and other aspects of a 
performance. 

Pearls from the mouth of Bharata include: 

Knowledge is endless, longevity is limited; so every ideal quality should not be 
expected to be found in a single spectator. A spectator is one who responds to a 
pleasurable situation with pleasure, a sorrowful situation with sorrow etc. There are 
all kinds of spectators-excellent, moderate and inferior. The quality of excellence 
(in roles, performance) cannot be understood by the inferior. They appreciate or 
enjoy an art event only in terms of what is familiar to them. People are of different 
natures, temperaments and cultural level; they enjoy a theme in accordance with 
their own individual backgrounds; the youthful enjoy a love theme; the learned, 
what is classical (or conforms to sastra) ; aspirers to wealth, theme of moneymaking; 
the detached, themes of emancipation; the valorous, bold or adventurous, themes 
of fights, the disgusting and terriable things of war; the old aged like themes of piety, 
mythology or epics; children, women and the fools (!) enjoy themes of humour, 
costume and make up. 

Performance (of dance or drama) has three concomitants: artist, spectator and 
‘property’. That of the performer consists of intelligence, enthusiasm (vigour), 
body form, knowledge of tala-laya, rasa-bhava , appropriate age, curiosity to know, 
capacity to understand, memory, singing, overcoming cold feet and bold and 
enthusiatic participation. Performance concomitant consists of excellent instru¬ 
mental music, excellent singing, excellent conversation, script (or word delivery), 
and abhinaya in conformity with sastra. Good jewellery, decorations, unguents, 
(flower and other-) garlands etc. are ‘property’. 

For characteristics of ideal spectator, see comm. NN. 4.2. 360-365. 

343cd-344ab. Rekha may be described as body line of a dancer. Here it is defined 
as a state or stance of the body in which the activities of head, eyes, hands and of 
other parts of the body converge into a single aesthetic (manohari) focus: NN. has 
borrowed this passage from SR (7.1216) verbatim , wherein rekha is appended to the 
lasyahgas thus imply it to be an accomplishment of grace in dancing. 

344cd-354. lasyahga : NN. borrows, verbatim , this portion from SR (7.1206-1215). 
The definition (344cd) however is its own. Bharata has described some lasyahgas in 
the context a rupaka called bhana in which a single character performs them all (NS. 
19. 119-138ab). The lasya has a form like bhana and has for its theme intimate love 
like prakarana. It has twelve ahgas: 1. Geyapada is so called because a song ( pada ) is 
only sung ( geya) by a (standing) songstress without instrumental company even 





256 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


though the heroine, seated, is surrounded by several jnusical instruments, ii. 
Sthitapathya: a seated ( sthita ) heroine, burning with love, recites something ( pathya ) 
in prakrta ; iii. The seated heroine ( asina) without making any toilet is overcome with 
sorrow and anxiety and looking with oblique glances is asina ; iv. In puspagandika a 
woman is disguised as man and recites something sweetly to please her female 
friends, v. The lasyais pracchedakawhen a woman, separated from her lover is pained 
by moonlight and prepares to go to her beloved even if he had done her wrong, vi. 
Trimudhaka is a play which is decorated with even metres in manly states and 
composed of words which are neither harsh nor large, vii. In saindhavaka^Xover (in 
a play) fails to keep his tryst and expresses his grief in Prakrta and well performed 
karanas. viii. Dvimudhaka consists of rendering a song in caturasra loaded with 
auspicious meaning and lucid bhava and rasa , performed with a pretended effort, 
ix. Uttamottama is an assemblage of many varieties of slokas set to various rasas 
and held ; x. In vicitrapada a woman consumed with love soothes herself by looking 
at the portrait of her beloved xi. Uktapratyukta is dialogue containing words of 
anger, pleasure or censure (in love) set to music, xii. Bhavita is a lasyahga in which 
a woman sees her beloved in a dream and expresses her different states (of mind 
and body). 

The foregoing twelve lasyahgas were used in ancient dramas in India, (especially 
in the rupaka called bhana) . They were integral to, or similar to the rupaka. They had 
nothing to do with dance, except the saindhavika. They were called marga lasyahgas 
by later authorities (such asJNR) to distinguish them from regional and colloquial 
items or segments of dance sequences, which were employed in actual practice but 
were not yet acknowledged or accepted in theory (PSS. up. 122: purvair anuktani 
desyahgani). The name desi lasyahga is given by SR. and followed up by later 
authorities such as JNR; HSS calls them nrttahgas while PSS designates them as 
desyahgas. 

HSS describes 21 nrttahgas (1. 17. 1-20): 1. rekha 2. sthapana 3. sausthava\. dhala 
5. naipuni 6. nijavana 7. trika 8. laya 9. ladhi 10. jhahka 11. komalika 12. rasavrti 
13. hamsagati 14. madamanthara 15. vitata 16. tota 17. voydra 18. vaisike 19. kalasa 
20. nata 21. dhillayi. 

Rekha: body is in natural pose; arms hanging down, face-lotus is bright and 
tranquil. Sthapana : being established in an uncommon beautiful pose with high 
splendour. Sausthava : unagitated (harmoniously posed) body. Dhala : rapid move¬ 
ment of hands, feet and body. Naipuni : skill in commencement and conclusion of 
tala’, also called sandhi. Nijavana(-i): posture in which both knees are well bent in 
nandyavarta sthanaka. Trikam: swaying slowly to left and right as in a heavily loaded 
balance. Laya : sudden contraction of body like a tortoise. Ladhi: swaying of body as 
a creeper in the Wind. Jhahka: giving the impression of a kalasa even thongh the time 
for a kalasa is innopportune. Komalika: softness in all limbs (joints). Rasavrtti: very 




COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


257 


appealing and intense modality of consciousness which is commonly shared by all 
the audience. Hamsagati: gliding like swan. Madamanthara: reeling movement as of 
a drunken person. Vitata: tapping the ground with a stretched foot. Tata: returning 
the foot to its original position after tapping. Voyara: moving forward. Vaisiki: 
conclusion of same kalasa: finale in accordance with talas. Nata: rhythmic speed 
generated during nartana. Dhillayi: an affective effect similar to the lustre or 
brightness generated at the conclusion of rasa experience. These nrttahgas are the 
qualities ( guna ) of an excellent nartaki. 

PSS (between c. 1160-1330 A.D) describes the following eighteen desi-ahgas (MS. 
pp. 122-125): 1. Mukharasa: brightness of face derived from the pleasure of being 
decorated with makeup, costumery, garlands etc. 2. Sausthava: excellent stance in 
which the body does not incline to left, right, front, back or sides. 3. Lali ( ladhi , 
elsewhere): overflowing joy which promotes grace and is generated by the pleasure 
of music. 4. Bhava : modification of mind created by the impatience of dancer who 
commences with the measure of yati and generated by instruments and tala. 
5. Bhukali (trikali ?): swinging of limbs to accord with the tala, in a serious (majestic) 
way, standing in a lovely sthanaka. 6. Anumana: gearing up of the dancer’s mind to 
perform abhinaya for yati (vadyaprabandha). 7. Kanka (!jharika): moving the limbs 
to the right or left with a sense of their prominence (raised up?) 8. Theva: glancing 
with the outer corner of the eye with waving of the head (?) with tender sweetness. 
9. Surekhatva: angikabhinaya in nrtya sans vikata (hideous). 10. Anariga ( anariga ): 
mixing up other arigas (components) with the ones being presented in tandavae tc. 
dances. 11. Dhala : all graceful abhinayas and graceful limbs (moods etc.) become of 
the essence in the mind of the danseuse. 12. Dhillayi: display of graceful contours 
[kautilya] (curves) of the song while in a sthanaka or in slow movement. 13 .Namani: 
effortless bending of all limbs in difficult performances. 14. Kittu ( kintu): gentle 
shaking (quivering) of shoulders and breasts equal to the beats of the tala. 15. Svara 
(! Thara ) hara: rapid trembling of the danseuse’s breasts reaching out to the arms 
16. Vilasa: limbs of the danseuse dance (tremble joyfully) again and again with 
feeling like (=in consonance with) a musical instrumental play. 17. Vivartana: 
ahgikabhinayais appropriate to, (and even with) the playing of musical instruments. 
18. Sthapana: standing with rupa, rekha and sausthava at the end of abhinaya of a 
karana or other difficult abhinaya. 

SR (c. 1230 A.D) describes ten desildsyahgas (7. 1206-1216), borrowed by NN. 

JNR (1253-1254 A.D) delineates as many as fortysix desi lasyahgas, encompassing 
many of the above (though with some differences in laksana) and adds a few on its 
own: (6. 118-173). The following is an abridged compilation from V. Raghavan 
(JNR. Introduction, pp. 128-134), especially his equations from professional 
parlance: 




258 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


1. Sausthava : pose at commencement of dance with a dwarfing effect by slight 
lowering of the hip. 2. Sthapana: settling into a lovely body formation at the end of 
a nrtta sequence. 3. Rekha. aesthetically optimal outline of the body, every limb in 
its appropriate position and bending, curving, swerving to a proper degree. 4. Dhala 
is the initial, gentle emergence of the body into movement (in the beginning of the 
dance) like a sparkling water drop moved on a lotus leaf or lotus petal by a breeze. 
5. Ca/Sis movement of limbs, feet, hips, thighs and hands to accord with the rhythm 
beat as the pace is gradually raised to middle tempo. 6. Calivali ( cdlivata, calivada) 
is the same as the pace is gradually raised to fast tempo (cf. caluval, Kannada, lit. 
movement). 7. Lali: (a) excessive joy arising from the beauty of the music, 
(b) Gentle, sportful movement of upahgas obliquely in consonance with tala and 
rhythm. 8. Trkani (trikali) is the affording of joy to the connoisseur spectator with 
head movements in exact correspondence with tala, tempo and rhythm with 
beautiful bhavas (cf. addami in professional poarlance of bharatanatya). 9. Ullasa: 
relaxed flourish, repeated two or three times suggestively, in exact agreement with 
the rhythm. 10. Sukalasa: scholarly, splendorous, medial climaxes of song and 
instruments in consonance with the danseuse (?) .11. Urohgana. alternate, graceful, 
quick or fast movements of shoulders and breasts according to tala measure 
( ‘bhujamtattaradu’ in bharatanatya in Tamil colloquv). 12. Bhava. overwhelmed with 
the dance to the beauty of song, instrumental accompaniment and rhythm, the 
danseuse is overjoyed, experiences horripilation of ecstacy and stands still for a 
moment in self-forgetfulness. 13. Tharahara: fast trlembling of the breasts, spread¬ 
ing to the shoulders. 14. Kittu: sportful quivering of breasts, shoulders, hips in exact 
correspondence to tala. 15. Desikara: display of various folk dances comforming to 
the respective style, without vulgarity. 16. Nijapana: sausthava, enriched with rekha 
and the emotive glances following hand poses and movements, accomplished with 
effortless case. 17. Dillayi: slackening the rigidity of a pose with no loss of sausthava 
in gay abandon because of being immersed in emotion. 18. Lavani: bending ro 
curving of limbs effortlessly in difficult movements. 19. Gi tavadyata : dancing to the 
tempo (and rhythm) of instrumental music simulating the song-syllables and 
graces. 20. Abhinaya : augmenting the emotive and semantic content with the 
techniques of nrtta (e.g. karana and ahgahara). 21. Laya: insertion of two or more 
tempos and rhythms, with skill and scholarship, into the laya being danced to. 22. 
Komalika: drenching of spectator’s mind in aesthetic emotion in the soft, natural 
suppleness of the danseuse through the vartanas and valanas created sportfully with 
her limbs. 23. Oydrn (lit. coquettish gesture or glance in Kanada and Telugu): 
charming gait with which the danseuse progresses into greater complexity in 
dancing. 24. Aniki: successfully dancing without slipping in song, instrument, tala 
and laya. 25. Ahgahara. danseuse steals the hearts of the spectators by bending 
sportfully on either side to accord with tala and laya like cupid’s bow and creeper. 




COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


259 


26. Manodharma : expanding the scope of what has been (merely) taught with afresh 
outlook or insight, through creative imagination, using activities of parts of the 
body such as hands. 

27. Ahga is the application of all components belonging to lasya. 28. Anangais the 
same in respect of tandava. 29. Vivartana : dancing with exact correspondence to the 
[pata\ syllables of the [percussive] instruments with karana , bhramari, padacan, and 
hastaswhich are suitable. 30 .Jhahka (Kannada: lit. threaten, deceive) moving to the 
side or to the front as if going over to the spectator by lifting and moving the limb 
and then suddenly retreating in a tantalising way. 31. Mukharasa : radiance of face 
accuring from make up and resonating to the appropriate mood or feeling. 
32. Theva : sidelong glances overflowing with feeling. 33. Vihasi : smiling face like 
lotus. 34. Dhasaka (thasaka) : soft and graceful bend of the body below breasts now 
and then during dance, sportfully, according with the instrumental music (and 
tala) as a cluster of flowers on a creeper would bend when the bees settle down on 
it. 

35. Tala : difficult pata phrases etc. appear easy because of skilfully devised body 
movements. 36. Vitala : opposite of tala ; easy pata phrases in cans , made to appear 
difficult through deliberate effort. 37. Rasavrtti : interpretation of rasa and bhavaby 
the danseuse who is personally herself immersed in the feeling. 38. Masmata , like 
nijapana is the emphasis on nrtta hastas with appropriate, pleasant glances. 

39. Anumana: danseuse raises an eyebrow as a flash of wavering crosses her face as 
to what to do next (in dancing) to accord with the song and instrumental company. 

40. Pramana : dance is in entire harmony with music. 

41. Lahghita : danseuse jumps from one lasyahga to another again and again with 
brief pauses in between, thus dividing the dance into its component parts. 

42. Amsagati : dwelling on certain parts while dancing to emphasise their beauty and 
importance. 43. Susandhi : well jointed, i.e. continuous, performance so that there 
is no break in the flow when one drum is changed to another, and one tala to 
another. 44. Padapata: danseuse, with upper part of the body strictly straight (and 
not swerving in sympathy with movement in the lower part), performs footwork so 
clearly as if reciting the patas (sollukattu, jatis) with her foot ( pada) to acord exactly 
with tala beats. 45. Gatistha : dance in which the laksana is fully present - whether it 
is mdrga or desi- and is accompanied by instruments and tala. 46. Candana : after 
performing dance suitable to instrumental music which may or may not accompany 
song, the mature danseuse stands at the end for a moment in sausthava , every part 
of the body absoutely still, like a picture ( ‘nilugade’ in bharatanatya of the Mysore 
School). 

Asokamalla (14th-15th cent. A.D) describes in his Nrtyadhyaya both the twelve 
mdrga lasyangas ( si. 1487-1512) and the following thirty-seven desi lasyangas (si. 1513- 
1565): 1. call 2. cdlivata 3. tuka 4. manab. ladhib. urohganal . dhillayi8. trikali9. kintu 



260 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


10. desikara 11. nijapana 12. ullasa 13. thasaka 14. bhdva 15. sukalasa 16. laya 17. dhala 
18. cheva\9. ahgahara20. Iahghita2\. vihasi22. nlki 23. namanika24. sahka (\jhahkd ) 
25. vitada 26. gitavadyata 27. vivartana 28. tharahara 29. sthapana 30. sausthava 
31. sruva32. masmata?>?>. upara (! oyara) 34. anga-anahgaVb. abhinayaSb. komalika 
37. mukharasa. The descriptions agree by and large with those in JNR; tasyahga 
numbers 18 26 35 37 39 40 42 and 43 in JNR are omitted; tuka, namanika, sruva, dhala 
are added; slightly different names are given: lali-ladhi, kittu-kintu, dillayi-dhillayi, 
aniki-niki, sahka-jhahga, theva-cheva, dhasaka-thasaka, vitala-vitada. Tuka is called suka 
or d2£a elsewhere. 

Two interesting, parallel, literary references may be adduced here from contem¬ 
porary sources: Kamalabhava, who was a court poet of Singhana at Devagiri, who 
also employed Sarngadeva as ‘Srikaranesvara’, refers to some dra tdsyahgas in his 
Santlsvarapurana (16.67pr.): reA/ia, ( 5 ) thapana, tukavana, ahke, jhahke, dhala , 

dillayi , candana, calabalike and ullasa. Palkurike Somanatha, who was a contempo¬ 
rary ofjayasenapati, mentions as many as fortynine abhinayabhedasm his Panditaradhya 
caritramu (Parvataprakaranamu , P. 461): 1. ahgaraga2. amsagatiS. appana4. avadhana 
5. avartana 6. ullasa 7. oyyara 8. kanisthaka 9. kalasa 10. komalika 11. gitahgarekha 
12. grahagati 13. calavali 14. 15. cokki 16. jhahka 17. thavali 18. thevani 19. dala 

20. dillayi2\. tata(tata f tada) 22. tdla23. dukkhayi24. tribhahgi2b. desikara26. nijavani 
27. prasannata 28. bayavata 29. bala 30. bhogigati 31. bhramari 32. manohara 
33. mukharaga 34. rahgasobha 35. lahghita 36. /aft 37. lalitavasa 38. lavani 39. vigati 
40. vitata4\. vibhrama42. vilaya43. vivartana44. vyavasaya4b. sandhi46. sabhadhiradhi 
47. samabhahgi 48. sugati 49. sausthava. 

Classical literature in Kannada and Telugu composed from about the 12th cent. 
A.D. is replete with refrences to the foregoing as items of dance. 

346cd. talasamya: tala means both tala to which the composition is set (e.g. 
adi-) and cymbals. So, synchronisation with the tala pranas as well as with the jati 
phrases articulated on the cymbals by the taladhari may be intended by this term. 

352c. Ahgaharais a sequence of several karanas similar to a paragraph constituted 
by several sentences. But here, it means a desi lasyahga. 

352d. bharatena kirtitam: This is not stated by Bharata; in fact it is ‘nihsahkabhasitam 1 
(SR. 7. 1213). As shown above, Bharata describes only ‘marga lasyangasbut not desi 
lasyahgas. 

353b. Oyyara is Kannada word (also found in Telugu) which means coquettish 
feminine grace. 

355-356ab. Sausthavais treated as an independent item or aspect of dance in NN. 
but it is described in connection of matrkasoi nrttakarana by Bharata (NS. 4. 62-63) 
andin connection with vaisnava sthanaka’m SR (7.1037). This passage in NN.bears 
close correspondence to the parallel passages in these texts. 

356cd-357ab. kalasa: cf. HSS. (no. 19 supra), JNR (no. 10 supra), ANA (no. 15, 
supra, si. 1540-1541). Kalasameans the establishing of a statuesque dances pose at 





COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


261 


the end of a dance segment in exact synchronisation with tala and laya, according 
to Devanna Bhatta ( SangUamuktavaB , MS. copy in Sri Varalakshmi Academy, 
Mysore). This term is used in yaksagana of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and 
Tamilnadu to connote the finale of a dance sequence. Devanna Bhatta and Veda 
( Sahgitamakaranda, MS. Copy in Sri Varalakshmi Academy, Mysore) and ANA. 
describe several kalasa varieties. 

357cd-358. Mudra is a body-pose; it is used in this sense in yogasasha (e.g. 
Hathayoga-pradipika, 4.45, 46) and tantarsastra (e.g. Mudralaksana, Tantrasara, 
Kalika puranam, Satcakranirupanam etc.) 

357d. Hidita is a Kannada word which means to hold, to grasp. Its use in the 
context of dancing is unique to NN. and reflects on the existence of an independ¬ 
ent professional terminology ( svasmaya ) in dance in Karnataka with a long 
tradition. 

358c. Matta is a Kannada word which means ‘level’ or ‘even’. Sourindra Mohun 
Tagore extracts its laksana from an anonymous source ( Sahgitasdrasangraha 6. 252) 
thus: 

■qr? (irl) ^ i 

TJrfj Rg-jrtl II 

Pramana mentioned here is described in the next verse: NN. 4.2.359. 

360-365 . Sabhasada laksana may be compared with those of NS, HSS and SR, as 
follows: NS (27.49-53): good character, high birth, quiet behaviour, learning, 
aspiration to fame and virtue, impartiality, advanced age, proficiency in drama and 
all its six lmbs, alertness, honesty, dispassionateness, adeptness in playing on all four 
kinds of musical instruments, acquaintance with make up and costume, rules of 
dialects, fourfold abhinaya, grammar, prosody and various other sastras, high virtue, 
acquaintance with arts and crafts, excellent susceptibility to bhava and rasa, 
unagitated senses, adeptness in discussing pros and cons, detection of faults and 
appreciation of merits. 

HSS (1.16.9): high birth, proficiency in all sastras, knowledge of music, 
connoisseurship, selfcontrol, nonenvy loyalty. 

SR (7. 1331-1333) attentiveness, moderation in views, eloquence, expertness in 
nyaya, discernment of good and poor dance, modesty, nonconceit, knowledg ability 
of rasa and bhava, knowledg ability of gita, vadya and nrtya, cleverness, absence of 
envy, heart overflowing with rasa, capacity to refute incorrect or false views. 

362a. desakala-vicarajha: One who knows the appropriateness, speciality, tradi¬ 
tion and custom of the place and time. 

366-369ab. sabhapati'. HSS. 1.16.5-8: is of high birth, victorious over enemies, 
affluent, donor, pleasant spoken, unenvious, upholder of truth, well decorated, 









262 


N ART AN AN IRNAYA 


aspirant to fame, has crossed over to the other side of (the ocean of) all vidyas, 
intelligent, expert in nrtta, specialist in discerning merits and faults, polyglot, music 
lover, knows how to make jests, always in pleasant mood, healthy, valorous. 

SR.7.1334-1340: is well decorated (srhgari), generous, honorable, discerner of 
the corporeal merits and demerits of the dancer and the dance, wealthy, moved by 
even little merit, likes entertainment, eloquent, unenvious, skilled in humour, 
intelligent, dignified, skilled in the arts, richly learned in the sastras, aspirant to 
fame, pleasant spoken, sensitive to and divining the thoughts of others, judicious, 
excellent in memory, cognoscente in singing, instrumental music and dancing, 
skilled in philanthropy, expert in the distinction between rndrga and desi, aware of 
excesses and deficiencies (in the presentation), learned, bold and impartial as 
mediator, capable of commanding his attendants, capable of aesthetic apprecia¬ 
tion, full of emotive potential, truthful, noble, high of birth, of gracious mem, 
constant in affection, grateful, ocean of kindness, virtuous, fearful of sins, a friend 
of the learned. 

368ab. hinadhika: excess and deficiency in reward, ability, artistry, quality of 
contestants etc. 

369cd-374. sabhasannivesa 


S 

7 

K 

6 5 3 


S 

4 4 

1 K 

2 4 2 1 

3 


S 

7 7 

K Q 1 

4 4 4 

5 3 5 2 

5 5 5 5 

6 6 


NN HSS (1.16. 10-15AB) SR. 7.1340-1351 

S=stage K=king S=stage K=king S=stage 

K=King Q=Queen 


1 Minister 

2 Treasurer 

3 Attendants 

4 Scholars, poets etc 


1 Princes, Ministers, 
Viceroys etc. 

2 Panegyrists, bards, 
royal herald, actors, 
and dancers 

3 Ladies 

4 Guards 


1 Ministers, Chiefs Army 

2 Practical exponents, 
connoisseurs 

3 Treasury Officer 

4 Female Attendants 
with fly wisks 





COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


263 


5 Female Attendants 5 Members of Royal 

with fly-whisks Household and other 

Royal Attendants 

6 Composers, practical 6 Guards 

7 Composers, practical 7 Bodyguards 
exponents, conversation 

alists, physicians, 
astrologers, panegyrists 
etc. 


372d. Mmznagenerally means final emancipation, but here meansjoy ( ananda ). 
cf Magha, (Sisupdlavadha kavya 4.23): 

373d. Vidyavanta generally means ‘educated’. But the meaning ‘proficient in 
(only) the practice (but not theory) of the art’ seems to be appropriate here; vide 
SR. (6.979) and Kallinatha (op. cit. on ibid. loc. p. 440): tan eva vidyavantaru iti 
kamata vadanti 

375-379ab. vrnda HSS. 1.16.20-26ab: mrdahga players: 32,16,8 or 4 situated on 
both sides of danseuse; skandhavujar two or four; karatika- one; kahald- four or two; 
some flautists; kamsyatalar three or four; many singers; all of them enter the stage 
(in the above order) and perform rahgavadana (?-vandana ) together; a multicolored 
curtain is drawn at a distance of 10 cubits from the king. 

SR 7. 1252-1258: kutila (or best) sampradaya (orchestra): mukhari 1 , pratimukhari 
1, avaja 2, adavaja 2, karata 2, tala (cymbal) 2, kamsyatala 8, kahala 2, flute 2, main 
singers 2, second male voices 8, female singers 2, second female voices 8, including 
a dancer; these are beautifully dressed and decorated; they are experts in synchro¬ 
nisation of song; madhyama brinda has half of the above strength; kanistha has less 
than half stength. 

Saradatanaya ( Bhavaprakasanam 10.152 ,153) classifies orchestra into abhyantara 
composed only of women and bahya which is mixture of men and women. The 
orchestra is called brnda by him probably for the first time; he defines brnda thus: 

TTIW c||<Ghl<q: | 

He describes orchestras of five different sizes; uttamottama (ut), uttama (u) 
nadhyamottama (mu), madhyama (m) and kanistha (k) with the following composi- 
"^on (ibid. 10. 171-185) s = sama = alternative voices, f=female, a = second voices 
( anugdyaka) 



















264 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


Members 

Ut 

u 

mu 

* 

m 

k 

Male voices 

12 

6 

5 

2 

1 

Female voices 

12 

8 

5,6s 

2,3s 

2s,2a 

vihdlaka 

8 

5 or 6 

- 

3,3f 

1 

Flautists 

6 

4 

5 

3 

2 

Ottukaras 

5 

4 

3 

3 

3 

Mardahgikas 

6 

4 

3 

4 

2 

Patahikas 

3 

2 

3 

2 

1 

Total 

52 

34/35 

30 

25/(26?) 

14/18 


Saradatanaya gives (op. cit. 10.183) the total numbers of participants in each of 
the orchestras as 52,34,26,14 or 18 respectively. This is not consistent in (M). In K, 
an alternative composition is given: made voice 1 , samagayaka 1 , female voice 1 , 
flautist - 1 , ottukara a 1 , patahika 1 , 2, mardahgikas, 2, haudukkika 1 , kahalika 1 , 
jharjharika 2, varnkas 2, totalling 16 (not 18). 

I am unable to find out the meaning of the word ‘vihdlaka’ (or vihalika) in 
Sarhskrta, Kannada, Telugu or Tamil. Context suggests taladhari (cymbal player). 
‘Cihani’(variae: cihali? tihani) is employed by the poet Raghavahka (c. 1200A.D.) in 
his Somesvaracaritre (also called Adisetti puranam, 2.80) in this approximate sense of 
a female cymbal player in a dance orchestra) 

>hajfdr4< HUqfoo^aj qoafadltH 

(in his Hariscandrakavya, 3.36): 

<v|p^-cl ^ (?fa) 

JNR (7.193-211) gives the name ‘samudaya’ to orchestra as also sampraddya, 
according to him, the uttamottama has eightyfour members, uttama has sixtyfour, 
madhyama thirtytwo, avara twentyfour and kanistha sixteen. More than eightyfour 
in the uttamattoma would result in too much noise for a stage and should therefore 
be used only in festivals and processions. Indicating the above five orchestras with 
ut u m a and k respectively, their composition may be shown as follows: 






















COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


265 


Members 

ut 

u 

m 

a 

k 

mukhari 

1 

1 

i 

i 

1 

pratimukhari 

1 

1 

i 

- 

- 

m 'dahga 

32 

16 

8 

7 

3 

hudukka 

4 

4 

2 

1 

1 

desi pataha 

2 

2 

- 

- 

- 

karata 

2 

2 

1 

1 

1 

tala-keepers 

2 

- 

1 

1 

- 

karhsya tala 

8 

6 

4 

4 

2 

flute 

2 

4 

1 

1 

1 

ottu 

4 

4 

1 

1 

1 

sahkha 

2 

2 

1 

- 

- 

kahala 

4 

4 

2 

2 

1 

chief vocalist (f) 

4 

2 

1 

1 

1 

asst, vocalist (f) 

16 

16 

8 

4 

4 

Total 

84 

64 

32 

24 

16 


Notes: 1. mukhari: composer of instrumental compositions, excellent dance 
teacher, adept in singing and playing, excellent in body-line, introvert; leader of 
orchestra (SR. 6. 1058cd-1060ab) 

2. pratimukhari: somewhat less qualified than mukhari\ assistant leader? (SR. 6. 
1060cd) 

3. mrdahga : disproportionate in (a) and (k) 

4. hudukka: SR. 6. 1066-1078 

5. desipataha : SR. 6. 518-521 

6. karata SR. 6. 1079-1086ab 

7. Ottu : drone wind instrument of the nagasvara class 

8. Tala-keepers', with brass cymbles, trivati or hands. 

9. ‘f: vocal music is provided only by female voices; second voices are more 
numerous. 

377ab-378. sampradayalaksana : SR (7. 1258-1259) gives only four: following the 
—ukhari, his laya , convering up deficiencies and lacuna, following tala. JNR (7. 180- 
. SI) offers the following requirements of the vadyabrnda : 

dldlflccj, i^liW*l4WdH5ldl I 













266 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


^1 '%lcT RcTT: I 

379a. alatacakrapratimam: This is a classical analogy in advaita philosophy em¬ 
ployed by Gaudapada in the Alatasantiprakarana of the Mandukyakarika (3.49): a 
lighted torch creates in illusion of plurality when moved in different shapes and 
manners, but the light causing it is single, and is of its own essential nature. But here, 
the analogy of the lighted torch is used in a different sense. In a dance performance 
singing, instrumental music and dancing are separate entities and are various. Yet, 
all these should be performed in such harmony and synchronisation that they 
generate a singularity, unity and continuity (indivisiblity) of the aesthetic experi¬ 
ence, even as a moving lighted torch produces a similar optical experience in space- 
time. A lighted torch is only a single light, but when moved in a circle (or any other 
shape) plurality is imposed on it through spatiotemporal differentation and it 
generates an illusion of a single, continuous orb (or shape) of light. Similarly, a 
single, pure form of beauty in herent in a central nrtya-omrtta-bhava is expressed 
through, and superimposed by the plurality of its expressional modes viz. singing, 
instrumental music and dancing; but these should work together towards unity, 
continuity and homogeneity of the experience of beauty. In a word, then, even 
though there are many and various bhavas, they should converge into a harmonious 
unity. 

379cd-417ab. varhsa : NN. borrows the entire material on flute from SR. with some 
athetisation, as shown in Text-Critical Comments. 

383c. Mukharandhra is the embouchure, also called phutkararandhra (blowing 
hole); mukha is mouth, phutkara is breathing air into the flute with the sound ‘phut ’. 
The hole made for this purpose should be 2,3 or 4 ahgulas distant from the closed 
end of the flute. 

383d. sadahgulantaram: The high (est) note is generated at the note nearest the 
embouchure; at the succeeding holes, progressively lower notes are produced. NN. 
has athetised the description of the first five flutes which have their tarn randhra at 
1,2,3,4 and 5 ahgulas distant from the mukharandra as impracticable because they 
are too short and generate too high notes. 

388a-390d. ekaika ... caturdasak. Ancient authorities have devised a method of 
characterising and naming a flute in terms of the number (n) of ahgulas occurring 
between mukharandhra and tararandhra. Thus they have named flutes from n = one 
toeighteen: 1 . eka(or\e)vira2. uma-pati3. tri-purusa4. catur-(four) mukha (= Brahma ), 
5. pahca-vaktra (five-faced Siva) 6. sahmukha (six faced Subrahmanya) 7. muni 
(seven sages), 8. vasu (eight Vasus) 9. mdhi (nine treasures) 10. mahananda (tenth 
variety of ananda) 11. rudra (eleven Rudras) 12. aditya (twelve Adityas) 13. 14. 

manu (fourteen Manus) 15. —16. kaldnidhi (receptacle or treasure of sixteen kalds) 






! COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


267 


17. —18. astadasa (means eighteen) etc. Alternative numerogram names are found 
in Palkurike Somanatha’s Panditaradhyacaritramu, Nijaguna-sivayogi’s 
Vivekacintamani, Prabhuga’s Vaibhoga-rajasthana etc. The word varhsa has deterio¬ 
rated into vasa in Kannada and Telugu poetry. 

394d. anyathajaguh : Constitutio textus of SR (6. 451) is ‘nispattir naivasmin anyatha 
jaguh ’and so read by Kallinatha; this is translated as ‘svara generation in the three 
registers occurs, say [others], in a different way also’. 

410b. bharatadayh: Bharata does not elucidate merits and faults of blowing. SR 
(6. 659) merely says; ‘panceti phutkrter dosan ucire’pare’. 

414b. sthanadayita : The reference pitch was offered by the flute in ancient times 
e.g. nagacandra, Mallinathapuranam (c. 1100A.D.) (8. 25): ‘koralam nittige tandu 
varhsa srutiyim tristhanasamsuddhi-vettire’. ‘Sthana ’is sometimes replaced with ‘tana’ 
yielding ‘gatnnam tana dayita ’which translates ‘rendering first the tana (according) 
to the (respective raga which the) vocalist (intends to present.’). 

417-422. rahgapravesa: NS gives no account of the entree of a denseuse on the 
stage; but it contains details of the entree of a high role, which is stylized, as it is in 
Yaksagana, Kathakali and similar theatrical presentations. The entrance of a 
superior character is accompanied by upohana (appropriate alapa) and playing of 
drums and other musical instruments, in observance of marga and rasa, when 
the curtain is drawn. Superior and middling characters assume the vaisnava 
stance, chest raised, sama and caturasra, shoulders at rest but not raised much, 
neck graceful like a peacock’s etc. and the feet separated by two and a half spans 
( 12 . 2 - 8 ). 

NAD (31) The pdtra offers prayers to Vighnesa, presiding deity of muraja, the sky 
and the earth. She then worships the group of instruments according to prescribed 
"lies; she performs many kinds of alapave ry charmingly, receives permission from 
the guru and commences her make up as well as dressing. She then performs stuti 
of the presiding deity of the stage. 

BORI MS. ofNBA Poona (42.1916-18) has an inflated text which has aphorisims 
n rahgapravesa. the dance recital is presided by an expert ( nipuna) who is approved 
br the experts: orchestra and dancer enter the stage and together perform 
'-.rgavadana (known as melaprapti in traditional usage), commenced by the mukha 
-7 and followed by others, conforming to the same tempo., the the music 
: >nforming to the provincial mode. The musicians display their high traditional 
tfcill The purvarahga, next described in the MS. which is a portion of the HSS. 
z insists of abbara (initial instrumental music), ayatta (mardala playing), alapa (in 
the 'iga nati), mohara (on mardala commencing with ‘tat’, ‘jagdatta’, proceeding 
Hitb dsodiga dam’at end), tattakara (sollus recited by nattuva) in jhampatala. This 
- f '.owed by a nandipada in nati raga\ this is followed by ridi (a vadyaprabandha in 
—nr tala . Regular dance is then taken up with compositional forms such as kauta, 


268 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


kaiyadu, lasya, twelve, udupas, laga, karana, avada, kuvada and dhvada. These are 
always performed at the beginning of the dance (1-53, Bh.A. pp. 489-509). 

419ab. Melapaka is called melapirit by vidydvantas according to SR (6. 979). Now 
this is cailed melaprapti. NN. has not described melapaka and tuduka but SR. has (7. 
977-980, 989-991). Gajara is described in NN. (1. 58-62) 

419d. Antardhana is synonymous with yavanika, javanika, pratisira and tiraskarini. 
Bharata mentions yavanika on two occasions in ch. 5 of the NS: ‘antaryavanikdgataih 
prayokttbhih ’ (si. 11 ) and ‘vighatya vaiyavanikdm’{ si. 12 ). The first reference states 
that while the ten purvarahga (preliminary) procedures such as pratyahdraare being 
carried out, songs are rendered from behind the curtain to the accompaniment of 
drums and strings. The second states that after the curtain is removed, dances and 
recitatives are performed with the playing of all the musical instruments. This seems 
to suggest that the first is front drop curtain while the other is an inner curtain. He 
again says (NS 12. 3b): ‘pate caivapakarsite’. Abhinavagupta however does not seem 
to distinguish it and calls it yavanika. P onangi Srirama Apparao plausibly argues that 
the curtain was not imported into the Indian theatre from Greek drama, that 
yavanika is no prakrtisation of yavanika, that the former means a covering which is 
quickly removed ( Ndtyasastramu , pp. 185-189). SR. (7. 1262a) states that the 
danseuse should stand behind javanika (Sirhhabhupala uses the word yavanika) 
in a sthanaka replete with sausthava, taking flowers in her joined hands. The 
occasion is the performance of suddhapaddhati dance. JNR (7. 42, 89; 8. 71-76) 
suggests three curtain including a front drop curtain, one at backstage, and a 
transparent one in front of the danseuse which" was removed when she began her 
dance. The curtains were made of well embroidered rich cloth, eight cubits long 
and four cubits broad, held on either side by beautiful women. The third was of 
gauze cloth. It was held in front of the danseuse when she stood in a picturesque 
pose on a raised platform, one cubit long and one cubit wide ( vimdna ); then the 
curtain was removed and she descended this small dais (rahgdvatarana) and 
commenced the dance. 

JNR (8.48-52) gives the distribution of the members of the orchestra in relation 
to the pdtra: mukhari to her right, sitting in the forefront; to his left, the mrdahga 
players; next, to their right, players of hudukkd, sahkha, desipatahaznd karata, next 
to them, kahala players and taladhans. At the back of these last sat the pratimukhan 
and his musicians sat on his left. The two female singers were at the back of the 
danseuse; taladhans performed with the cymbals on either side of them. 

Jayasenapati offers a description of the preliminary procedures preceding the 
commencement of the dance (JNR. 8. 54-76): the flautist indicates the sthdna 
(reference pitch which in this case is the arhsa svara of the raga about to be taken 
up), all other instruments are tuned to this pitch; mrdahgas now begin a play in 
unison ( samahasta ) and are taken up by the others. This ( melaprsapti ) is to obviate 





COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


269 


obstacles and to confer auspiciousnes and prosperity on the patron. Then each 
percussive instrument performs a vadyaprabandha assigned to it e.g. jodam, lahan, 
yati, mukhavddya (recitation of pdta structures); progressively joining in and move 
to a crescendo. This is followed by the vadyaprabandha called praharana. These items 
are collectively called suskavadya. The pdtra stands behind a transparent curtain in 
a beautiful, statuesque pose during suskavadya, on the vimdna, under a canopy 
supported on four poles. An illustration of such a canopy for the danseuse is 
available (with a very small but interesting orchestra which includes tambun, 
updhga, the modern violin for the first time in India) in a painting on the eastern 
wall of Daryadaulat in Snahgapattana (in Karnataka). Then the danseuse com¬ 
mences suddhapaddhati followed by citrapaddhati. This is followed by dance to 
various compositions, both classical and nonclassical. 

420-421. nartako...aviset Propitiation of Guardians of the Quarters ( dtpalaka ), 
Brahma, Visnu, Mahesvara, Mother-Goddesses ( Mdtrkas ) the sages, Naga-Yoksa- 
Kinnara-Gandhava is made to ward off obstacles and to gain peace and propserity 
(cf. NS ch. 3. on purvarahga vidhi ); worship of Ganesa to prevent impediments, of 
Bharata and Tandu as First Masters of the art of dance, of Laksmi for wealth, of 
Sarasvati for vidydsiddhi, of Uma for promulgating Idsya- obeisance to Usa who is the 
first human to transmit the art of Idsya. 

422cd. sapta... ucyateJNR concurs with NN. in this size. In temples of Hoysala and 
Vijayanagara architecture, if a ndtyamandapa/rahga is also constructed as a raised 
dais in the sukhanasi for rahgabhoga, it conforms more or less to this size. 

423bd. bandhaka nrtta: Bandha is today the name of an acrobatic dance 
performed-very rarey-by one or more gotipuas in Orissa to achieve difficult and 
intricate configuration by body contortion and collective convolution. It was widely 
known and practised in South India since about the fourteenth cent A.D. The roots 
of its prototype may be traced to two dance usages in ancient India: a) pinddibandhas 
which were prescribed by Bharata (NS. 4.256.264) to be performed in connection 
with the dsdrita b) drabhatlvrtti which is defined by Sarngadeva (SR. 7. 1118) as 
replete with indrajdh (acrobatics). There is much evidence to point to the wide 
prevalence of acrobatic dance in ancient India and to its diffusion into Greater 

India and China, where it is still known as magic. 

SR (7.31) classifies nrttaasvisama, vikata and loghu. Bandha nrtta is visama because 
it involved acrobatic feats such as revolving with, or around, a rope. However, 
‘visrama’bandha now connotes dance performed by an odd number of participants. 
‘Bandha’ is a polysemantic word; it means combination, tying to-gether, (and by 
semantic extension), rope or fetter of any kind, arrangement, body configuration, 
construction of formation etc. It is therefore approriate. The use of rope in 
bandhanrttamW be mentioned presently. 




270 


NARTANANIRNAYA 
In Andhra 


Ped?komati Vemabhupala offers the earliest known reference to, and descrip¬ 
tion of bandha in India. He was the Reddy king of Kondavldu in Andhra in about 
1400 A.D. He is the author of Sahgitacintamani, from which Ramakrishna Kavi 
extracts much information on bandha. (Numbers in bracketts refer to pages in 
Bharatakosa ); Verna gives a list of twentyfour bandhas (598): 

Sfidldl ^ TfWJHIHeh: II 
cTSTT I 

'MdldSJ ^0 did 15^75^3^: II 

^uiN^^cfi: II 

cRR^C fa fadcfr : I 

dfllOM) dl-^dlfa II 

^jfacTT: ^1T: I 

These are fully described in the work: 1. sari (722) 2. sari candrakala (722) 3. 
bandhasara (415) 4. murudi (499) 5. hamsalila (784) 6. rangabharana (521) 7. 
caturmukha (199) 8. raiigalaksml (521) 9. narayanapriya (328) 10. gajalila (165) 

11. turangallla (253) 12.avaghadacakra(37) 13. padmabandha(35) 14.nagabandha 
(313) 15. sarvatobhadra (712) 16. kurmabandha (145) 17. rathanga (524) 18. 
daksinavarta (266) 19. caturasra bhramara (198) 20. vicitra (606) 21. lata (565) 22. 
langala (572) 23. pancajanya (362) 24. sudarsana (730). For description of 
padmabandha (13) and nagabandha (14) see comm. NN. 4.2.498-499 ab. 

According to Verna, bandha is configurational dance performed by eight, 
sixteen, thirtytwo or sixtyfour patras. The bandha executed by sixteen patras is 
considered to be excellent. Bandha is said to be sama if performed by an even 
number of dancers and visama if it employs an odd number of dancers. 

IWTT^T sRTT fg*JT T^cTT: II 
cTWf*n*lk*lfa: ^sfBWdl tT«lT I 

^TfSRTT: !jfd<=blfcfeH: II 
3T? 7R: TfWFl I 

■gr^fcfcTT: II 

% ^TT fq^Hl: OfKtbfcldST 1 ^: I 





























COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


271 


Each variety of bandha is mostly composed of four rows of dancers. If these move 
in straight (oblique) lines (or are figurated in straight lines?) it is called ora (97). 
If such figuration reults in tetragons (squares, rectangles, or quadrilaterals), the 
bandha is said to be sari (722). 

3iklsh*Wl I 

^rfsTcft I 

-ici^vii WTffaFp##: sntfa ^752?^ | (Ora, ibid. p. 97) 

%4l J lPd: STltfcT ^'FlftRIT I 

^T: TTRtfd TfRcn II (Sari, ibid. p. 722) 

Also, see comm. NN. 4.2.498-499ab on padmabandha. 

Other forms of bandha nrtta were also practised in Andhra as recorded by Catura 
Damodara in his Sangltadarpanam in about 1620 A.D. These were borrowed from 
the NN., and again by Ananta alias Veda in his Sangitamakaranda some two or three 
generations later. This will be mentioned again presently. 

In Karnataka 

Numerous literary references in Kannada are witness to the wide practice of 
many forms of bandha in Karnataka since at least the 15th cent. A.D. These were 
collimated and codified by PandarikaVitthala in NN. in a wide perspective. All nrtta 
is classified by him as bandha and anibandha (NN. 4.2.423), Bandha is defineds nrtta 
which strictly conforms to rules of gab'and others. ‘And others’ here includes other 
elements of choreography-kinesic (e.g. karana, can, ahgahara), postural (e.g. 
sausthava, sthanaka ), figurative (e.g. padma-, naga-, vrksa-bandhas) and dispositions 
of ahga, upahga and pratyahga of the human body. In other words, bandha is 
performed according to explicit, exact, and articulated prescription which is 
derived from convention and tradition. Bandha does not mean only acrobatic 
dance, though it does include many acrobatic feats. In fact, the bulk of the 
Srttadhikarana of NN. is devoted to the delineation of bandha. 

NN describes the following twelve items of bandha (numbers refer to slokasm the 
Srttadhikarana): 1. mukhacali, nine gat is and two vartanikas (si. 427-464) 2. twelve 
urupas (si. 480-522) including five bandha varieties under kuvada (si. 499-513) 3. 
twelve dhvadas (si. 522-538) 4. fifteen bidulagas (si. 539-555) 5. five bhramaris (si. 556- 
559) 6. sabda (si. 560-563) 7. svarabhinaya (si. 566-576) 8. svaramantha (si. 577-581) 
9. gita (si. 582-587) 10. seven audits (si. 588-602) 11. six ghargharas (si. 003-611) 12. 
dharu (si. 612-636). Most of the names of urupa varieties and dhvada varieties are of 
















272 


N ARTANANIRN AYA 


Kannada origin and thus reveal the existence of a parallel, professional paralance 
for bandha in Karnataka. Further, each of the bidulagas requires acrobatic skill with 
a rope, which further justifies the name bandha. 

Catura Damodara on Bandha 

Catura Damodara, hailing from Andhra, composed the SahgUadarpanam pre¬ 
sumably in the Court of Jehangir at Delhi some two generation after Pandarika 
Vitthala. He has recorded the contemporary dance practices of Andhra and has 
borrowed material on bandha from NN. with minor changes and omission. Thus, 
the seventh chapter of SahgUadarpanam contains similar descriptions of mukhacati 
and abhinaya for nandi sloka (si. 40-52), seven gatis sans mayun, and kukkuti (si. 112- 
123 ), yatiprabandha (si. 131-134), sabdacdh (si. 135-144), the twelve urupas (si. 144- 
162), the twelve dhvadas (si. 162-164), lagas (si. 165-175), sabdasuda (si. 176-188), 
vivartana( si. 188-189), camalkara (si. 191-195), sabda (si. 199-200), gita (si. 201 -203), 
svarmantha (si. 204-217) including svarabhinaya, (si. 205-212), salagasuda (si. 218- 
234), cindu (si. 235-240), dharu (si. 254-259) and vaipota (si. 260-261). 

Catura Damodara (Sahgitadarpanam7. 262-264, p. 225) and borrowing from him, 
Veda (Sahgitamakaranda) describe the bandha nrtya thus: 

m ^ 3*1 ^ 'hOJi'kKI I 

7^1 firsTf spf) MKictfq d3T I 

<qu|)q|^rd4si ^ift I 

m ^ i 

mdlfui TU ■jriTPd rl^c4 II 

Thus bandha nrtya is here a collective configurational dance. It consists of two 
danseuses joining their shoulders, hands and feet together to form karanas of 
beautiful shape. Or, three or four danseuses may, in a similar manner join together 
to choreograph lovely configurations; this may also be done by three, four or seven 
patras. Bandha means ‘bound by gatis and rules, in NN. In Veda it means forms of 
danseuses ‘bound together’ to generate a collective configuration. Both have 
described forms in which the acrobatic elements are implied but not explicitly 
stated; indeed, the repeated dictum of beauty through such words as ramya, sundara 
etc. by Veda seems like a caution against overdoing the acrobatic element. 

Bandha in Tamilnad 

Ananta, alias Veda, son of Catura Damodara wrote his dance treatise 
Sahgitamakaranda in dedication to his patron Shahaji who ruled Tanjore from 1684 
to 1712 A.D. He acknowledges his indebtedness to his father’s work and depicts the 
practice of dance in the Tamilnadu of his days. He does not explicitly state bandha 














COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


273 


as a category of dance but describes many of its varieties viz. mukhacaVi, gatis (adding 
two more, lavaki and tittiri as well as the denouement viz. laharicakra), urupas 
(adding hastaneri to the fieri varieties), kuvada (giving it the alternative name of 
talarupaka), dhvada-kuviidas, bidulagas, cindu, gita, gharghara, dharuand dhruvapada. 
The prevalence of these in Tamilnadu is corroborated by other treatises e.g. 
Devendra’s SahgitamuktdvaVi which gives an account of mukhacaVi, suladi sabda, 
sabda, kvada, sudagita, prabandha, dharu, kattara and dhruvapada. 


Bandha in Orissa 

As already mentioned, bandha has survived today in Orissa as the dance of the 
gotipuas. Its origin is generally traced to the period of the Bhoi king Ramachandradeva 
who gifted seven streets to the Jagannatha Temple dancers and other servants. 
(This is comparable to the Tanjore king Rajaraja Cola who gifted four streets 
around the Brhadlsvara Temple to the temple dancers and musicians). One of 
these streets, the Akhada Chapa Paliwas gifted to the gotipu as because the young men 
could be trained in gymnastics and the martial arts so that they helped in protecting 
the temple against the iconoclast alien invaders. When Caitanyadevaand Ramananda 
Roy disparaged the immoral practices of the devadasi system, the maharis who had 
fallen on evil days of prostitution were replaced by these young boys called gotipuas 
(got^single, pua- boy). They performed the female roles in the temple dance 
services. There is a parallel in South India in which Siddhendra Yogi similarly 
trained young men for temple dance services in the village of Kuchipudi in Andhra. 
Many gotipuas wer e attached to the akhada (gymnasium) and received gymnastic/ 
acrobatic training. Such training became highly specialised at the hands of some 
gurus who rendered the body of the gotipua amazingly supple, capable of extraor¬ 
dinary contortions and acrobatic feats contortions and acrobatic feats in a training 
programme involving a special oilmassage and diet. These feats were incorporated 
into bizarre and prodigious body figurations in both solo and collective dance 
performances with judicious use of the more acrobadc karanas such as gahgavatarana, 
laldtatilaka, latavrscika, sakatasya, cakramandala, atikrantaand mayuralalita. Since the 
limbs were tied into very complex knots, the dance came to be appropriately called 
bandha. It has remained largely a male dance. Its decline may be traced to the 
following reasons: i. It degenerated into the sakhi nautch at the hands of gotipuas. ii. 
There are very few gurus of bandha nrtta. iii. The gotipuas are becoming fewer day by 
dav because of the changing sociocultural trends, iv. These days young disciples are 
reluctant to undertake long and arduous training programmes requiring hardship, 
patience, disciplin, physical pain and even increasing demands on skill and 
practice. The reluctance is all the greater because the efforts do not culminate into 
mmediate aesthetic end products, v. Scholarship and virtuosity are at a low 


274 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


premium in modern society, vi. The present day gurus of adissi dance place accent 
on feminine grace, gentleness, subtelity and exquisiteness and precision of bhahgi. 
As Aloka Kanungo says: ‘the reason why it is relegated to background is that its 
revival will demand rigorous practice and a great deal of labour ... Acrobatic types 
of karanas are known in Bandha Nrtya ... Bandha in Oriya literally means embank¬ 
ment ... The Odissi gurus of today were the gotipuas of yesteryears ... The three well 
known surviving maharis Kohilaprava, Haripriya devi and Parasumani say that they 
had no training in Bandha Nritya’ (‘Ancient Limb of Oddisi’, in The Economic 
Times, Calcutta, May 3, 1987, p. 3). 

A limpid definition of bandha is given byjadunatha Simha, ruler of Dharakote 
in Orissa in his Abhinayadarpanaprakasa (4.12) where it is classified as a tandava: 
it is performed with contortions of hands, feet and neck while assuming the 
nagapasa etc. formations of the body. Men perform the roles of women and vice 
versa in this dance. Some of the configurations generated by (or performed using) 
it are the pot, the ball and the sword. Such acrobatic dances are also called citra- 
natya (?) 




It is danced by men performing the acts of women and vice versa : 
Some of the acrobatic acts performed in extra nrtya are: 

lR l 

HHI^drsMI^Tb | 

( ?) ( ?) I 

^hl fd d H i 


However, the earliest textual reference to bandha is in the Abhinayacandrika of 
Mahesvara Mahapatra, a brahmana of bharadvaja gotra. The work consists of three 
sections viz. nrtyakhanda , bhavakhanda and chandokhanda. It was written under the 
patronage of Narayana deva, ruler of Khemandi who is described as follows in the 
colophon to each khanda : 

1. Colophon to Nrtyakhanda (1. 281-283, p. 36): 


( :) (:) II 

tRuOMft (:) II 

























COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


275 


JMMftWIsbkKMI II 3 C\ 

<*>reldl$S<^PM ftlflsHcp II 

^ra4 fTBJT <j5WJ|(d 4>qcri II ^6^ 
HMcIH ^4 ^sfd^RlsbH^ I 


Note the date of completion of the work: 

cRJcTCft TT^iif — || ^ 

2. Colophon to Bhavakhanda (2. 238-341 p. 73): 


Hkl^i) hsIhiciI ^Hr u 41d u 4H'J^4 (:) I 
Wl Tf^fT T IHf4vik<: II 

^4fd^ll<oil: 44^1 ■^fd'+^ddl^iil I 



OrcMWldi) I 

^N^I'J^l<i 71^ II 


1 l%3JTfg' 5 T3tg: ■d ; * c fcQ^$HI'4 c h ( :) I 
^54 444 ^p4 Tflci^HpcIHr^dH, II Vt\ 


3. Colophon to Chanda (h) khanda (3. p. 43). 


'I^dd^: Tn^TRpfWl H did fad: II 
'«'4dHru4) TRT 'chdlPdd{rdnJdH I 
^*irD 41 Nkldf>J^H^ 4 lHI%d ^ || 

WIWlW: WD W-rnj. ( tuj) , 

cTPT 4fal4 ^4? 4fcl4 TRJHdHH. II 

’3cM<g'Js-Hiq<gu^ :)ld'J4'HHNd*p II 

fd^lu^^dTRl ^IfllwP^ I 
■RtsJTfg^S: ^didfq^iKd: II 
^uddldH<H^dkM'J|lf4dH, II 


The foregoing may be summarised to say that Mahesvara Mahapatra’s patron was 
Narayanadeva, ruler of Khemandi, an excellent singer, learned in music and dance, 
a great devotee of Krsna, patron of many poets, (musicians and dancers), had 













































276 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


vanquished a ruler of the Gajapati dynasty, and had taken for himself the title of 
Anangabhlma. The Abhinayacpndrika was modelled on the (now unavailable) 
dance treatise Nrtyadarpanam and was completed in his eighth regnal year. 
Narayanadeva claims to be a scion of the codaganga dynasty, and obviously lived 
after the Gajapati dynastly was founded. 

This Narayanadeva may be identified with the namesake ruler of Parala Khema 
(n) di who is the author of Sangctanarayana (held by some scholars to be written by 
his court musician and Sahgitaguru Purusottama Misra and dedicated to his 
patron). He ruled Parala Khemadi from 1718 to 1767 A.D. The colophon of each 
chapter of Sahgitanarayana describes him as belonging to ‘ nikhila’-anvaya , the 
codaganga dynasty, son of Padmanabha; his full name is given as Gajapati 
viranarayanadeva; he took for himself the little ‘ sdhityasalgtdrnava-karnadharakamani . 
He mentions Purusottamadeva as his guru and offers illustrations of songs com¬ 
posed both by himself and Pususottama Misra. All this agrees closely with Mahesvara 
mahapatra’s description of his patron. No other ruler of this name who ruled 
Khema (n) di is known to fit this description. If this equation is accepted, the 
Abhinayacandrika may be concluded to have been completed in 1726 A.D. If this 
patron is identified with the namesake ruler mentioned in the Changudi Matha 
Plates, as D.N. Pattnaik does (Odissi Dance, p. 99), since he commenced his rule 
in 1650 A.D. the date of Abhinayacandrika becomes 1658 A.D. However, Pattnaik is 
inclined, on the whole, to identify him with Narayanadeva as the founder of the 
Khemandi dynasty, ‘a great patron of dance and music, who flourished in the T 5 th ’ 
cent. A.D. (op. cit. loc. cit.). 

Because of geographical contiguity between South Orissa and the North of (the 
then) Karnataka and Andhra, the culture of Orissa has been intimately influenced 
by that of the latter regions for several centuries. The codaganga dynasty of Orissa 
was a collateral branch of the Gangas of Kolahalapura (modern Kolar) of Karnataka 
and ruled for more than 350 years. Indeed the legend that the sabara tantrika 
brahmana Vasudeva Vahinlpali sojourned to Karnataka and brought with him 
Cudanga (codagalga) and installed him on the then vacant throne of the Kesari 
dynasty was widely believed in Orissa even as late as the 19th cent. A.D. Many 
codaganga kings, especially Anantavarma and Anangabhlma were tgreat patrons of 
music, dance, sculpture, architecture and literature; they were staunch devotees of 
Visnu. Even though they shifted their capital from Kalinga in ParalaKhemandi to 
Cuttuck, aline continued to rule from ParalaKhemindi till the end of the 18th cent. 
A.D. Narayanadeva belonged to this branch. 

The influence of Karnataka on Abhinayacandrika may be inferred from at least 
three things: i. Its description of Vatu dance (2.27-46, pp. 39-41; 3.69,70, p. 8) 
corresponds closely with the corresponding description in NN. (4.2.659, 660). ii. 
Abhinayacandrika characterises the features of seven regional dances of its times. 




COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


277 


fr4^<J| %Tei I 

TfteT: MsH^I# (TOll^-) I 
<5-§i: omicii 3T3 T ■h'^n: | 

This is probably the first historical reference to the udra (< odhra= Odissi) style of 
dancing. 

Thus among the dances magadhl, sauraserii, kamata, kerala, gauda, pahcanada and 
udra that of Karnataka is acclaimed as excelling in every respect. That of udra 
(Orissa) excels in the display of bhava (1.192-194, p. 26). iii. Propagation of the 
odissi dance is ascribed to the following guru parampara (1.12-15, pp. 2-3) 

II 33 

cTr^TPTfaTrJ TTRJFd T^^TT ^FspfT TTcT: I 

TOt^l: II 

Jm^l4wdl fd<=hdW^TPTfatT: I 
rd<=h<dl^^Tf31^T«ff $HRMl4 ^rfiT: II 3* 
clcRg I 

II 3<v 

The historicity for (Indian) dance in general in this list seems to commence with 
Bharata and for Odissi dance in particular from Attahasa who is traditionally 
believed to be a son of Codagahgadeva. 

Mahesvara Mahapatra gives some details of bandha nrtya: it is very venerable 
(mahaghora : awesome? terrible?), difficult for the danseuse (natikastapradayini ), 
feasible only to the limbs of a teenager ( kisora-anga sapeksa) but difficult after youth 
{visamam yauvanantare) (1.165, 166, p. 23). It demands the placing of feet in odd 
and intricate positions, awkward and complex bending of hands as well as tortuous 
combinations of hands and feet. It is impossible to learn and succeed without a 
(proper) guru (1.197, p. 27). It is totally bereft of word text, bhava or rasa ; it consists 
only of profuse, sinuous body movement and disposition of limbs. The movements 
are standardised (established?) in respect of ndda(le.pata phrases or ‘ bols ). But all 
bandha affords pleasure to everyone. It is fit to be performed before the king and 
his retinue (2.314-319, p. 70). Bandha is also mentioned as one of the twenty four 
varieties of rural ( gramya) dances (3.80, p. 9). It should be performed only at the 
conclusion, but never at the beginning, of a recital. At the end of the bandha the 
dancer offers mental obeisance to the guru and assumes a fixed pose while engaged 
in gentle footwork (3.126-129, p. 15). However, the vatu dance maybe performed 
in between dances to songs. 
































278 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


Abhinayacandnka describes ten items of bandha viz. i. gaganau. dvimuka iii. forana 
iv. sayanav. ksudravi. (tri) sulavii. vrtahga\ iii. damaru ix. mithundsraya and x. pradipd. 
The bandha character of these accrues at different parts of the body. Dvimukha 
involves holding of a lighted lamp in both hands while both feet are widespread and 
throbbing. In trisula, hips on the ground, feet are stretched up, back of the head is 
positioned between the knees and the hands are tied at the knees. This is bandha 
is very difficult to achieve and is impossible to learn without the guru. In vrtahgahips 
are placed on the ground, hands are placed at the crown of the head; the legs are 
controted from the back and feet combined with the hands; the chest touches the 
ground while a lighted lamp is held on the month (with face upward). In 
mithundsraya a pair of dancers hold the torana pose, entwining each other: 

The bandha should not be performed without the guru’s permission and without 
adequate practice. (2.165-191, pp. 23-26). Some of these bandhas have local names 
such as cira, nahunia, mayura and sagadi. 

Abhinayacandnka (annotated by Sadashiv Rath Sharma, Puri, 1967) describes 
vibhahga bandha as a variety of gramya (rural, nonclassical) nrtya. It defines gramya 
nrtya as one which is performed to a rural song which is without any literary 
flourishes or ornamentation, to crowds in aforest, village, town or city (3.76-77, pp. 
8-9). 

frlHMgmK l fc 8M9lP<Pdc|P4dH, I 

II 

cFl Tnif ^ ^ ^RFFl I 
*H I -K lgf II 

Gramanrtya has the following varieties: rasa, ullasa, bhraman, prerani, bhilla, 
cadhuka, (vatuka?) medha, gandharva, patava, bahurupa, citra, halapayana, alakta 
cahcuputa, rksaka, navapahcaka, sunya, ghatanrtya vira, tuhga, rudradanda, vibhahga, 
bandhanrtya. The vibhahga bandha has putita (?), patava etc. (in a particular order), 
and has vatu at the beginning. The hands and feet are contorted in strange 
formations in the middle of the dance; only bandha — and no other dance form 
should be performed during vibhahga dance', vatu dance is performed in the middle 
of (in between?) each song. Bandha is danced only at the end, never at the 
beginning of a dance recital. At the end of the bandha performance, the danseuse 
makes obeisance to the guru at the spot ( }ksetre); mrdahga phrases and steps are 

mutually complementary and synchronised, according fully with the talaWith words 

in the mouth, poses in the body, precisely rendered {Abhinayacandnka, 3.124-131, 
pp. 14-15): 












COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


279 


fa«??pF*r: 

■gfeu wen ( fen) i 

3qr^^| ^*n*n 3 t4 M*rt: ii w n 

TrTT^ 3TfcT c<sH^c) cT«TT I 

93>=fPd fqpc|^ (T?) Hdl^dH^ II II 
^TTfqwr^ ^ %cfef sRTHM'H I 

4t<ti $1*1 q4^ll n 
TjfcFftclRlt Wi of^Jc^PTfaT 1 ^ I 
STT^sRT 3=F^ ^TER II ^V8 II 

^RT'TRl T idl HiTc^T : I 

^TPlt *T^t HHi^rb dld^d^lpldl: || II 
^dfj-’ii'vt-i^b I 

W W3 cfSJT -qj^ ^VKldSTFra: I 
dlRdcbmicH cTl^f (:) T^sf^n^ II ^o || 
ddld^^l MI<d<R) I 


The text is frequently opaque;.the passage in (129-130) probably refers to the 
method of mental focus when acrobatic feats with feet are being performed. 

Finally, Vemabhupala ( Bharatakosa , p. 896) also describes bandhanaparyaya i.e. 
synonym of bandhana : 


Hlfd°hlH)^HI<{lfH TTlrngJ cT^fW; 1 
3T*ff tjcT; | 

3TfeTFl ^ ^1 T^uii I 

WtMfgFIHI^ ^ I 

sF^ oM^ilunef iRdOftd^ I 



dde^Kfctfa: MI^Uidl^lfaRFfd^ I 
qicdfdlfed 'lldOldN: ■qRchIPfd: I 

Thus it would seem that in the 14th cent. A.D. the dance exponents of Andhra 
had begun to use malika, mohana and other dance compositions in their perform¬ 
ances as alternatives to the percussive instrumental composition known as tuduka 





















































280 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


(e.g. SR. 6. 688-691, pp. 583-584). These were known as bandhana paryaya or 
synonymous with bandha. They included dances to ragalapa and to dharu\ they 
included svarapatti, and well formed words. Dance is performed both in order and 
reverse. NN. includes description of bandha paryaya under the name kattane in 
katane dharu (4.2.612-625; See comm, on this for details). 

427abc. mukha ... prokta : This derivation of the word mukhacali is unique to NN. 
It is used frequently in the same general sense of‘initiating’ in the context of music 
as the first svasthana in ragalapti (e.g. Pandarika Vitthala, Sadragacandrodaya, 2.27; 
SR. 3.192). Simhabhupala (Sahgitasudhakara comm, on SR. loc. cit. p. 194) says that 
the mukhacali is well known among the flautists. Kannada poets are quite familiear 
with this term e.g.Janna ( Yasodhara caritre 2.28), Kamalabhava ( Santisvarapuranam , 
16.67pr). Mukhacali is mentioned by Astabhasakavi Candrasekhara, 
Pampasthanavarananam, 88, pp. 33-34) and described by Damodara 
(Sahgitadarpanam , 7. 3-7) 

428. Candra ... ksipet is a summary of the of mukhacali ; candra= 1, tri= 3, netra= 2, 
varct= 7, astct= 8, vedahgar=6, sarcc=b, dik=\0. 

428-429. agratah ... ksipet These details are available for the first time in NN. (cf. 
SD. 7.18,19) 

432ab. Has ... iti: Catura Damodara ( Sahgitadarpanam , 7.39) writes instead, 

mahacarigatam patam-jakaradikam uccaret- ‘jahahgane ’. 

It is not known whence NN. derives the meaning ‘hither-thither’ for ‘ihgane- 
ahgane’. I have not found this meaning in any lexical source in Kannada or Telugu. 
These were probably used in professional parlance by rudhi. Ahganeof course, may 
be construed as the vocative case of ahgana (Samskrta), woman. 

433-462ab. aviddhavaktra ... ksipet. The chereography may be summarised in the 
following schematic diagram, 

8 1 2 



6 


5 


4s 







COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


281 


435a. Sulu may have been derived from sulu, suluvu in Kannada which mean 
movement, waving, glimpse, subtle. In these senses the term is appropriate here. 
NBA describes some ahgabharas as containing sulu dance without explaining the 
word sulu. Ahgahdra is defined in this treatise as a combination of karanas, danced 
to respective tala and laya (579) and is associated with a specific sthanaka, drstih, 
hasta and/or pada. Of the twenty-four ahgaharas described in NBA, the following 
include sulu. 1. Lalita I: ayatasthana, sama drsti (549); 2. lalitaW: avahitthasthanaka, 
sucana drsti (550), 3. lalita IV: recita hastas, left foot moves to the front (552); 
4. karunika II: talamukha hastas, ahcita feet, excessive pralokita drsti (558). SD 
(Sahgntadarpanam , 7.27ab) borrows sulu definition (435cd.) 

433-462ab. a. SD (7.1 - 52ab) includes mukhacali as the first item of anukramani 
(serial items of a dance recital): mukhacali, yati nrtta, sabdacali, udupa, dhruva etc., 
various lagas, sudasabda, various kinds of sabdanrtta, kvada, gitanrtta in both 
(sudha-) and ( salaga -) suda, cindu includingtalacdri, desikattari, vaipota, sabda, kalpa, 
jhakkari, dhraupada, and bahurupa in excerpts. This is to be followed suitably by 
perani, gondali etc. SD. reveals considerable correspondence within its description 
of many of these items with NN. Under mukhacali, SD describes prabhulaksana, and 
bpida. it also classifies gita into anibaddha and baddha; gonesa sabda is first employed 
for auspiciousness, next melapaka, also called muhara is played; patra stands in some 
sthanaka behind the curtain and takes up puspahjali in sausthava ; curtain is now 
removed. She enters the stage and offers flowers on midstage because Brahma 
abides there, some authorities "prescribe a rule for the number of flowers for 
puspahjali. viz. twentyone while others do not. At the commencement of mukhacali, 
the patra stands in samhata sthanaka with latakara hands; ahga is caturasra, caturasra. 
SD. then describes items relevant to this viz. samapada, samhata, latakara, caturasra, 
nandyavarta, vardhamdna, sulu, sausthava, sanna, talapuspaputa, ardhyardhikd can, 
puspaputa karana; this is folowed by the nandi sloka, identical with NN. 4.2.463, with 
close correspondence in abhinaya also. 

Next, the/atwof mukhacali, commencingwith ja ’are recited along with jahahgane- 
•ndhdngane . This is followed by the Idsyahgaviz. manas. Then dance is performed in 
dik-cakra (in all quarters) and in lahari-cakra. 

b. Laksminarayana ( Sahgitasuryodaya, 2.413-437ab) describes mukhacdda as a part 
" puspahjali in propitiation of all deities (of the stage). He promises to describe 
four varieties of mukhacala according different authori ties. But the text is frequendy 
paque. The mukhacalas of karya (!) Sardula and Umapati expounding Tandu are 
available here. The latter are also called jatimita and rupanrtta respectively. 

In the first variety, the patra stands behind two separate curtains; alapti is 
performed, combined with kdla (? tala); the outer curtain is removed. The female 
vocalists standing behind it render heramba (ganasa) pdtabandhana (jatis) (cf. SD. 
ibove) and recite ‘karitanta ’and do obeisance to Vinayaka. Two scholarly sabdasare 




282 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


then repeated. Then two moharas are played on mrdahga to obviate obstancles and 
evils on the stage. Only after this, the patra commences the dance beginning with 
hand movements. The inner curtain is now removed to the company of tattakara 
(. sollus/jatis ) recitation in the tallvavadhana procedure. Next the nandl sloka is 
rendered according to the convention of dancing ( natya ). An utaksya (?) gita is 
rendered with manas (lasydhga). 

When the mrdaga has fallen silent, puspanjali is offered and tattakara is recited. 
Inner curtain is removed quickly and jatis are recited with the patra standing in 
vaisnava sthdnaka. She then dances to ekapada (first movement) to the measure of 
yedupa (point of commencement), second and third steps (^pada/movement) , then 
five steps, offering flowers. She takes up the pratipdtra and worships dikpalas with 
anjali-hasta. With the fourth step she worships the guardian of the quarter to the 
front (east). In the fifth movement she dances to face the audience... she places the 
flowers finally on midstage, and then commences regular dancing. 

In Sardula puspanjali the text is too opaque to attempt a coherent translation or 
interpretation. In the Umapati puspanjali expounded according to Tandu, the 
steps and dances are as above, in units of five, puspanjali is offered in each quarter 
on a single knee touching the ground, and obeisance is made. 

The Sardula-puspanjali is very similar to the Dattila puspanjali extracted by 
Venkatasundarasani from an unspecified source ( Rasikajanamonolldsini-sarasahgraha 
Bharatasdstra, p. 199). The patra proceeds in five steps to each of the four quarters 
from midstage, makes flower offering in order,-returns to midstage, stands in sama 
sthdnaka and performs obeisance to the sadas. 

The same source (loc. cit. pp. 197-199) gives the ‘astadikdlaka puspanjali ’which 
commences with the following invocation: 

^K i q TJSfRHTC mb WFTfiPTTWt I 
c||qcqiq I 

‘uktajapadikam ’ means jopa etc. (flowers) as prescribed, below, loc. cit. 


vjiM|^^q^MKl' J l=hd c fld^l'=Kl: I 

The invocation is followed by a descriptive prayer to each dikpdla accompained 
by dance by the patrawith eight specified hasta poses, suitable cari ’sand a prescribed 
mandala. 



















COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


283 


I have reconstructed all the above varieties of mukhcali, including the one in NN. 
Radhika Nandakumar has presented them on various platforms. 

c. Veda describes in his Sahgitamakaranda (MS. copy in Sri Varalakshmi Academy, 
Mysore, folia 1-5) mukhacali at the very beginning of the dance chapter. He 
commences with the recitation of mukhacali pata—-jakara etc. jahahgane. Then sulu 
is executed with sarhhata sthana, sikhara hastas, sama head and hrsta drsti in 
samanakha pose. Next is taken up another sulu performed four times to lata hastas, 
camatkara dhuta head and visadini drsti. This is followed by a sequence of eleven gatis 
viz. bhavavi, minavi, gajagati, turamgini, hamsini, harini, khahjani, lavaki, 
madamayuragamini, tittiri, kukkuti. These will be taken up for comparison with the 
gatis described in NN. 4.2.465-480ab, infra. Mukhacaliis then concluded with nirajita 
calanam, consisting of appropriate abhinayaior each deity. This is synonymous with 
nandi-sloka, which will be taken up presently for comparison. 

d. NBA devotes the entire 15th chapter to puspahjali. Engjoined to be performed 
at the beginning of sapta lasya, it is of two kinds -daiviki and manusi. In the former, 
dances are performed according to agama, preceded by puspahjali. The latter is 
performed with mukhacali prefacing it. Both are performed in srhganatya. Dikpalapuja 
in dance is decreed by Siva to be performed as a preface to every dance to propitiate 
them except when the dances are performed before (i.e., in the temples of) the 
major gods viz. Mahavisnu, Brahma, Mahaganapati, Saptamatrka, Skanda, Parvati, 
Sarasvati or Laksmi (889-910). While all thirtyone sthanakasare, on the whole, used 
in puspahjali six masculine sthanakas are used in the propitiation of Siva and the 
other principal deities mentioned above; seven feminine sthanakas in propitiation 
of dikpalas and others, in the same or different order. The remaining eighteen 
neuter sthanakas are applicable, in the same or other order to propitiate both the 
principal as well as other deities (911-927). Flowers to be used in puspahjaliare: Siva, 
Paravati, seven Mother goddesses—flowers of trees; Laksmi, Mahavisnu—flowers 
of creepers; Brahma, Sarasvati—aquatic, e.g. lotus; Indra - mandara, parijata, 
bihadala, durva;Agni-bandhuka, compaka; compaka; kadamba; Yama-indivara, tapihca, 
kumuda; Nirrti- karavira, japa, silindra; Varuna -kalhara, kumuda; Vayu- mallika, jati, 
javantr, Kubera - satapatra, kanakapadma, kunda. If other flowers are not available, 
the ones used for Indra may be used for other dikpalas also. (928-940). At the request 
of the gods Siva decrees that the karanas devised by Vighnesvara, Skanda and Indra 
should be performed as part of puspahjali before performing the seven lasyas (941- 
949). Details of deities to be invoked and propitiated during purvarnga, external 
equipment, parts of the body, dress etc. of the nattuva, patraetc. are given (950-961); 
flowers are gathered at the commencement of patas (jatis) and offered at the end. 
They are offered from between the two hands for the Trinity, their Consorts and 
Sons; for dikpalas, brahmanasand kings, through the ends of the hands; for ministers 
princes, merchants and labourers, through the bottom of the thumb. Puspahjali is 



284 NARTANANIRNAYA 

made to onse if by a danseuse by offering it through the^bottom of both hanbds in 
siksa (pracitce), abhinayaand in a debut. This is called siksatmapuspanjali (962-966) 

The patra takes up the karanas for different deities, at the end of puspahjali. 
Details of such fourteen karanas are given (967-990). The original i.e. first con- 
ceived -pata syllables viz, ta , thai thorn nam are set into jatis and performed in dhruva 
tala in dance. 

Bharatakalpalatamahjari (ed. tr. by B. Ankaji Sastri and P. Subba Rao) gives an 
interesting, acronymic definition of patra and how the various gods and goddesses 
reside in her body (p. 228): 

TO: Wifl ^d+RWId I 
TO TTfW: I 

f^Tgfro ^TOT: *i*jhRskii: I 

TOlfTO^ftfTO I 
f*TO: I 

(:) ftrotTOnj 

TOJ: I 

'TP’ft ^ TOT I 

<±4Rcj : ^T§prh +HdlTO: I . 

TOJ: TORpT: I 

Wft: MI<4Ud1 I 

462d. sadragayojitam : This implies that the patis were required to be recited a- 
svara i.e. without setting to svaras ( raga ). 

463. bhavatam ... manasa : This nandisloka is borrowed by Catura Damodara in his 
Sahgitadarpanam (7. 38pr.) with the same abhinaya. 

Nandisloka is sometimes replaced with rahgadhidevata stuti (praise of the presid¬ 
ing deity of the dais) and sometimes with nirajitapada (song of waving lights before 
the deity). Each of these was rendered with traditionally and precisely preserved 
abhinaya . I shall compile here some of these rare, precious gems: 

1. Kallinatha ( Sahgitakalanidhi , comm, on SR. 7. 542, p. 186): nandisloka from 
Kalidasa’s Vikramorvasiyam : 


Sim Rro RtcRft 










































COMMENTARY ON THE T EXT 


285 


2. Catura Damodara ( Sahgitadarpanam , 7.38pr); same as in NN. 

3. Candrasekhara ( Bharatasarasahgraha , MS. Oriental Research Institute, Mysore): 



^^d^Rd^Rd'dii, ftl<lq*j$clH'U, *K u lHld*K>J|l<jd <=h<? u ll«3d 

dldNdd^Hl^d^Mldi , d^l%d^ldi, dtc^JSfSRT, 

dRsIdld^^TRTRlrri Tflf^RTT WTTfa I 

This curnika gadya has been adopted as rahgadhidevata stuti by some four 
generations of the Mysore School of bharatanatya. 

4. Veda ( Sangitarnakaranda, MS. loc. cit. f.5b): 

%iftr ^IKdl^fi *rrj 'HHlW-^' il^J|uwRsld dKdd’dsnqidH. I 

cT>fT«t ?f!cT^PT TJW'T *RfcT hR^ohi^ ^1*^ <*<rqi>J|R^ Rk-cnRi 


I 

5. NAD (32): rangadhidevatastuti : 



W\ *PT II 

6. Venkatasundarasani (Rasikajanamanollasa-sarasahgraha Bharatasatra, p. 205): 

-qoJTFl ^ % I 

^dlfcjdld II 

This is followed by puspanjali to Vis~u Rudra, Bhumi, Akasa, and the stage. 

7. B. Ankaji Sastri, P. Subba rao (comp.ed.tr.) Bharatakalpalatamanjari (p. 211): 

HlslPddV l R'lRa i dti*KK¥l l <sl l I 
H^dA«t>ci)cii II 

d>d^ hRi-M ^ilRl II 

465-480ab. mayuri...prayojanam: These gaits {gaits) are integral to the tradition of 
nukhacali in NN: ‘darsayet...sampradayanusaratah ’ (466ab), but are treated as inde¬ 
pendent items of dance in NAD and Veda. Bharatamuni devotes the entire ch. 12 
of the NS to the treatment of modes of walking of men and women in different 
moods, station and circumstances, including those of serpents, birds, lion etc. but 
not the ones described here. These gatis are found described with some abridge- 












































286 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


ment, expansion or variation in four other sources, NAD, SD ( Sahgitadarpanam, ch. 
7), VSM (Veda s Sahgitamakaranda,, MS. loc. cit.) and DSM ( SangUamuktavaR , extr. 
Bharatakosa- BK and MS. copy in Sri Varalakshmi Academy, Mysore). These texts will 
be extracted below to facilitate a comparison with the NN. descriptions: 
468cd-469ab. mayuri: 

NAD (312cd-313ab) ^4)4^ I 

if^'6'Jiij-qcrHl'ftTPJT)' T rfc1'0Rdl II 


SD —VSM (f. 4b) 


DSM — 

469cd-470ab. bhanavi 
NAD — 

SD (7.113) 



: 3fc$P2J I 


fefaqK -d^Kl^lfdohi^ | 

-q^^i ^rr^Tt i 



^rr wiainia) | 


HT ^N=il TTfcT: II 


(extr. with literal correspondence in VSM. f.3A) 


VSM (f.3a) "JT: I 

H^dl^d) I 

^ ( !) «rPT^t Tjf^: ^iKif^dldcl: I 


DSM (BhK.p.433) 


■£TT *lhql J ifcl: ylrhi cun'll* Hi I 


470cd-47lab. mainavi 

NAD (321-322ab) mdnavl. ^dl+K=l^ UFdTT | 

qiH ^ (?n) d+l^isl^ l 

^ ( ?*ft?) Reft iifoMm Tlf^I I 



I 


w rrr) rt ftR^ft RRT i 


SD (7.114) mainavi 


























COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


VSM (f.2a) 

qsfan cj dill Wlcp Ri4 J |qqqi qq: ^: 1 
wt hPcH?r^l qr ( ?t) f?TC: 1 

^dHl^d TTT 'JFFn <£pgltf(dl 1 

DSM (BhK.p.510) 

^MWJfd^l f^lPdlPgdl 'nfcl: 1 

q*JT 'EJfd TfT 'ifd^qql "RcfT I 

471cd-472ab. turamgini 
NAD (315cd-316) 

q wk- 1 

fwr ^Pm qdif^chiH i 

^Pf^fldPd: im ^flfdpq^ll^: 1 

SD (7.116) 

ara (3) q qr qfcT: q?4t °mq44ld<i 
Tpfr ^-ufl HP^'lPddl JlPd+lPd^: 1 

Extr. in 

VSM (f.3a) 

Tf^'Wpfd+^P^ TSlFT^r "JT: 1 

-3T$JsFRi qql qml qf^T: 1 

^fiFT: Wg Mdl+*g ^ifd: Tffal 1 

°hlHci 'ifcd 414 41 <l TETT TETf II 

VSM (f.43a) 

ppi: i 

SfSJsFRT qprr TTfel: I 

Wg 1dl<**g qfd: ¥TtET glPtfuf) 1 


WTRTf II 

Natyadarpana (BhK.p.253): literal correspondence to NAD above 
DSM (BhK.p.253) 3TSPT ^ T lfcT: #4 ^Pd^^dl I 


472cd-473ab. haririi 

^•l<JM T Tfcl: qH^KHHllHI 1 


NAD (313cd-314ab) mrgi: iq^ 7 ^ ^^TEp PlHdiq>q><l 

■grcT: ■qT^fr^r qn ifFTfcT*^ 1 










































288 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


(extr. with literal correspondence in Natyadarpana , BhK.p.503) 

SD (7.118) Tflfa ^ I 

Tffcl TJ ITT TJjft HRdilfidl II 

(extr. in VSM f.3b as follows:) 

(?T^) ^TTTTTflt MRchIRfdl 


VSM (fib) 


DSM (BhK.p.503) 

473cd-474ab. harhsinl 

NAD (311-312ab) 


HSS (1.17.15ab) 
SD (7.118) 

VSM (f.3) 


^ ff^cl T^ftrl'* rRT: 

TSTPT TfrgcTT ^TTTt TfT?M ^ I 
TJ^TT %T& Rt^T W^T «RTf^T I 

’dRbdl^f ^T(W ?)j,TIMMH)<HI 

qRcj^4 cpj '’TTSf Rld^'dRd I 
■q^T cT^ 1 ^ ^TFT <=bl4)4^ I 

WT TTT J lfd(1Rdl II 

J lfd4-<l H^N^tHI I 

•JTT RlVIMI TTT ^facTT I 

^Ttrj TTfel TJof: ^RddARld^ I 

TTT#T^ T^TH^T ^T "cJTTt T^JcfT I 

cffit fa ( —) EfafaST fafat Tpfal *fac^ I 
FTTt 4 gT: ?Tfa: II 









































COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


289 


DSM 

474cd-475ab. kaukkutl: 

NAd — 

SD — 

VSM (f.5) FW I 

3T^H u slci < =nl ^IRt ^a^did, I 

W: <rldl«h<: I 

'ifdO^n I 

DSM — 

475cd-476ab. khanjanl 
NAD — khanjariti 

SD (7.120) WMi ^ JlPd^dHHd: I 

wtzwra wM ^[4 i 


(extr. with literal correspondence in VSM, f.3b) 


VSM (f.3b) 


Pig>g<^|Sf TSTPT^ TFRT^v^ I 
B)Hcii<=h: ■(rqftrd'ti dfd: I 

<Td fasjd ftrct W Hldcn^lfdil+dH, I 



^ Td^blRdl TZ&fr sfRI^ I 

TTT f^gcTTStt ^ITWt cl«TT I 


DSM (BhK.p.159): Literal correspondence with SD, supra, except, d: OSHlti- 
i 

Devanna ( SangUamuktavaU. , BhK.p.159) 'llrAq <931^^ TT*TT I 

476cd-477ab. gajaUla 

NAD (314cd-315ab) '9T#TfT5 MdT3il«JT f^R^d: I 

HHMIddd*^ J Mol<r)fd faSjtTT I 

Natyadarpanam (BhKp.165) 9dl c t>l' G n c t><l^ 3 TT f^T^T drf: | 

JNdl^Pd I 











































290 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


SD gajagamini (7.115) T Tfcf4^T fadl^H I 

RR ^ ^1 R HPd4dHlPHdl I 

DSM (BhK.p.165) J l!d4-<;i facil^h '*R^ I 

TCR -^T: ^ej tr#^| -RcTT II 

VSM (f.2b) offers variant reading for SD supra, in c: RJR RR cj 

VSM (f.2b) STlfelkAfad tflTF ^FR RFR> I 

RRK RTfRT $ +faf4dl, ^FT: ^T: I 
'Md-dl, TrfcT: Hddldl I 

RiRHcT f?R: tN> irf^I ^laORdl I 

Besides the above, the foregoing authorities describe additional gatis as follows: 

NAD (317) simhi WUTRT ^ fRRT ^ 3RJR I 

^TTRi ftrat fRT RT-PHSHPd4^ I 

(extr. with literal correspondence in Natyadarpanam, BhK.p.729) 

NAD (318) bhujangi fRcTR+ft ^RT T TL%f4W < H A iUP L l I 

^4^ WT ^R ^5T^t 7Tf^4%^ I (4<R^ Ri^lPdckO 

Natyadarpanam, BhK. p.441: as in NAD, but (a): MdlP+'h) 4>{1 

NAD (319) mandukl *F0Ri f?Rlt *JRT P+Psid. PHtflHHI Hfcl: I 

HU4+1 i|fdftd)fc|l WFF1 I 

(extr. with literal correspondence in Natyadarpanam, BhK.p.454) 


NAD (320) vird 


R*1 g fwt *JRT ^Psm HdlP++l I 
^udiHHd 4UmPd*dlRdi n 














































COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


291 


(extr. with literal correspondence in Natyadapanam , BhK.p.632) 
VSM (f.4b) lavaki °h<i)^IH ^ I 

^RTf^RTT I 


VSM (f.4b) tittiri 


^ rRT: I 

ddlildd^KI ^tTft ^dHFTd: I 

f?TCt «JcT ^1 Wc^^TT PHlftcJI 


dd-cjfd: TJTcft ^Tt I 


VSM (f.4ab) ^fcl fa*IFT clcl: ^Ft IdfaO^Jil'rfdS^ I 

^frT W (F!) WI: ^Tt dvMfal: I cleft cfT^T FTFlFft 

TFJTtfcT I [^c FRFt 

4 <%un ifm\ wit (wrtzt)] 

SD (7.121-123) recommends bhanavi , gajalila and hamsirii for lasya, mainavi , 
khahjariti and turarhgini for tandava and mrgi ( harini) for both. It compiles the 
eight gatis viz. lava, harhsa , mayura , haya , kunjari, tittiri, kukkuta and mma from 
Matantara. VSM makes a similar classification as well as a spatial disposition on the 
stage. 

VSM requires laharicakra to be executed after the eleven gatis are performed in 
accordance with tradition at the conclusion of mukhacali. Laharicakra movement 
( calana) is described therein (f.5b) thus: 

clcl: dgO-dsh-flilfadftrfd I FSM-d*<Hsbd8FJF^ I 

FlfF^FFTtF^ pFf^^3fcl ^U<=bH, I 
3FF 3 'FMldHK'lfdd F FF^IT I 
eUHWMApd F I 

3FJFFT:FFTTfWi?*f | 











































292 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


f^«iP7 ■#} Trm«rr^ i 

ftcT Q^fl-c|sfc-c|MHycMuj 3I*W^ II 

477cd-480ab. NN concludes mukhacdll after the traditional performance of the 
nine gatwwith the simultaneous movement of left hand and foot on the ground and 
to the front; the finale is struck in vaisnava, asvakranta or pratyalidha sthanaka. At this 
time the left hand is sikharaat the chest while the other (right) hand is pataka, palm 
downward, stretched on its own side. Thus a citrakalasais obtained at the end of the 
mukhacati. 

Devendra describes in his SangitamuktavaR (DSM, MS No. 6646-Burnell/10728 
oftheTMSSM Library, Tanjore) the following dance forms (f.21 etseq .): puspanjali, 
mukhacati, ragavakyanuga yati, suddha yati, (u-)rupas, dhvada varieties, sabdacali, 
sudadisabda nrtta,sabda, kvada nrttav arieties, sudagita nrtta; nanagitanrtta, prabandha- 
nrtta, cinda, dharu, kattaraand dhrupada. Itmaybe noted that most early sources give 
the last as dhrupada and not as dhruvapada.. He prefaces description of these with 
rahgalaksana, nrpalaksana, sabharacana and vpida. The sequence of the items 
prefacing the actual entree of danseuse are arabhati, patlyasl, ragalapa, vadasamya, 
meldpaka (vddyaprabandha, illustrated in detail; also called melaprdpti elsewhere), 
ganesa sabda and aldpacari. This is followed by puspanjali in which Kohala and 
Hanuman are quoted as saying that puspanjali is indispensable to all nartana. 

[Bharatakalpalatdmahjan enumerates the benefits accruing from the performance 
of rangapuja, i.e. puspanjali : tranquilising obstacles, protection of the primordial 
elements, propitiation of gods, welfare, fortune and prosperity ( vibhuti) of the 
spectators, spiritual splendour of the patron and of the composer of the dances, 
purification of the dais, protection ofpatra fulfilment of the training by the teacher 
(p- 241).] 

Devendra next prescribes the melodious rendering of the words jahahgane maha 
(ngane) in dditafa (cf. ahgane-ihgane of NN 4.2.432ab; Sahgitadarpanam, 7.39: 
mukhacdngatam patam jakdrddikam uccaret—jahahgane). The nata then assumes 
samhata sthana, and performs mukhacati in much the same way as described in NN 
and SD. It is then followed by dance to an instrumental composition named yati or 
jakka (NN 1.86-91, SR 6.952-955 and illustration), for which the DSM gives a 
detailed syllabic text. This is together called ragapaddhati. Next, there is 
suddhapaddhatiin ekatalitala; thisisdefined thus: ‘ragavakyavihinatvematasuddhayatir 
yatha and a syllabic illustration is appended to this. 

480cd-481a. Urupa seems to be a technical term of uncertain derivation and 
probably used only in professional parlance (as for example ‘ihgane-ahgane). It has 
been Sanskritised into udupa (Lord of stars i.e. Moon) in some later works. Its form 













COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


293 


is ambiguous in DSM between urupaaxuX rupa (f.42). The latter, fuller Sanskritisation 
is favoured by Ramakrishna Kavi ( Bharatakosa , p. 69) who holds that urupa is 
vernacular deterioration of rupa ; he is probably encouraged by the (unique) use of 
this form in DSM. Urupa is sometimes found abbreviated to ‘uru \ These varieties of 
desi nrttahga were known to South India and described in Karnataka and Andhra 
from 15th-16th cent. a.d. in varying forms and slightly different names e.g. DSM, SD 
(and Sourindra Mohun Tagore in Sahgitasarasahgraha through unacknowledged 
borrowal, ch. 6, pp. 257-259) and VSM. SD gives bhinna , khulla, jaramana , natra , 
utkata , hulla, lavani, kartari , tulla, prasara and adds mum and pillamum. 

Among the numerous literary references which unequivocally establish the 
practice of urupu , dhvada , dindu , vajjada kalasa, kattana, timpu, lagu, kaimum , dusi, 
visamadusi, etc. etc. in Karnataka since the 15th century a.d. the following Kannada 
sources may be cited. The Pampasthana-varnanam is extremely informative and will 
be extracted to a larger extent. 

Astabhasakavi Candrasekhara, Pampasthana-varnanam (c.1430 a.d.) 

WdfaijTl 'nd-jc^od«Md41«f^ (6?) 

mf srftfa erafar wfjctpj ( wtt^) 

^l-g ' 4 

fadRfa cRl?T pR^HM 3*55^ 3TTTTT Huddle; 3n'c;<jc»a} 

3H4^ J lod d^Ioo 4»KiN*«PT W? ^Ttoo 

^odctP^Pq <=hlR)|PM dWP^ yisKHlR 

tfaftr PdPgRi^ deb-dPeM Ph<^^ fqf^r 

diPid MqdH qfeig, i^osqifq-i AdqP u i4 <tfft fd'jR'M-^ fd<>H<wq 

rdpdfa w&k <^hh*pm >uui < i *w r Po5 

A MS of the same work preserved in the Sarasvati Bhandara Library of the Mysore 
Palace adds karahgalu, mandi, kalasuluhu, glku to the above adavus. Suluhu = sulu, 
muruhu = muru, minbuli - tigerfish in the above passage. 

Gauravanka, Moligeyyana Puranam (c.1525 a.d.) 

ia<?^qvnj4 eTFJ f^| shdl'H ( - J JF)"*? 

Bahubali, Nagakumaracaritam (1593 a.d.) 

dHdftn TFI^ W1# (=^) 

34PdPc|dHP< I ^PddHc+KdlPi ^ll^d, 








































































294 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


Govindavaidya, Kanthiravanarasarajavijayam (1648 ad.) mentions the dance 
forms narasirhhastuti, gita-prabandhas rendered in suladi talas, kattane, prabandha , 
jakkini, rajaklra etc. (7.61, 64, 66). 

Mallikarjuna, Sankara-dasimayyana Puranam (1687a.d.): 

j^iaPd^ f^Pt TTtWd ^l<P< 

cfigul ld<>^ < l<n s 3TT '-liR'H-t? HqqiPi oP)u,s<. 

483cd-487ab. Neri: While NN is content with describing only suddha neri and 
karana neri , Venkatasundarasani ( Rasikajanamanolldsini-sdrasahgraha Bharatasastra, 
p. 201) extracts only ‘neru 9 from an anonymous source: 


WfT ctw*r ^^PswlPcklH, I 


^iy=b^ ( ?) I 



I 


qfadlteaefAuilfM I 

'5^T *UdMl4uHdH, I 

She distinguishes, however, three varieties of ‘neru ’ viz. suddha, salaga and 
sahkirna (p. 172). 

Suddhaneri DSM (f.42): patakahasta, vicitravarta, rathacakra cari, vilamba laya, 
aditala; accompanied with ‘thai mahahgane rendered in raga and ( adi ) tala. 

SD (7.147) Neri has rekha , mudrd and pramana (NN 4.2.343cd-344ab, 357cd-358, 
359), many hand poses, dance performed to dik-cakra (i.e. facing each of eight 
quarters). Suddha neri is performed with only suddha hastas e.g. pataka (in both 
hands, 7.150). 

VSM (f.llB): samhata sthdna , sikhara hands at chest, slow sulu on left foot, 
adhyardhika cari, vyavartana karakarma; finale with pataka hands at sides. Next, 
kuhcitasthana , patakas in mandalakara , then again at chest made into sikharas ; next 
syandita cari , pataka in left hand, moved from front to left side: repeated with right 
hand; this is followed with caturasra sthdna, with garuda pose in left hand; then 
kuncita sthdna with anjali hands. Then an upward left pataka and a downward front 
right pataka', they are both thus oscillated in ‘madhukita cari’; this is then reversed 
in uromandala (nrttahasta ? nrttakarana ?); then rathacakra can'four times to the front; 
during this both patakas are extended to the (respective) sides. Svastika is then 
executed with forward movement of both hands and feet. One pataka is suddenly 
turned up while the other is in lata hasta, ending in caturasra sthdna with skilful 
grace; both hands are now sikhara at chest and the movement of the foot is in 
vilambita aditala. 

486-490ab. Karananeri: DSM (ff.45-50) gives a sequence of karanas viz.i. simha- 
karsita ii talavilasita iii vrscika, iv, vrscikakuttita , v. latavrscika, vi. dandarecita vii. 




















COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


295 


dandapaksa. viii. urdhvajanu'ix. talasamsphotita x. lalatatilaka xi. januvestana and xii. 
karahghri-svastika, all rendered in aditala. 

SD (7.147) Karananeru (nodce the form of the word: neru) is composed of 
karanas. VSM (ff.llB-12A) gives a sequence of fifteen karanas-. i. simhakarsita 
ii. avahittha iii. elakakndita iv. caturiya (?) v. janita vi. upasrta vii. talasahghattita 
viii. udvrtta ix. visnukranta x. lolita xi. madaskhalita xii. sambhranta xiii. viskambha 
xiv. udvahitaxv. talavilasitam. The definitions of these are borrowed from SR under 
acknowledgement. 

Besides the above two, the following varieties of neri are also described by SD, 
DSM and VSM. They are anibandha urupas described below (NN 4.2.642cd-645ab) 

1. Nadaneri SD 7.150: Karananeri performed in fast tempo. 

DSM (f.43): executed in aditala in fast tempo, with repeated vivartana, oscillated 
bhramara, and according to some, tiripabhramari; bhramari consists of aksipta can, 
udvestita hands, trika (hipjoint) is repeatedly turned, feet are in svastika. 

VSM (fillA) extracts from SD, but defines thus: sulu in sarhhata sthdna with 
sikhara hand at chest, sausthava ; taladarsinr, hands in pataka slowly to sides; and then 
brought to chest, and above head; this is repeated alternately. The pataka is then 
extended in the four quarters one after the other; pahcapadi sulu; malaka after 
alternate revolution on both sides (malaka: mandala sthdna,sikharas at chest; head 
bent repeatedly; dancer gently trembles in sausthava, facing away from the specta¬ 
tors) . 

2. Bhavaneri (SD 7.150) is ram-performed with well developed rasa and bhava. 

DSM (f.51) rendered with splendour of self-expressive glances in aditala in 

different tempi such that there are picturesque poses now and then. 

VSM (ff. 12A-13A): Dance performed with rasa drstis and bhava drstis not only to 
aditala but udupas (note the word-form) are also described for arjuna, makaranda, 
mahasanni, sanni, tryasravarna, sarabhalila, kundanaci talas:, also specific hand poses 
are prescribed. 

3. Salanganeri: SD(7.150): Neri performed with combination of samyuta hastas 
only. 

DSM (f.51): executed with both asamyuta and samyuta hastas. 

VSM (f.l3A): same as in DSM. 

4. Sankirnaneri: SD (7.151) : executed with samyuta, asamyuta and nrtta-hastas. 
DSM (f.51) : samyuta, asamyuta hastas in aditala. 

5. Hastaneri VSM (f.8B-10B) is performed with twentyfour asamyuta hastas, ten 
: r .anakas namely sarhhata, mandala, svastika, caturasra, kuncita, vaisakha, samapdda, 

: r. a{ sthanar) vaisnava and utkata and six cans viz. stambhakndanika, adhyardhika, 
a ddita, addaskhalita utkata, purati, and karihasta. These are rendered: 'hastanetra 

■ ' hedacamatkdrena yojitd, vilambad aditalena dik-cakrabhimukha I gatih hastanerir 
ruzm prokta bharatadimunisvaraihl I (!) 




296 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


490cd-492ab Bhitra: 

SD (7.151cd-152) bhinna: ^5lclfWTFlf < «TT nPa^gH^dH, I 

dRft TdTcI I 


DSM (f.52) bhitra: 


dlcHfsb"^Tf^r«Tt W( I 

5'H'=6)^a<ra^T? I 


This is performed with svastikasthana and in knda-tala 


VSM (f,13B ) bhitra: 


rswp faraT i 

ydiRdd: I 


Pdddl<b:ftR:ft«TcT: I 


^PJT yd'lPddTcdl cT«lT ^ -dlR+l I 
Wt Tfi=RTT ^ I 

shl^ld l ^H faffct d^f^TRRl«faRT II 


492-493 Citra 

SD (7.153) 


DSM (f.52) 

VSM (f,13B) 


■q^KTTc^T W*i ddlRdH, I 

^y 0 |oo % ^ I 


dPdRd^i n m frmRfrT: i 

cTM^ trf^FTf^: t>.dR^4 yq4P4d^ II 

M ^TfrTRTSTT I 

Pd4^|^l PdHcildil HtewRkdidd: II 


494-495 Natra 

SD (7.154) jhlsidKdiyjd ^idshlsitfi^ddd, I 

■qcfrdT ^ dd41P<d^ I 

SM (f.53) ■HHdiciH4'i < ii’^ ,4 i(a4d ^Rlfd+I I 

erf^RT 5PTC: cRTd lR<*>1P4d^ I 


Vardhamana and nandyavarta are prescribed. 












































COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


297 


VSM (ff,13B 14A) 



cT«TT I 


dPdd) ^ ^T^'HdMd: I 

496-497. UUdrstaprsthatulla: SD does not describe this urupa. 


DSM (ff.55-56) calls it vi(!ve)naka tulla or lahghita tulla. Venaka (venuka) in 
Telugu means the back; prstha in Sanskrit also means the back. Tulla (Prakrta) 
means the vagina (pudendum muliebre). Adrstaprstha means the not-seen (invisi¬ 
ble back). Talla (Sanskrit—‘lake’) is not relevant here. ‘ Turla’ is used in Telugu in 
an inscription of this age, in which Cinna-tirumalayya makes a grant in the service 
of Ramanuja for providing the midday meal to the devotees (Ramanujakuta). This 
inscription is on a pillar in the mukhamandapa of Lord Narasimha in Mangalagiri 
in Guntur district in Andhra Pradesh and is dated 1.1.1562 a.d. (SII, vol. 4, No. 710): 

u'ocirtu TJtZR 

^Pd^JiPg 

^f^FT ... 

Turllapati khaddike ksetram in this passage means a piece of land in the township 
(or village) called Turlapadu in Guntur district in Andhra Pradesh: turlapati is the 
family-name or surname of persons who hail from it. Turla (> tulla) may refer to a 
tribe (e.g .jakkulu, erakalue tc.) who practised music and dance. Collative majority 
favours the reading ‘turla’in NN but subsequent authorities such as SD, DSM and 
VSM consistently use the term ‘tulla’. The sense of adrstaprstha tulla seems to be that 
the back of the danseuse is not seen by the spectators. It is unlikely that tulla is used 
here in an obscene sense; this may, therefore, mean a variety of tulla (q.v. infra) in 
which the back of the danseuse is concealed from the spectator. Tulla is probably 
a rudha nama. 

Thus, DSM (ff.55-56): 







VSM (ff,14B, 15A) I 


lqpfl(f£l?)'£i •cilO'W I 






























298 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


feRPt ^21Ff ^TFPf^f^SRl I 
^ twt ^ trip! i 

fflRT Wfczm fgtPT I 
faf&S Y^(^) ^TTt ^Plfa^P: I 
ifcR^ltA ^FPf cPI: I 

^RT# Mdl+'M WTt I^T W I 
RR R %Ht RFT cPT ^ Mdl+'dF^ I 
^PRT RTR ^f$RT R RRP$ PdMdldv+H, I 
■JRf ^HldW ‘Jx^Whri: I 
<^RTPpfa: RSlrfrlfR 3 W^ I 
^RT$ RRPlfa R Mdl^^H, I 
l^T 419^1^4 ^fPRl R ^IRl^ ( ? ^WJ?) I 
OHid oMd'^^R^'H^ld^: ^<id^: I 

498-499ab. Kuvada in Telugu and Kannada means fraud or circumvention, while 
kvada is its Sanskrtised form. The name is apt inasmuch as the dance consists of 
various skilful movements in accordance with various talas. 

SD contains no description of kuvada. This is appropriately also called talarupaka. 
DSM defines talarupa as performance of gatis arbitrarily with unspecified hand 
poses (f.57); it is divided into two varieties viz. Those composed in ekatala and those 
composed in talakuta (many talas) ; the latter is three in number viz. cakrabandha, 
arjunabana and harabandha. These are defined as follows: i. ekatalayukta talarupa 
consists of any gatis performed to 5, 7, 9 or 11 cycles of Ekatala-cakrabandha ii. 
7 alakiita consists of gatis performed to several talas of comparable number of matras 
in drutas, laghu, guru or pluta, considered as a single quantitative mass and rendered 
into their permutative forms or into such forms derived by doubling these 
respective quantities. The dance is performed to these varieties from the left side 
to the right, iii. Cakrabandha is a talarupa in five segments consisting of the talas 
brahma, simhalila, idavan, kundanaci and yatisekhara. The dance is performed to all 
the quarters, details of which are given in the work. iv. Arjunabana talarupa consists 
of movements of left and right hands and feet for a prescribed number of avartas 
of a tala and denouement in another prescribed number of avartas (tala cycles), 
v. Gatis are performed to talas derived from the following scheme: ten talas 
commencing with druta or laghu are assembled into two different streams of even 



































COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


299 



or old numbered ekatdlas ending in laghu (at the conclusion of the stream)- 

are Strnnor _1 • . , .. ' > 


stream); these 


ascribing it to Verna, which is probably an error for Veda, p. 250) 
is described in detail as follows (cf. Bharatakosa, pp. 425, 426). 


fosiPT ■qg-t Wd Mcliobl TTHl-HlRdl I 

Ml TOM? ^ | 

RfcT WdHM^ I 
^ dldlSeTOSJ ^ | 

TOTRcT: MRFT3J ^FdRd4> WdHH^g I 
ftMl%R ‘J^cT; W?u| TJ^dl I 

'HSMK ^ "cpiTf ^I|L|d^tui ipi^ | 

RusR I 

TRfFf g^; | 

MSJ -tt^d ^STH fi|lfWo<.Sii*4 | 
■Rsjr^lT gMfM4U|g>gdg | 
M^f^l Mdl=h-W SflkiggTcT: gd; | 
f?n§T MT^5 tR: | 

tcRf^ TRllRd: | 

^ Wl=hl TOt I 
MTTO "3?: ^kT: I 

fwt clcT; xpg | 


fawdl«i> M TO 3 ! ■g^HN^d, I 



































300 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


W: fWTt "RftsTcT: I 
^TtrTR: WPS fcT 3 ^ UHWlRd: I 
WffcT: 4 (| 0 <W fg^lt TcfiRTl: I 

fWTfePT PdW ciiH'JlH^a TJBcl: I 
: 1 JS^T fic^T ^nR^i I 


McTT^t 


^cri wfw+1 ^ i 


H)f<icRSTFT% ft«R^T ^RiPiI: WIpMI«K: I 
<=IW*4^ 3TCTR2I Mdlch^M '>#cRTT I 
i^r fei<a<sFs msmM i 
^Idlcd^ l|c|(HdH, I 


Thus the tala-udupas or kuvadas are tala-pradhana nrttaprabandhas in which 
virtuosity in manipulating talas is displayed. NN has already described kuvada, 
kaucata and tivati under prahelika (1.93-105ab) which may be read again in this 
context. Among the talarupa kvadas in NN two viz. nagabandha kuvada and 
padmabandha kuvada are extracted from Vemabhupala’s Sahgitacintamani in 
Bharatakosa (pp. 313, 354) : these definitions differ from those in NN. Thus 


Nagabandha : 

fgcfRi wiita 
wi I 

cRT: sFTRT^H^^ I 

TP 3 ? fgcfaRTT: ^#qFTRcRTtW^ I 
shHI^ s^qH^I RlRlH^d ^ I 
^TFRspj «HMK cT II 


Thus this bandha nrtta involved at least three danseuses who continuously 
exchanged their mutual position in movement thus giving rise to a serpentine 
pattern. Sahgrama Dhanahjaya is Verna’s title. 


Padmabandha: 

fgcfaT MfocMSJRMT I 

WT ftsRTT t^TFlT^cT^i -q^TT^ I 
^dl^Niagsf ^ ^ fadl-Md^ I 

WTsFTT^^^fgcTt^T M^TtbR^cl I 















































COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


301 


STTSTTETTST ^cffa m m sFTT^¥^ I 
qcj cmfaq^fw: ^ikmriw i 

^ 3IM I 

fedl^Nl^sf m sFRP^I^M ^T: I 
^g«ff WT^cPT: I 

fa*T8Tfm iHfddl ^ | 

cf ■q^wsrs wrrcmt ^q: i 


Therefore padmabandha nrttaev olves a pattern of the lotus through a continuous, 
mutual, dynamic exchange of position by several danseuses occupying four pro¬ 
gressive rows. Rupanarayana is Verna’s title. 

514-515. jaramana: Alternative name silu (Kannada: silu = split) seems to be 
unique to NN. 

SD(7.155): gatis executed in aditala in all the quarters 

DSM (ff.54, 55): utkatasthana , khandasuci, mandibhramari to right and left: gatis 
performed in the four quarters. 

VSM (f. 14) gives a detailed choreographic description: 


cTc^T^ «u$4Jt*j|chT 9 ^ I 


fgcnt wm<pi cm: i 

UoiMiHMdl'hl ^ ^ ^ i 

Ml 3 | 

TFgm m ^: i 

Tjeht^srcm Trftsm: i 
^eii^H RiRq^dl ^ i 

chhmkImR ft«m: i 
^ WTCg Mqt ^ftju||e|<f<h I 

cm: UUJ<sRTC*lFT Hdl<=b4): I 

WFT $ foUsKg^HM^ I 
tjcj Igcnt m m i 

cnH«iiHl4fti u ii e ic?d1 i 

TTT I 





















































302 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


cleft ellHirt^ m TRIR^ I 

31dH«ls4 ^TCTSfcia y«K^ I 
cm: U°iJMk ■qmf ^ZRT$ I 

m ^mr4f i 

cj i 

^FRT^fcT: I 

fM ^pjRj^na wmw^ i 
cm: TOMt *mq f^T d«t»KUIH, I 

tat cmr wmkhh+h, i 

Rasikajanamanollasini describes caramana (p. 201) as dance performed to solfa 
passages interspersed with the syllables tham-tham at the beginning, middle and 
end. 

516-517ab. tullam: SD (7.160cd-161ab): nartana with sausthava executed in all 
quarters in gajaUla tala. 

DSM (f.54): aditala, karihasta can , padmakosa hands, graceful movement, samhata- 
sthana. 

VSM (f.14) describes tullam in meticulous detail *as follows (cf. Bharatakosa , 
p. 254). 

I^r ftrercs^ wm% cm: i 

"g H 4 lf^ u l Hdiqichl I 
cff^cl rn m: ^ I 

wRcTT I 

knit i cm: vm i 

M^U| Mdl<+.4-M TOR: *1^ I 

$J Wkd4> W=T ^RdddddM^I I 
ddfw4<t> ^fm\ mffkm ^ i 
^riN ^prkHT i 

mcpk m cfi mkt mcjik m ■qiR'w i 
MfWdd: fnfc^dlldlcj cm: I 

cm ai4t ddlgW) m^Tte^T: I 

Mdl°h: g>lsidl Id^ mkt ^kr jjk mk^ I 

















































COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


303 


ddidlc Wm 4» ^ Hdl«hl I 

-tfm 1 ddlSfci ^T: $f$ldHM^ I 
I^r fifKsKS*g cfcT: ^7: I 

^•I'd). LjcfcIcJN^ I 

ddfw4«fc -§fm\ ^ ^TTt M^d) ^ I 

f^4 qidH'^ MfW^: I 

ffW ^TRf ^rT: RBcRcTSJT | 

WRRflRf *4)$4dM$ngdi^ I 
WTT: Frfw4> ^it crfdcft -jdSWebl I 
t? fasTTCT^ ^TfoPT ^ I 

3RT: "^^[4 ^ cK4°MMd L N'4 l l I 

fVNsKg'S T«rn% -J7: I 

RcTFF RT$ UHWl4 ^ I 
1 3 >fsid*sjT% TfiN MRq4^: I 
^Rf UcW^-ld^l ^r I 
'fl|4)^d4i *dRrd4> I 

^dM<yi^<=b<4)U^?f -r4tRT I 

RT^Rt: U4 WR:TRI^ck 4)*3 Mdl+4l: I 

3IHMI^ TRSfFR 7PRT I 
■ 3 d ^Rl4 WR W cHldM^+H, I 
3TR: !J^i 4 qiHlsf^: TSJRZRdR I 

qinlsdH'y: 3<d: SJ'HiqfR: Hdiq>q>: I 
1^4 RWftRsK R^cT ^ Mdl+di^ I 
cpgf^S 3TTf<dldd "TjftfR: II 

Bharatakosa extracts a definition of tulla from an unspecified source (p. 847): 
(cf. SD 7.159-161ab: kartari and tullam). 

^MI^dlfddl^H ^omM^oi|4): | 

^r| ^ ^mdcTT ^fff Tjpj. | 

<Mdl^d <TT#T l44 I 

4lydifafg4 rr i 


























































304 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


517cd-518. Prasara: SD (7.162ab): Gatis executed in aditalaand madhya laya such 
that the arms are stretched and swung < aviddha > and the feet follow them. 

DSM (f.67): Prasara is composed of parsnirecita can , aviddha vaktra hands, madhya 
sahca , aditala and (-) laya. 

VSM (f.15) The foregoing definition is elaborated thus (cf. Bharatakosa p. 397): 

^ feHsUfgtPI tfe I 

mpMjRPddd l Rdd^ I 
JUUHlRdldM 1 
Hai<=h: "SrajcT: x n$ dIH: |p<Rld: I 
3PFft I 

H u 'Sd'i*IR%' T TT$ Hcil+I I 

cT^^TH 3>P«ld% filUsKfed^i I 

*Jej I 

TfT: ^^y-ddHHird^SJ^dl ^ I 
czn^T pjTcf: •q^Tcp ^RdtRld) I 

W*sn%fWcen ^wOMMlrld: I 
FTRpWt^^ I 

519-520ab. Kartarl: SD.7.159cd-160ab: Samapadasthana, adi tala, druta laya, 
movement to right and left, shanks are crossed in svastika, bhramari is executed. 
DSM (f. 68): Katra: Performed in laghusekhara tala, uruveni cari and urudvartanika. 


VSM (4.16B): katra, 


TrcrgcT 3T2R I 

fWTt Wf ^FPfT#^ I 



:f**RT: I 


ytHiRandw: I 

TT^T: iWlRdMdl+<*>: I 

Iwft ^Tt ^FTtS^ WtpMdld>^': I 
feUsKS^ Tfcyi wRd% 'RsTfd: I 
PcNdRHIcp ift HtilRdMdl«M>: I 
fdRd ' 4 ? ^fdcf Wi PdMditfd ^tfl I 
31lf<dldd^^ y=ticrH^cp I 

Mwrct ^ <W^4)Rdip 1 















































COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


305 


520cd-522ab. Hoylu is a term in both Kannada and Telugu which variously means 
grace, beauty, charm, sportfulness, a stroke, vociferation, current of a stream etc. 
It has also the form huyilu, from which is derived hullam, as used in SD, DSM and 
VSM. 

SD (7.158): Hulla: a foot is raised, oscillated like a swing gracefully, repeatedly in 
laghusekhara tala. 

DSM9 (f.68) Latakara hands are raised to chest and kuncita can is performed. 
VSM (f.l6A hoyilu): 

t|dld>) ^fS-PJi RR dfllS'W ^ e t>K<K I 

RRNT$ f?R: WR I 



%mR+i rr! rs: i 

MdldRlt: TOi RTSfRt: I 

3cRFR dlH'dFf R RRT I 

RUsKfgtTR fRRT Rf^ u liq<fac<id: I 

^ dddRjd'MlfcH'M^ I 
MP^'y^Rdd ^ I 

cfm^ftrpqt: RT$ I 

RTRRTSfg# ^MdldvW TRTRRT^ I 
R$TRT$ fRRRJRJ cl^ 1?Rlt i 

^fcRT RSH^l RT ft TRMHI^d. I 

M'HiRa^'t'trd^l RRFR^ Hcii=t)<=b: I 



RSP71# ^PR3 RTR IWPlH 1 
^cFTRcT: I 

qcri'ifsad d e t>K u IH, I 

RR cR^vfrrTT 1JTRR I 

It is interesting to note that VSM (extr. Bharatakosa, p. 780) describes hullam also 
as follows (f.!6B): 

































306 


NARTANANIRNAYA 









3MRTT ^lR<=bi TTCISI^ I 

^T iff: T7T4g% cT«TT I 
3?cTmT T%oT t?: H-HlRd: I 

ffc w^^Rhsk! crmr$ totRcI: i 

^T T TR^f TSTPT#7 | 

^T: «’HK u i 'dHUdl+W | 

TTgrT: T 7T^ wf cfTOda^ I 


TTTf TlW ■yiciR: I 
c llh(T)qcRl RiRh cfflSK'Jiejig'i^ | 
^f5ciH'yfsd4 qqRH I 

qmRi<g<l -qj^ milRd: I 
WspRrOT TtTf: ^M^r^jji: | 
c^t^n#r i 


470cd-522ab. The urupa is thus a body dynamics of hasta, can and sthana against 
a frame of temporal dynamics of yati, laya and tdla( NN 4.2.480). As said before, it 
seems to have evolved into many compositions in the 15th-16th century a.d. and 
collimated into a single corpus through the above definition. In view of the 
numerous Kannada words and some Telugu words admitted into their nomencla¬ 
ture, it is probable that they first appeared in Karnataka and Andhra. They were 
compacted into a group-probably sequence-of twelve varieties and comprehended 
in the performance convention of the age. However, a few other umpas are also 
given in the above mentioned authorities. They may be included here briefly for the 
sake of completeness. 

DSM: Cullaka — vilambita aditala, hullrtkd can, recita hamsasya or harhsapaksa hasta, 
gatis in four quarters, talasahca (f.67) 

Tirurupa: vicitra bhramari, kundanaci tala, caturasra hastas (f.70). 

Mum. utkatasthana, sahca two spans above ground at side, extended tripataka in 
front, body moves in all quarters in pahcamatala or ekatali in fast tempo. 

Mudupa (f.69): fast trembling of tips of the toes to rasa tala, or dvitiya talavntYx heel 
placed on ground. 

Mallaka (f.70): the same, oscillated fast in aditala. 

SD (7.155ab) Khullam is natra performed in madhya laya with samasuci and 
visamasuci sthanakas. 


























COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


307 


Muru (muru, muruhu in Kannada : trim, bend): body is straight in utkata sthana, 
turns and bends suddenly in accordance with krida tala again and again to the front 
or obliquely with tripataka hastas 7.156). 

Lavani: rotation of torso above waist in pahcama tala (7.159). 

VSM lavana (f. 13B): pataka in right hand is stretched upward in mandala sthana, 
while left hand is in ardhacandra at hip and rotated around waist; then, with a leap 
the movements are reversed to the opposite limb. Right hand is turned to the right 
and left hand to the left, both in ardhacandra at the front at waist, rotated in 
accordance with rupaka tala. 

Cullaka (f.l5A) consists of sikhara hastas at chest in mandala sthana, sulu is 
executed; then kutirika can with hamsasya in the right hand and /or downward 
hamsapaksa or both hands recita; gatis are executed in all four quarters. Then 
padakuttana in talasahca position to the front; alapadma hands are crossed over 
head. Tiripa ( bhramari) is executed from the left and then with the opposite limbs. 
Latakara hands are held in a front pose in caturasra sthana. Two sikharas are held at 
chest in ekapada sthanaka, bending to the ground, four valanas are executed with 
beauty; next, a bhramari followed by ‘takarana’ and (pada) kuttana in adi tala. 

Muru : left sikhara at chest, pataka in right, stretched to the side, rotation to the 
right; bhramari is performed, ending with ekapada sthana. Bending low, tripataka 
hand is extended forward. Left sikhara is placed at chest, head is in skandhanata 
position, two valanas are carried out ending with ‘takarana’. 

It is thus clear that wrujbawas an ongoing creative process which was being evolved 
at this time on the anvil of experiment, growing out of but beyond the convention¬ 
ally accepted group. While lasyahga evolved from both margaand desi traditions, the 
urupa seems to have done so mainly from vernacular or regional idiom and catered 
to both popular and scholarly tastes. The urupas and kuvadas deserve revival and 
presentation on the contemporary stage. A study of the kvadas reveals an amazing 
tala virtuosity and capacity to combine creativity with scholarship on the part of 
practical exponents as well as an encouragement of both by connoisseurs and 
patrons of the age, which is well worth emulation today. 

Kvadas were performed as dhvada varieties too. Here also, their distinguishing 
characteristic is talarupa, i.e. dance form permeated with tala form. Ten dhvada 
kvadas are mentioned, but six described in VSM (ff.20-22): ramabana, arjunabana, 
harabandha, cakrabandha, muruganda, sarvaganda, nagabandha, vrksabandha, gomutrika 
and patalasud. 

Of these, ramabana consists of dance movements of the left hand, right hand, left 
foot and right foot to the 168 pindas derived from various talas’. 



•HHhi- 3: Hdls) I 









308 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


fzm , wi^ e b c iH 3 i 
■q^fj #jH ^«TT ^szjct I 
3T«R<TT^HR«T ^ ^rf: I 

fgs^ W: ITTrfit •widS^ s[cT: I 

< T =l^ fc ^> <rT3: 3Ttr!5t ^PTT^ TTcT: T TT 1 ^ I 
^ 3 % 3 ^: 3fr?Bt ^ | 

dWHK 31^3 3^3 3'cfflT^tct i 

^iPd^ TTtW: Wi: mz I: I 

*h«nuii 1*P7: vTlrbl 'idui 'left I 

Next, in the seven matra brahmatala a pinda of 112 drutas is derived. These are 
distributed in the arjunabana thus: 

^ft f&m: i 

#3RI Pm>J^ 4 # p: I 

3^ ^ WTt dlHSft CRT: Wi; I 

■gcT^r 3d: Tfrwt <^4 I 

3 d: ^ 13 : i 

ellHMI^ 312% ^ 3 dtSd ^nt cT^: I 
«l|UHIMI3lftTS:®I5^I: I 
3% ^itr ^r 31% ^ ddld^HKNd: I 


Cakrabandha kvada is delineated thus: 


1W: 



3^efd: I 


MSJdldTt I 

dStTf 5 !' RftdldS dTOft dPd^HsK: I 
^3^7 sT(PdJ% WKl^Nl^fg^TCT: I 
P*ftd1d) fg^lt FTT^F«IT dPdVllsH: I 
3TSJSrt«cf PM04 P«k 1 41'dHH. I 

qc| W^Pgd^H^ I 

tsidT^dSl^ ^ dSTTfft sJUdTdldF: I 




























































COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


309 


ellHIfl R^dldSI cf?qi4 qfirc'HsR:! 

fqnt gcfft I 

^ oiihi^I sl&dldd: I 
fti*d1da$j*f i 

^$Nt 4 Ri^dld) ^STT^t AlfavUsk: I 

9(^d!d+:l 

^raf cTTeTHt fq 1 ^ q^rfd 4ldd^ I 

dsM^rd W sfrl£*dldfad^: I 

Muruganda kvada nrtta is depicted by VSM as follows: 

WUf«micPiqT f^lWFT I 

f*FS% ^ I 

a^llndl I 

{fddld: fl^aa^J?R5RTq/faff: I 
^4lfd'HHc1ldHi I 

Iwt ^?TM: qqfd I 

fg^nt wf q^ii^-un^rdl fg«TT q%^ i 
fq«TT ^dlqdld: q%^ I 

mv\ c^dld) W^fT qiSlfRfd^ I 
M^rdVi^^H^Aj^IRd^ I 
d^lRvie^di ^ qFR«fI qT ftfd: ^hU I 
^H^nujdi qq %qf Ri4Hhi i 

gcnr^jj ct^ i 

WFfgd^ ^ i 

■H^aicr^iH^ "qrfq <*>*}<*> q^Spqj 
qcf ^ ^ fqn% q^Rr uiuidl i 

fWI WXZ: qTdf: yfdmRd: I 
Finally, sarvaganda kvada is pictured as below: 
ST^j^n^TR-OT fMU^Hlfd^d, I 

feldKKM^il^ld, 'HH-Mdl dd^MPd^l 





































































310 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


fm #m«li dldM^ftfe U I 

^Ft FtrT> dld9'<^ ddl dlHI^snHKy I 
WfdPd: $rtlteMWdaa5Tfa*T: djd: I 
-^dldl fawjdld: dT m-. I 

■^«TFt H u ci < +>Hi Pd^Hd^dlffd^ I 

fcmUsUa FTTT^: WT: *KUW*IT I 
effo rt: Wt: m: W3: W1: ^T: I 
SHsRTTWTOSTCFTt *nfd *P4fSRT: I 
'fldWlHUd^: I 
cFFdt WfP^dTWT: FfcFF^: I 
sik^l fWF32I +rM|U|^|et>rciVlfd: I 
^FT’TFt WdTdFHyFdl HlPd+l: I 
fqos|Ri( -cT?)fNtW^ I 



PlddlgdlK^ T5 qiHd^fW^nnkf: I 
^7 *l4*|U£: 1T5: dTl^dlddldi 3 TFFcl: I 

These talarupa kvadasare named after the respective talas. The above mentioned 
talas have the following forms: 1. sarabhatila\\°°°°W 2. kulla iioioio|oo|ooo|ooooi 3 . cakra 
llooo| o oioi 4. brahma \\o\oo\ooo\ 5. visnu ssnsisssoisssssi 6. prthvikundali iiiiiiiissiimssssssi 
is us ms 5 5 ns s ns ii (Matantara). Thus six talas on the left. Thirtyseven manthas on the 
right as follows: 

1. vijaya lllisil 2. sarahga niioooii 3. prathama lisos 4. sarasa lloossmi 5. kilaka iloiiooii 
6. sa/lllisii 7. dhanamjaya°\ss S.jayapnya 1131 9. sri noooss 10. rahga lisoosooi 11. girudna 
115155 12. kamala iiooiiooii 13. vallabha sis 14. vicitra °s 15. tdrapati ll°°n 16. karala 
liss ns i 17. vama iiooiioo 18. gambhlra liss 19. snrahga ms is 20. bhinna oooioioin 21. kal- 
ydria 5n+ + + +; thus37 (!) manthas'xn the middle; nagabandha, vrksabandha, gomutrika 
and patalasuci should be understood similarly, says VSM (ff.21). 

Besides the foregoing urupas, Venkatasundarasani compiles from unspecified 
source/s thirteen urupas ascribed to Siva and Tandu: the text is often corrupt, but 
gives invaluable jatis which are indicative of the commencement or body of the 
adavusor other dance elements ( Rasikajana-manolldsini-SarasahgrahaBharatasastra , 

pp. 172-174): 

1. Suddhaneri urupu — samasthana, luthita can, ucitabhramari, jali rekha{?): 
pithapathaksaras (b.. ,ic jati text) are composed by Sadasiva: ta tha ta dgi dgi dgijlgi 
dgi dgi dgi dgi dgi dgi dgi dgi dgi 











































COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


311 


2. Salaganeri urupu — vaisakha sthana, dulita cari, kinnara bhraman , slista rekha, 
dillayi ( lasyahga ); dattadadattatta handatta 

3. Sahkirna neri urupu—mandala sthana , samanakha can, fta/wr bhraman, jhahka 
rekha, kutamana pata created by Brahma: dhirrattakataka , tohgutaka, dhikitaka 

4. ARidha—valita sthana, asamamjdra cari (?), citrabhraman, Rid rekha, kaiyadu; pata 
created by Mataiiga: jagajaga, taithyai, tyaidattatha jagajaga taithyai 

5. Citrabheda — svasthana, agratalasancara can, tiripa bhraman, sthapana rekha, 
urupu created by Kasyapa: tattadhittadhi, takatadindaka, jhanu 

6. Natra sallumana—nandyavarta sthana, sphurita cari, vidyadhara bhraman, 
sausthava-rekha; kalasa ; created by Kohala: jhekitta kitataka, jhejhe-kitta kitataka 

7. Sarasikarana—samapada sthana, vidyudbhranta can, gandharva bhraman, lila 
rekha; pata created by Nandikesvara: tahajhantari, takundari takatakundari 

8. Gandabherunda — parsnividdha sthana, purahksepa cari, betala bhraman, rekha is 
ardharecita, vasara; pata created by Sakti: janta takadinkuku, takuku takuku 

9. Garuda—parsvagata sthana, daman cari, antarbhraman, sundaraparaga rekha, 
pata created by Matanga: kitatakatantaddhi, jhantattari, kukundari 

10 Citra—parsvagata sthana, syanditacan, citrabhraman, ucita rekha, marala{hasta), 
created by Visakhila: duggu diggi tukkita, kitataki takkudhikku 

11. Koyila—paravrtta sthana, sakatasya cari, kinnara bhraman, ahgalasya rekha, 
antyabandha(}), pata elucidated by Bharati : dindadhimitatta, tattatihgana 

12. Kalacakra—samhata sthana, harinapluta can, visamabhrman, sthirahasta rekha, 
cali, pata created by Rambha: tattat thyai, tattadhityai, tattathyai tattadhityai. 

13. Nanatala—vaisnava sthana, elakakridita can, svastika bhraman, bhavarekha, 
natra, pata created by Narada: ta dhimidhimi, tandhimidhimi tatata. 

Talas employed for various urupus are as follows: 

1. neru —oo — asvajhampa; pata — -ja, are, ma, are (tala of two matras) 

2. karananeru — oooo two matras — karanatala; pata—are are 

3. citra — iioooooooo —citra tala, six matras, pata — tithaiya, tithaiya 

4. chatra —ll'oll — sama tala, four and half matras, pata — jahare, mahare, jahare, 
mahare, aganigane, agane 

5. vennotturu ( adrstaprstha ;?) I ekatala, one matra, pata—thaithaithai 

6. 5 edavatturu —°ioo i— turagapluta —3.5 matras, pata — tethaiya, tetethaiya 

7. tolala (cf. ^/mentioned in Kannada poetry) o —0.75 matra , aravu tala, pata — 
tax tai tai tai 

8. caramana — Tioooooooo —6.5 matras, pata — thaiya, thaiya. 

9. prasara —l ’—laghusekhara tala —1.25 matra-thaiyathaiya. 

Venkatasundarasani (op.cit. pp. 199-201) also compiles twelve natya-natana- 
ahgas from an anonymous authority. These are related to the urupa, dhvada, kvada 
etc. An interesting feature of these descriptions is the mention of pata phrases which 






312 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


probably indicated the dance movements even as today the adavusoi bharatanatya 
are described by such pata phrases. 

1. Pithais composed of syllables tatha , taddigiddigim ; samapada sthana and latakara 
at beginning; sama-siras, sama-drsti. 

2. Tauta is composed of pata syllables on the theme of gods with plural, 
picturesque meanings, ends in the syllables kittam. 

3. Kutamana begins with dhirrattakataka dhiganam in the middle. 

4. Kaiyadu has syllables takkatto dhikkatto dhigita ; danced with many varieties of 
head movement, of glances, sthanakas and cans which accord with nrtta-hastas. 

5. Tumpu has pata phrases tattadhitta at beginning and damdamdimdi in the 
middle. 

6. Kalasika commences with the syllable jha , long svaras and word syllables in 
profusion. 

7. Pracura has the pata phrases tahajhamtari and takundarita. 

8. Vasara has jham ta at beginning and dhanakuddhana in the middle. 

9. Sabda is composed of the same syllables; consonantal combinations even and 
brief; ends in tadhimgina. 

10. Marala has duggudigga at beginning, dhimtakkitta in the middle and dhogudu 
dhogudu at end. 

11. Rudra —lacuna 

12. Kadakattu (cf. NN 1.82) has profusion of compound consonants, dhimtadha 
etc., has ‘ta’ ^beginning, middle and end. 

The following items are also described in the same work (ibid. pp. 201, 202): 

1. Caiiya: Rekha is dignified; set to tala and laya; chest, hip, hand and glance 
movements are gentle; or has caVvya hand poses. 

2. Caramana : Syllables tham tham occur with svara passages interspersed at 
beginning, middle and end. 

3. Natra has syllables taddhimidhimi , tadhirikkita but no words. 

4. Nrttabhava arises from charm and variegation of the gatis executed by the 
danseuse such that no conjunction is perceived from tala to tala , one musical 
instrument to another, one bhanda (percussive instrument) to another. 

5. Nrttacan soft, graceful and sweet, consists of simultaneous movements of the 
foot, thigh, hip and arm from one to sixtyfour, then 32, 16, 8 and 4, set to tala and 
laya. 

6. Nem is samanrtta composed of sixtyfour hand poses, eight mandalas in all eight 
quarters; such nartana is performed in aditala and (suitable) laya , with valita kara 
(?karana ?) with an outward rotation. 

7 . Jhakkini is composed of sollu(-kattu) s, svara passages, loud singing and instru¬ 
mental music, samapada sthana , sama head pose, sama drsti. It commences with the 
pata phrase taddhitaat the beginning, tanadhii n the middle and takataka at the end. 



COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


313 


8 .Jogini is composed of the pata phrase tattadhihku in aditala and (appropriate) 
laya, thigh, hips, hands and sides aligned with the root of the arms (? urahkatikarah 
parsvam bahumulasamakrtim?) and of sama chest, sama siras and sama drsti. 

523b. Dhuvada or duvada is known to Karnataka from at least the middle of the 
15th century a.d. Besides Candrasekhara (vide commentary NN 4.2.480cd-481ab), 
Caturmukha Bommarasa (c.1450.a.d.) also mentions duvada,'. (Saundara Puranam 


8 . 10 ): 



Revanasiddhesvarapuranam (32.48): 

.... 

Dhuvada seems to be a sanskrtisation of duvada (kannada): duvvada ( =duvvala) 
means fast movement, a horse-trot pattern, swinging, oscillation, to spread etc. 
While NN defines it as a combination of a bhraman (enveloping a sulu and a laga and 
always concluding with antarbhraman, SD (7.162,163) offers three alternative 
definitions: (a) it is utplutyadikarana, i.e. karanas set to tala, combined wit h utpluti; 
utpluti is called laga in kannada (7.165ab). (b) two or more akasa cam with a tiripa 
(=bhramari ) concluding with muru. (c) two lagas, ekapada sthana, followed by tiripa. 
VSM (f.l7A) classifies dhvddas into two: preceded by sulu and grounded (stha- 
lastha). These are called dhvada lagas and are described as bidu lagas'm NN (4.2.539- 


559). 


523cd-526. ante...kramat: Methodologically, these dhvada varieties should have 
followed bidulagas since they incorporate the latter. These varieties seem to be 
found uniquely in NN., though some names are found in Vemabhupala’s 
Sahgitacintdmani (extracted in Bharatakosa) in other contexts. 

527. Kalavinka vinoda, a calaka: Vemabhupala, Sahgitacintdmani, extr. Bhara¬ 
takosa, p.120: 

fsti'MI ( Ha r i)cNailcH < =h*f I 

'Ftffd£fc|HKlJot|cT^T I 

Asokamalla (Nrtyadhyaya, 795,796, p. 78): 





fSPRl tn L )dHlc9cHl(cH i =bl I 
























314 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


TpT: (^T:) f^TT ^dHI^H I 

«Mfe|$faHklteJi I 

Anonymous authority (extr. Bharatakosa , p. 815): mandalagra mistaken as 
kalavihkavinoda : 


... I 

Wlcf: ■qT^rr^ WT3 ^4dHld: I 
*lft %qi: 

dld^l: UHl^ld HU3dlirf*R <RT I 


528. Tarksyapaksavilasa, a calaka\ Vemabhupala (op.cit. extr. op. cit. p. 247): 

e|<fHiwfw4> cm: I 


Asokamalla (op. cit. 819.820ab, p. 81): 



529. Vidyudvilasita, pata phrases of hudukka: Vemabhupala (op.cit. extr. loc.cit. 
P- 611): ' ■' 

sraftfeWc|<rHI< d^-^BNIdd: I 
OTTTZl I 

cb»J|chU| ftff ftff ft (ft:) 


532. Nartanabharana; vartanabharana, a calaka is described by Vema and 
Asokamalla.Even though these are unrelated primafacie, since some dhvadasof NN 
are found as calakas in the above authorities, their descriptions are included here. 
Thus, Vema (op.cit. extr. op. cit. p. 587): 




mi: i 


Asokamalla (op. cit. 784, p. 77): 

Tjqi': ■qTTt qRPi: I 

drHi4ftPKtiH i 










































COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


315 


533. Tiryaktandava: a calaka (Vema,T)p. cit. extr. loc. cit. p. 251) 






cT^T TfTf: 1 


537. Paksisardula —desinrtta (VSM. f. 18A, cf. Bharatakosa, p. 343). 

^cgrf>: I 

539-540ab. Ityukta.bidulagavah: Thus the above twelve dhvada varieties are 

regarded as ( dhvada) lagas, though elsewhere, dhvada laga signifies other dance 
elements (e.g. VSM, infra). Both bidu (vidu in some collative sources has probably 
resulted through graphic deterioration) and laga are reannada words. The former 
means leaving (i.e. concluding with) or discrete while the latter means utpluti: 
jump, leap or frisk or gambol, cf. SD 7.165ab: ‘ lagasabdena karndtUbhasaya yatra 
cotplutih. NN has distinguished dhvada from bidulagas by defining the former with 
(a) and the latter with (b) above (vide commentary NN 4.2.523b). DSM (f.72) 
defines dhvddanrtta f avouring definition (b): 



^I^Pdlcirui W'll'dlfd I 

Sulu is employed in two related meanings in dance literature. The first is given 
in NN (4.2.427-461; defined in 435cd-436ab). The second seems to be employed in 
NN in the context of the bidulagasin expressions like ‘ sulum-baddhva , and is defined 
as 'ahghrija sulu' in DSM (ff.72, 73) thus: 

fqWl4Iwri#TT: I 

sfHlr( I 

W7TFIT1 crgTTM UH^TlHH I 
3Tfer^Frt tj 4TTcT <4q)Tli( I 

\SM (f.17) traces the creation of the twelve dhvada {laga) varieties to Lord 
Sankara who performed them before his consort, Girija. It classifies the eight 
d-hvddas rayarahgala, nihsahka, dantu, addadinda, hurumayi, katradinda, paksisardula 
and rajapaksi saluva as sulu dhvadas and the four, adala, adantara, dhusi and macha 
i -tsya) puta as sthalastha dhvadas. These twelve are defined therein as given below 
(f-17) ; SD closely follows NN in the definitions. 























316 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


542cd-543ab. Adalu is probably derived from addakalu (kannada) which means 
widely separated legs. 


VSM 


SD (7.166cd-167ab) 

RRT ffcT RfRR: ^Rfa: 1 

^R^l ddl^ RfSRSlR^ 1 

RRd^ ^ ^rs^idlHdlRd^ i 

543cd-544ab. Rayararigala 

VSM 

7RT dRir^ R Rkdt^Kff 1 

3RRJ^ %IIHRlcRl RRct^ tRufairl 1 

W^MSR^tSR ^Rlrt ^eRjRfa: 1 

SD (7.165cd-166ab) 

fg#qt5fq CRT <N<^ld dfgRt fag: 1 

544cd-545ab. Nihsanka 

. 

VSM 

^fcT t 1 

SD (7.167cd-168ab) 

Rlfcrldl ■d< u i1 -h-hI 1 


RRcTcT: R Rl:?Tf: U+lftd: I 

545cd-546ab. Horamayl is the correct form of the word and means in kannada 
outer body (line). 


VSM 

3>gdl^rd4dl 1 

SD (7.168cd-169) 

RSRTRFT R^cR: 1 

Wn^^TRWT: 1 
fWft Rfe^kr^lRWK^: 1 

smr qRddrff rrt i 

^dlcflf^ TJRR?) VOVH^H df ^ 1 




























































COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


317 


546cd-547ab. Datu is the modern form of dantu in kannada. It means to leap, 
jump, cross etc. 


VSM 

SD lacuna 




547cd. Adantara: 

VSM 314ld*4 m gfa I 

3Tg^Rftrfcl m- «hte?H I 

SD (7.170-171) cTf^TlffW I 

c1cR5f«lf eTff^wTff^T I 
clT <+»J|UiR^<i)c| ^1^1: I 

fafddl -JCcT: IKM^dlfadlRdH, I 


548. Dindu is a kannada word which has several meanings: bundle, kernel, stem, 
piece, round, rough, rocks used for bottom layer of foundations, edge, bank, body, 
solid, essence, strength, arrogance, thickly strung garland. 

SD (7.172) 

TlfHl04|cHl' ^TTfcT ^ dR^^ I 


VSM describes kattara(=kattari) dindu but not dindu ; it also defines alagadindu as 
a dhavanalaga (see below): 

dlHMI^l ^1^ ^T: I 

f5pf*jjssf wRd4> 1l<4lWd: I 

=hTi<^4=h: I 

549ab. Rayapaksisaluva: VSM calls it rayapankasalava: 

?) ^ I 

STRTCM WlfRM5n( &:) I 

SD lacuna 

549cd-550ab. Alaga is a percussive manual technique (SR 6.894, p. 415), also 
called vicchurita. 

VSM: not described. 

SD: not described. 








































318 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


Vemabhupala, Sahgitacintamani , extr. Bharatakosa (p. 33): 

WT TJT: I 

fTtlrq ftsJcT^FTI 

also, ibid. extr. loc. cit. 


■5R0i cT*JT dftdd^ll j+H, I 

^Rd4> fcfr^i Jcf^Tdd ‘3|: I 
dl^ddd'i ifteblftd^ I 

550cd-551ab. Dhenki 

VSM ^T: ■gfrs-'TT: ^ dMS^wl I 

WJ?) TTgcff f<T*frj> f?«R^T ft«T^T $ «P^ I 
<3^1 Hds^ I 
x r^i i 

^ <T5T ^facTT l44jRfa: I 

SD (7.173) ^ FlWTTSfa: I 

WltM cT^T %^tfcT I 

551cd-552ab. BIsu is the correct form; visa , visa are got through graphic 
deterioration. Zftsuis a kannada word which means to swing, to turn round, to whirl, 
to wave, to throw, to blow, to mill, to grind etc. Its cognates are viju —Tamil; viju, 
viyu , visit —Malayalam ; biju — tulu; visaru, vicu, vivu, —Telugu; cf. vijana —Sanskrit. 

VSM—not described. 

SD (7.174) WFSM I 

md^-cr^uj ^ sfaj ^Tl5I 

552cd-553ab. Mungarana seems to be described only in NN. It is a kannada word 
(mum+karana> muhgarana> muhgan) which signifies an athletic or gymnastic feat, 
especially in native wrestling which consists of a somersault, landing with feet 
pointing to the front. 

553cd-554ab. Hingarana is found only in NN. It is a kannada word ( him+ karana 
< hihgarana> hihgan ) which signifies a somersault, landing such that the feet (and 
rest of the body) point backwards. 

555a. bahavo bhedah: This age (15th-17th century a.d.) must have been efferves¬ 
cent with creative activity in urupas, dhvadas and lagas. For example, VSM (ff.l7B- 
18B) describes eight dhavana-lagas (runningjumps) viz. dhehkijoda, acita, alagadinda, 





























COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


319 


paksisaluka , sundala , horamayi, adala and mahadinda as well as four sthala Ingas , i.e. 
stationaryjumps as defined by Tandu viz. hoyilu-horamayi, adala-horamayi , rayabhara- 
horamayi and kuncita-dantu. The former are called kathinakarma lagas while the 
latter are called ududyotpluta Ingas. Thus there are altogether twentyfour dhvada 
lagas. Some of the latter are extracted in Bharatakosa (pp. 238, 230, 7, 33, 343, 664, 
(-),479, 787, 9, 550 and 138 respectively). 

555c. lokavrtanusarena: As with any growing art, there was, at this time much that 
was evolved and practised by the practical exponents which had not become fully 
stable, uniform, clearly defined or generally accepted so that it had not found its way 
into theory or text books. Such a metastable condition is indicative of the healthy 
state of any art. This is why every important writer on the subject such as Bharata, 
Sarngadeva etc. acknowledges the inability of the sastra to comprehend the entirety 
of the art (including its regional and individual variations, innovations, moderni¬ 
ties, diversity of schools or traditions, recensions etc. in an art system which is based 
on individual attitudes, perceptions and conceptualisations within a framework of 
objective values and parameters) and rightly refers the student again and again to 
the contemporary practice of the art. 

Thus, for example, DSM describes twelve, dhvadas which were known (only) in 
professional parlance—‘ natabhasaprasiddhani — Viz. uduga, paramahga, vihahga, 
caturahga, arahga, manorama (pinda), pidama, pinnada, pidara, parida, panna and 
alaga (ff.72-97). These are found only in DSM. The descriptions of these may be 
extracted here: 

1. Uduga (f.73) 

■UHMKRfRSFT f^^TFT ff I 

ft*RTTFTf ^kTT FTt Vl+ilWI 1 I 
FFTFt fq-oqqi 'STfFTRT ^ I 
cTSFT ft? duels'? fq*Ha: I 
3T%cT q<°i ^cqi -c|=hHKife]d' cRT: I 
*TF ^ujlsld: yfdd'mi 1 

^Rt -WKdldl^RT FT: I 
SFJcrffaT FTt I 

^FTT FT: FTTcf I 

FtF ^ FTt FTT I 

^•HlfcdlcrH H-dMP^cl: I 

It may be noted that tiryagahcita utplutikarana , i.e. dhvada as synonymised with 
the desi name nihsahka. 




















320 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


2. Paramahga (f.76) 

3Tlf$l*AP^d ^nWr I 

f^TSPl'dlfedi ^Rf TfTgdT I 

fWRJSTT^f cT^I I 

cm: I 

3rf^^fd fttflgWdl <rlf$d»ir*+l I 
fiftWRT ^Rt <3^$l<sKdMd: I 
TfW I 


The ahghritadita can is shown inter alia with the desi name dust (f.77) and 
janghalahghanika, with visa(bisu)dantu laga (f.78) 

3. Vihahga (ff.80-83) 

TcT I 

^TfR'df I 


cfet cjfecT TOT TC: I 

^c-musd Rf^^rf^^ddM<dlPd4)l I 
^dicii ^ ^pT: fK^r Hpus^nRctii ■H^d, l 
$UsKUs&H ?n#T I 

4. Caturahga (ff.84-87) 

JWp^dKsii ^ ypNcM I 

^ cT«TT ^RT imwt) I 

faSRSRnfSTTOT WK<rldl-d<<rllfa«bl I 
^JgqKI ^ I 

fdfRTWf ^Pt5cqf|-dlP^dl I 
rRTTSRTsMt RRt W^RfoRT ^T: I 
HP^HPidd ddldlc^d cRT: I 
Raicp iJ.+ldldl^d cTd: I 
cT<T: H^STf HrHUs««b<ui I 





















































COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


321 


H«bHHR«bi ^sqicp cTM: I 

cf Hd£W< I 

5. Arahga (ff.87-90) 

3vii<sAfcra 3i«ira^T«ri <mt *i^p \ 

37Tto cK^dl ^ i 

3rFf oTf^T IFlTflcTOl^ I 

SIcTcTRTTcTRlT rRTf Quell'd). "5^:1 

TT^f\ WZ Vg£ ( ?) 

ddi-^MdlHlPM ‘R^tTcT: I 

6. Manorama(pinda ff.90-91) 

cldnVhlfid f^\ f^^RlT dd: Wp I 
^TSff dlfedl ^Tlff cTsnf^K ?3I) 

cfT** f^j ^ wl ^:^Tt W( ? fa:?) I 

'jxni d^Tt^^yoNQ^ l 
ddld'i TfcT: TftW Rl4<^^lRd^H5l' : D^ I 
ip=bldcfl %mP<«hi TTcTTcTT PdWlW) TTcT:l 

Daman is given the desi name gundala inter alia. 

7. Pinnada (ff.92-94) 



m MlPddlfad TJftelHmfa Sj^p I 


37T^f ^’T'fK^T'JTl^TT^r'^Ff I 


Trsq^t cfcf: WKPfdlPidl I 


onwt fastm ^ cm: wp I 









































322 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


aiflflffTOl ^ "cTcT: -g^:! 

cRTt d)£^) ^<*>9Kdl I 

TTQT^t t? ^d'l^IRd^ I 
^dldididldl ^ hPu^hRcM <ffi: I 
fifeKHIteHId dldHKl^T It I 


8. Pidara (ff.94-95) 

Mm TO ^ I 

dldMKI ^FT^rfsiJflT <Td: I 

^[feifWf fTr^T Tjtfcn fd4 J lf^ldH I 

X T2FI^ T I^T 1 JT: ( ?) I 

TO: ^WRH^UIddH. I 
3RT&s»^d*dd ^l^*ctic^ci: I 


9. Parida (6f.9f) 

■?T«JRi oR 11 ! I 

<*TWt dldMIdi cTd: ^T:l 
3if|-dirsd<H?ll ^ cRT: I 

3T9$tn TO: 3>dRdst> 4 ydR c wHf9 I 
W ch<4rM^[fd4> TO:I 
d^ldffd^l ■qSJ^ ^Hif+lddl TOT I 

Karasparsanika is known under the name mahadindu. There is a lacuna for one 
line at this point, which contains the name of the tala as kaladhvani and name of the 
dhvada as parida. 


10. Panna (f.97) 


r^rd^to 1 

=HU J H?f' 1 <Hd *4 TOT H^rHdlRdd, I 




































COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


323 


11. Anahga({.91) * 

^fasH-d % ^SMlfd+l I 

^ deft ^pcicni | 

^f W$fH°W (g<|ejTll fWrTSTT I 

dRrfft'^FTCTdSf^ TJfRTSdrftRTFdd: I 
'iKl dl<rH dcylit) 37Tjf | 

12. Alaga (f.94) 



WfW=Hd J |fn4fT|-d)^4irdd4 ddl I 



^raided4 f% II 


‘Puruokta here is pinnada dhvada. 

556-559. Bhraman also carries the desi name of tiripa and means to revolve on 
one’s own axis. 

559ef. anyasca... lokavrttitah: For example, VSM describes twelve tiripas (f.19) as 
follows: 

DSM contains others passim. 


cT*n i 


ddFdtfsrft ^T: I 

7§U'S7J^^HR=H i#^¥HU^I d^IT I 
dsh'HHRcW I 


dsne^ <*> RI 
Vll’rl rd'd-^f^Rl'KI^TT I 
Slq^cil^ MdRlI TTIUT ^dlRlVIK^: I 

Of these i. januprstha bhraman consists of a pair of patakas in caturasra sthanaka 
(with feet obliquely placed four ahgulas apart) spread to the respective side, right 
foot placed at the back of left knee, sikhara hands held above breasts and right hand 
revolutions are made to one’s capacity. 

ii. prapadabhraman: In caturasra sthanaka patakas are spread to respective side; 
sole of right forefoot lies on left forefoot; a left sikhara is held at chest while the right 
(sikhara ) is held downward above the head; body bends to the left while executing 
right -hand revolution. 

iii . svastikabhraman: Standing in the same posture as in prapadabhraman , hands 



















324 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


are arranged as therein, feet are crossed in svastika , sikhara hands are held above 
breasts, and a right-hand revolution is executed. 

iv. A ntarbhramari: Right sikhara in caturasra sthanaka at chest, left pataka is spread 
to the (left) side and brought to the front; next, the right ( sikhara) is spread to its 
side; sthanaka is samhata ; a leap is executed, followed by antarbhramafi (revolution 
to left with left foot kuhcita and fixed right foot). 

v. Khandasud bhramari: Left pataka is spread up obliquely in khandasud sthana 
while right hand is extended to the (right) side; both hands are now made sikhara ; 
left foot is placed above right knee; a right-hand revolution is performed three 
times. 

vi. Mandibhramari : In caturasra sthanaka pataka hands are spread out to the 
respective sides in madhya sahca ; alapadma is held over the head; right sikhara at 
chest; right ankle is placed over the left kneecap; revolution on the right is 
executed. 

vii. cakrabhramari : Caturasra-patakas'm talasancaare spread to the respective sides; 
then left hand touches the ground (eyebrow!); left foot is placed over the right knee 
in svastika four ahgulas apart; sikharas are held over breasts; revolutions are made 
to the right again and again. 

viii. Mandala bhramari : Patakas are spread to their respective sides in caturasra 
sthana ; then left hand is sikhara at chest; right hand is made tripataka; right foot is 
raised to waist level and stretched in front; revolution is executed to the right. 

i x. Janubhramari is the acme of bhramari virtuosity and is traced (improbably) to 
Matanga by Veda who ascribes other bhramaris to Kohala, Tandu and other ancient 
sages. A large, firm bronze vessel with two necks is taken with a little oil in it. A knee 
is placed over this; the other foot is stretched back. The first bhramari is performed 
leaning both hands on the ground: next, bhramari is executed with only one hand 
holding to the ground; then this hand is also taken back, revolutions are made like 
a potter’s wheel with great speed, with every self-assurance, more than ten, even 
hundreds at a time! 

x. Katicchinnabhramari : Alapadma (in right hand) is spread to the right side in 
mandala-sthanaka. The right foot, touching the (left?) side with all five like latahasta 
(text is not clear). The right side is bent to the waist and revolution is made to the 
left. 

xi. Karana bhramari : Leftpatakais spread to its side; right sikharais at chest; garuda 
is executed to the left; foot is moved to the left in vrscika formation. The right is 
made downward sikhara above the head; left side of body is bent to the left and 
revolved to the right. 

xii. Antarjanubhramari : In caturasra sthana left hand is spread to the leftside. Right 
hand is sikhara at chest; garuda is performed to the left; left hand is stretched to the 
front; right pataka is stretched to the right. Left fore foot is placed behind right 
knee; sikharas are held above breasts; revolution is made to the right. 





COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


325 


560-565. Sabdanrtta is different frown sabdacaB, which is described in VSM and 
DSM. SD (7.178-182ab) reveals almost literal correspondence with NN 4.2.560- 
564ab, and (in 7.177) with NN 4.2.564cd-565ab, and semantic correspondence in 
7.182cd with NN 4.2.561cd. The remaining description of sabdanrtta in SD (7.183, 
188) deals with sudasabda-nrtta and should be separated in the impressi typis. The 
latter portion of the text has much correspondence with that in VSM and DSM, 
including the pata phrases, which is described as sabdacaB. 

DSM (f.98) defines sabdacaB on the authority of Manamanohara thus: 

% WT: fffffcTT: I 

cl*TT fdfdMdl: I 

shHI^Tfel fd*f^d dl$: I 

dsJojeifcfafdSdlfcdlcrH "d I 
T1W IdVK TdTd; ... I 
(^t: Wt: ^1^31 ^Kdldl TdR(?) 

T$%d ^ fdfifdT; I 
WfWTdR*M df^%$RfdT4dl: I 
WT: lsl<hSl<J>dl: dtdT sFdld^hHWdT I 


and follows this with patas (or sabdas) to which foot movements are given (ff.99- 
104). This is summarised in a sangrahasloka: 


tPPf: WTfitd UTNIcT: did4d: I 


Sl^dldlsNIcH dcrf: dfHlfHd: I 



dlW: ddddllfa dTRd: I 


w4fa^di 1^T«7T«f( ?fWWf) 3W¥fHH, I 
ftrT fllHMd) *Td WTt: VK=Md^ | 
^ d T W^ i rdPHPdHll^HUH l I 

Tfpjfa: WIRT: 


W& ^-Hl4dird^-Hl4dP»fdl I 
ddrff? T^d: dd4 dd diTfd^W^ I 
d«ffT WIKKssi 3T8JcfT TTfd ddT I 















































326 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


=11 ftPRTl' I 

fam ^ fWdMdffefaarftfa: I 

*TcT( ToTO) dl<n'HHl<4l J lld s RfK'Hl 

*R®F*f cTc^R ^RT( ?^?) I 

5fK*Hdy«i'«nf^ ftftr: i 

d.TK^>i<fqfM fR^T 3f«W <g«s^> *y<;^ I 
^Kc|uf fgcfH HMtofHH . 1 
cT? TTFlf: ^T TJSJ ^fSFTt <=llfcfcb'^T«IT I 
f^T?§J "^STT FdddC ^Jcf: I 

3T^lf?J^cffT^T ■dTcffSZTT^ pH*fadl:l 
cf«Trff^TJIT I 

3Hlrf^fnn VKdu^sfcHIdff^ TT«TT I 
cT3 ^fWTFf $ Hldmi+^l^dM, I 
Ticf MUHMWft'lf^d^Hf’dldlfd I 

VSM (f.8A) gives the dance elements for sabdacalv. 

RTSTT ^idyu^Hu^aJ^^dl I 
^tftara wfa f^^RTT i 

VK^TcftcT^T ?faT I 


562c. Adyasabdaksarotpatti hetu seems to be an echo from Bharatarnava (991): 


?pdT#T t 
^iRVKI cTSTT-rU $ iff ^ I 


This may be compared with the syllables 'tat dhit thorn narri which are regarded as 
the first pata syllables in mrdahga. Haripaladeva ( Sahgitasudhdkara , 3.124-127) 
declares tad dhit thorn tern as the original (‘ suddha ) syllables generated on the 
mrdahga. Sudhakalasa (Sahgitopanisatsdroddhdra, 4.61-65) ascribes to Lord Siva the 
creation of the first syllables on the murajav iz. tad dhi thorn draim. This would appear 
to be a parallelism created by dancers and percussionists to the Nandikesvara Karikas 
on the Mahesvara Sutras:. 


'Jdld'HI') I 













































COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


327 


566. Yasya...tu: Compare with SD (7.204): 

TPlWd WU: I 

If? ^T: W: I 

567-576. Daksinena... samnirupayet: SD (7.205-212) reveals close textual corres¬ 
pondence. 

DSM treats the subject (f.112) but without the details found in NN. 

wi: i 

^tadl ^<=bui'H Piqid: e t>R^c|'liq v I 
3181 ^el:— trq *cfTFT ty : w^I: I 

fa^TT: WI: ^1: ^2^ I 

3FT 3 WlFffrl: fgfa; xrgnw cT81T | 

^1; ^ ^rl ^ I 

577-58lab. Svaramantha nrtya: SD (7.213-217) describes this dance somewhat 
differently: 

Any one among the sadja etc. svaras should be represented with (approximate) 
hand poses; dance is performed with talapuspaputa etc. karanas individually or 
together which are apt, in every direction according to the recitation of tattakara, 
in nihsaru tala, using pataka hasta\ then dance is performed with calakasset to tenaka 
in dhruva tala in vilamba laya; then occurs dance to a sabda khanda, i.e. a jati passage 
in yatigitaor yati ( tala} vadyaprabandha?) which is beautiful with hdva and bhdva and 
graceful with lasya movements. 

581cd-587ab. Gitanrtya: VSM ff.21B, 22A) discusses the subject under three 
heads. 

1 Sudadigita nrtta: Nrtta is performed in accordance with tradition and the word- 
sense of the song, composed by a vaggeyakara in sudadi tains. 

2. Prabandha nartana is performed to prabandhas (such as eld) composed by 
•- dggeyakaras in svaras, biruda, pata, pada, tala and tena conforming to these seg¬ 
ments; the sense of the words is represented in dance. 

3. Nanagitdsrita nrtya is performed by dancers to various songs set to different 
talas, according to the word meanings contained in (each) stanza (taken as a unit) 
with sthanaka, can, hand poses, karavartana, drsti bhedas, sirobahedas, ahga-upahga 
nartana and rekha, mudra and pramana. 






























328 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


587-602. Cindu is a folk form of music and dance oflamilian origin. It is known 
in Andhra and Karnataka also from at least the 15th century a.d. Some literary 
references maybe adduced to this effect from both reannada and Ielugu literature: 

Kannada sources: 

Astabhasakavi Candrasekhara (c.1430) ( Pampasthana-vananam , 90): 

^ J lPd 

Ratnakara-varni, ( Bharatesa-vaibharava 12.93, 1557a.d.); 1%^ 

... 

Caturmukha Bommarasa ( Revanasiddhesra Puranam 30, 38, c. 1500 a.d.): 

Virupaksa pandita (CennabasavaPuranam 12.29,1584 a.d.) Pdet=iHs^1 ^IId, 

Lihgapuranam (MS. No. 648. Insdtute of Kannada Studies, Mysore) <Pc1 ^'l-S*4)) 
Pd^d^P^dld 

It may be noticed that kolacan is mentioned as an independent dance form rather 
than a a variety of cindu here. 

Telugu Sources: 

Nudurupati Venkanarya ( Andhrabhasarnavamu 1.131): 

Prabandharaja Aehkatesvaramu (110): 

Gaurava (Dvipada Hariscandra-kavyamu (1.1055) P^^^sOg*^ ^^53 

Vennelakanti Surana ( Visnu Puranamu , 277) Pd^ 

In tamil cindu is a verse form, often of three feet, and is of many popular varieties: 
kavadi cindu (pilgrim’s song), vandicindu (bullock-cart song), nondicindu (drama- 
cindu ), nondicurul cindu (abridged nondicindu ), valinadai cindu (wayfarer’s cindu) 
etc. The cindus&xe employed both perse and in operas and terukkuttu plays in tamil. 

DSM (ff. 113-114) defines cindu generally: it is composed in a couplet, set to some 
tala with alapa ; its dhruva segment is however set to ekatali tala or jhampa tala; it has 
pillamuru and kalasa; both composed in jatis. It does not describe any cindu varieties, 
but the one given corresponds to what is called vida(-di) cindu by other authorities. 

SD(7.235-240) delineates two kinds of cindu : vida cindu and kala can cindu. The 
former is set in pillamuru and the latter, called kolacan by other writers and poets and 
kalacan in VSM, is composed in accordance with jdti (?jati?) and has tana , tala , sulu, 
ghargharika (q.v. infra); it is performed to the singing of cindu song, prefaced with 
yati (vadyaprabandha) , playing of tudi (dudi in kannada—a round frame-drum with 
a single membrane), and danced to many gatis and to the recitation of jatis, and 
concludes with kalasa. The dancer holds a trident while dancing. The cindu song has 
only two melodic segments— udgraha and dhruva but no abhoga. 




















COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


329 


VSM depicts (f.22B) distinguishes three forms of cinda: vidacinda, vacinda{}), 
svalpa-cinda, also known as kalacari cinda. Of these, vida cinda has two segments 
composed in bhinna tala and has no abhoga. Vacinda has three segments set to three 
talas, (appropriate) mana, and has abhoga. Svalpa-cinda has four segments set to 
bhinnatdla, a pillamuru and mana ; it has graceful cans, cakkara (?); it is also called 
kalacari; it is composed in tamil or Sanskrit. 

Mana is defined as a kind of alliterative euphony in caVis in DSM (f.124) while 
describing the tivata. 

MsfpRTtTtff ^ I 

cT^l fTHfi# W - sft cTtTT fW] fafe cfrU f%rf«r «jt facl=J7 

TjcTT frpTsff STtcTrTT EjtEftfasft I 

Suddhacindu of NN seems to correspond to the vidacinda of VSM. The other 
cindas viz. bidu-, tirnvani-, mala-, kattana- and gitamudra- are found only in NN. 
Similarly the details of dance prescribed or described for a cindu (NN 4.2.599-602) 
are not found in any other authority. 

603-609. Gharghara is described in NN as an explanatory adjunct of cindu, which 
is required to be performed to the profuse sounds of ankle bells. It is borrowed 
literally (without acknowledgement) from SR (7.1304-1314) which similarly de¬ 
scribes it in connection with the perani dance. 

Gharghara is developed to a high degree as a fine art, as an independent item in 
Kathak, more than in any other form of Indian dancing. It is amazing that this was 
already in vogue in South India with a high level of perfection in the early 13th 
century a.d. 

607d. Mrdanga (f-O)llola: loin, popularly known as ullola, is not a Rastapata of 
mrdahga but of hudukka (SR. 6.871, 872). 

611c. Paro’phyuhya: e.g. Jayasenapati (NrttaratndvaR, 7.50), Verna ( Sahgzta- 

tdmani ) and Kumbhakarna ( Sangitaraja ) also describe yet another variety of 
~harghara called rundha which consists of moving both forefeet simultaneously 
torward, a difficult performance. The origin or derivation of these names is not 
known. Their prakrta nature shows the existence of a stream of professional 
terminology among the dancing fraternity which was independent of Sanskrit. 

The earliest description of ‘cintu’ is found injayasenapati’s NrttaratnavaR { 1253- 
7.113-116) wherein its origin in the tamil country is unequivocally 
mentioned, replete with the respective kaku and riti. It is performed by lovely 
iamsels in the bloom of youth with a lasyahga called kittu (quivering of breasts, 
-boulders and hips to accord with tala, 6.139). The song is composed in couplets. 











330 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


The dance is performed to elucidate and augment the word meaning of the song 
(gitartha) which is set to metre and tala, accompanied with pata recitation of the 
instrumental compositions yati and praharana and hand cymbals. Dance includes 
graceful footwork and cans and lasyahgasr, and is interspersed with kalasas (rhythmic 
denouements). 

V. Raghavan adds more recent information on cindu (Introduction to 
Nrttaratnavali, p. 148): 

‘The cindu was being practised till very recently in Andhra desa by village 
communities as part of the festivals ( jatra ) of village deities. Processions were taken 
out with patahaor tomtom (called tambatta) and the singing of riwdu-songs. It was 
not unusual for some communities to use the cindu dance and song as an offensive 
against another local community by making them the subject of the cindu- songs, 
couch the songs in obscene terms and take out effigies of that community as part 
of the procession. Local riot and legal action resulting from cindu used to be 
reported in the Press.” (On 8thjanuary 1935, there were in Kurnool and Cuddapah 
districts riots caused by cindu dance and suits in MunsifFs court against its 
performance and these were reported in the Hindu of August 16, 1935.) ’ 

S. Ramanathan has rendered good service to the cindu form by preserving them 
in a book on ‘Kavadic-cindugal’ with original music. 

612-628. Dharu seems to be a term Sanskritised from the vernacular dam which 
is generally believed to be a vernacularisation of dhmval Since the term dharu 
< dhamvu > damva as well as the form lie intriguingly between dhmva and dam a 
brief discussion of both is warranted here. V. Raghavan held that dam has emerged 
from the dhmvas of ancient Sanskrit uparupakas (‘ Yaksagana' , Triveni, Sept.-Oct. 
1934, vol. 7, no. 2). The song dam is very largely used in yaksagana, bhagavata mela, 
koravanji etc. in Telugu. Veturi Prabhakara Sastri holds (Introduction to Sugriva 
Vijayamu, p. 6) that dhmva maybe sanskritisation of the telugu ‘ dam ’since the latter 
word is not found in the early Telugu yaksaganas, but songs are indicated to names 
of suladi talas such as jhampa, eka, triputa etc. Raghavan has dealt with dhmvas at 
length in the series of his contributions to the Music Academy Journal: ‘Music in 
Ancient Indian Drama’ (JMA, vol. 25,1-4). Both attempts at derivation of the word 
suffer from anachronism. 

Bharatamuni devotes the entire 32nd chapter of the NS to dhmvas. Dhmvais here 
a collective name for various kinds of songs such as rk, panika gatha and the 
saptampahga songs, which were employed in the theatre by ancient masters such as 
Narada (Abhinavagupta adds eight more: unmilita, amrta, visala, virala, utkrsta, 
vismta, viprakirna and udgata, NS. 32. 1-2, p. 289, vol. 4). Dhmva is so called because 
there is a constant mutual relationship between its various parts: vakya, varna 
(syllabic content/type of melodic phrase), alamkara (melodic phrase pattern/ 
figures of speech), yati, pani ( tdla-graha ) and laya. Further, dhmva is composed of 





COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


331 


fixed gitangas (elements of song). Thtis pravesiki has the gitangas viz. pravrtta, 
up av art a, vajra, sirsaka; addita has prastara, masaghata, mahajanika, praveni, upaghata\ 
avakrsta has mukha and pratimukha ; sthita dhruva has vaihayasika, antaharana ; 
khanda-natkuta has sarhharana and caturasra', antara is composed of sandhi and 
prastara. 

The application of a dhruva is determined by ten factors: theme or plot 
(geographicallocation),origin (divine/human),nature ( uttama, madhyama, hica), 
rasa, bhava, season, locality, time (day, night, month etc.), mental state and age of 
the character. Dhruva is limited to the use of nibaddha pada (word) set to specific 
metrical form, and is only suggestive of rasa in its scope. It is composed in terms of 
explicit or implicit simile ( aupamya samvidhana) in respect of the subject matter on 
hand; details of various metres used in dhruva composition and illustrations are 
given in NS, as also dispensation of gana, matra and tala. Dhruvas differ from one 
another in respect of vrttajati (i.e. syallabic content and dispensation per verse 
foot), prakara (type of vrtta such as sama, ardha visama and visama), pramana 
(duration of terms of tryasra or caturasra tala cycles), nama (assignment to roles in 
terms of their kulacara) and sthana (accruing to self or to others). 

Dhruva is classified in terms of phases of the play also: pravesiki dhruva is sung at 
the entry of characters according to the respective emotive and thematic situation: 
naiskramiki dhruva is sung in accordance with the thematic situation when all the 
characters exit at the end of an act; aksepiki dhruva is inserted in slow or fast tempo 
when there is a break off in fast tempo dance; prasadiki dhruvais sung to prepare the 
mind of the spectator to be susceptible to a mood or emotion to be introduced in 
the given situation. Antara dhruva is sung to fill up a gap e.g. when sagging under 
a heavy burden, swooning, falling down, sadness, forgetfulness’ anger, sleep, 
inebriation and concealment of faults. It is of two kinds viz. druta dhruva, sthita 
dhruva. Dhruvas are again prescribed for numerous physical, emotive and environ¬ 
mental situations. They are described in terms of temporal structure— kala, pata, 
laya, tala, marga and graha. Avasaniki dhruva (concluding dhruva) is composed in 
accordance with the required size, metre, syllable, caesural and metrical etc. 
requirements. Dhruvas are again classified according to various criteria: sirsaka is at 
the head of the plot; uddhata is rendered in vigorous style; anubandha is so called 
because it contains a sequential correlation among various factors such as yati , laya, 
instrumental pace, word, syllable, vowel etc. Vilambita is rendered conventionally 
in slow tempo; addita relates to intense erotic situation; apa(-va) krsta dhruva is 
rendered in deviation or divergence in the bhava', these are assigned to different 
kinds of characters in the play. 

Dhruva of Bharata should be distinguished from dhruva (of sixteen varieties) 
which is the first of salagasuda prabandhas; the latter are a special class of desi songs 
called suda, and despite consistently universal association with rasas, have no 
association with drama whatever. 




332 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


Dam is a musical form which is extensively used in operas and dance-dramas in 
telugu and tamil, with a theme on love, history, mythology or merely praise of a 
patron. Like the krti , it is segmented into pallaviy anupallavi (which is sometimes 
absent) and numerous caranas (usually odd in number) all of which are set to the 
same music. It is set to a single raga and single tala (which is often chapu tala). Its 
music is simple, unornamented and extends chiefly over the middle register and 
sometimes a little beyond. It is rendered in the middle-or fast tempo. It is rendered 
in a somewhat slower tempo in Bhagavata-mela. It is matupradhana rather than 
dhatupradhana i.e. it is functional than aesthetic. 

Daru is of several kinds, depending on its function in the plot. Patrapravesa (entry 
of a character on the stage: cf. pravesiki dhruva ), varnana (descriptive), svagata 
(soliloquy), samvada (antiphonal), uttara-pratyuttara (reply and rejoinder) pralapa 
(wailing) etc. Besides, there are others which relate to a particular activity such as 
kummiy kolata or pattabhiskha (coronation). Oradi daru has very long stanzas with 
numerous verse feet, sometimes set to madhyama kala (second speed). Subbarama 
Dlksita compiles two precious kafayi darns (Sahgitasampraddyapradarsiniy vol.l, 
p. 320; vol. 2, p. 1191) each of which has a word text of bimdas enveloped by pata 
passages in the beginning and end. Tyagaraja has used dams in his opera 
Naukacaritam. Tulaja (1729-1735 a.d.) has employed various forms of dam in his 
Sivakama Sundariparinayam: some have no pallaviy some no anupallavi , some no 
caranay some only one or more couplets. Many have only one or two caranas , and 
one, as many as seven caranas. 

There seems to be no single, uniform, structural criterion in the construction of 
dams. Some contain a concluding ( muktaya) svara passage at the end of the carana , 
and some, a sollu (pata passage). The latter is a dance form while the former is, 
largely, a musical form. Some combine both. In many darns the first or last carana 
is sung in a somewhat slower pace. All dams are not necessarily segmented into 
pallavi, anupallavi and caranas. Some are purely metrical e.g. dvipadi , catuspadi 
metrical structures (rhyming in 1-3, 2-4) etc. Astaka is a dam of eight couplets, 
divided into two parts in each of which the dhatu of the first couplet is repeated in 
the following three. These rhyme on the first second or last syllable. 

When a dam song is prefaced with nrtta , the latter dance element is aptly named 
is mukhajati. The element of dance on which the various segments of a dam 
conclude is called mukutajati. The concluding dance element of a dam is appropri¬ 
ately named antyajati. 

Subbarama Dlksita compiles seven dams in his SangitasamPraddya pradarsini 
(pp. 352, 659, 671, 760, 826, appx. II, pp.l, 137). One of these contains only pata 
passage at the end, two a mixture of svarasaxid patas\ one of Ramasvami Dlksita has 
an unusual structure. It has pallaviy anupallavi and one carana (in the raga 
gangatarahgini and tala: tisrajati eka): the word syllables in each tala cycle in every 



COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


333 


segment have a mirror-image symmetry and congruence, i.e. give the same passage 
when read from right to left e.g. sarasanayana sarasa ; saratararatasarasa etc. The 
others have simply the structure: pallavi , anupallavi and carana. His description of 
the dam (ibid., Sahgitalaksanasahgrahamu , p. 49, vol. 1) is inadequate: darn is based 
on srhgara rasa like pada , one carana is sung in a somewhat slower tempo, and some 
dams have two of three caranas. Among the composers of dam in Karnataka music 
the important ones are Melatturu Venkataramasastri, Ramasvami DIksita, Shahaji, 
Tulaja, Tyagaraja, NarayanaTIrtha, Svati Tirunal, Balusvami DIksita, Subbarama— 
DIksita and Muttayya Bhagavata. 

In the context of South Indian dancing, Nataraja Ramakrishna ( Daksinatyula 
Natyakalacaritra , pp. 152,153) describes both dam and pada dam. The former is an 
indispensable element of any bhagavata mela repertoire and consists of a word 
arrangement which gives much scope for sahcari bhava abhinaya, the raga , tala and 
laya elements are so modulated at every repetition of the same word text that it 
accords harmoniously with the abhinaya which is new every time. A pada dam 
consists of nrtta also besides sattvika abhinaya whereas the pada has only sattvika 
abhinaya. 

However, the dam described in NN here is quite different from its namesake 
modern form and from the form described in DSM, VSM and SD. Thus SD 
describes desi kattari and dharu separately, the latter including the former. Dharu 
(SD 7.253, 254) is composed in telugu, with only dhmva dhatu but without udgraha 
and abhoga (-e.g. only caranas- mentioned above this seems to violate the sastra 
apophthegm that a prabandha cannot be constructed with only one dhatu element); 
consists of four or five such segments according to some; this is not acceptable to 
vet others, for there is no uniform rule in the practice of dharus. SD is influenced 
by NN in its descriptions of patti (7.255, 256), sulupa (7.257) and pada (7.258). 

DSM (ff. 116,117) also separates the dharu from kattara-nrtya. Dharu is composed 
in only one dhmva segment (without udgraha and abhoga) in telugu, tamil or 
kannada in eka tala ; some prescribe the use of rife and sama'm the dharu (cf. Bharata’s 
definition of dhmva , NS 32.1, 2) while others do not concede it. An excerpt from 
a pada text is also given. 


WFR cTT#T SjcTSTSTT I 


'H^dlcrfUrcial ^i^ll cTcTt 'H^ct I 



: 'foseT I 


U > <+>dl<r i li ^ cH-RW (?) I 

( I|01|) TTWtTFM'MlR Wfaft yoAd 

ifa -q^ I TRft 3TRT ^ Wff H+dldt ! 

















334 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


snt TR ^fcT ^TT ... I 3T?Tft Js'KIdN ^tt 4( ?)*fFto 


PdcidiRci ^sfq cT«n fqgpp fafa: i 


chdlW^R Ijcfci^ci ff | 


3T#fTt?T^ ¥TOf^(:) I 



R^d «T^tT HdiblfcKI: I 

Wlf#TWp ^dldd | 

qratf«lfypHld«H*p I 

HdKlt^lc) eT% *FR% ^g<T WT I 
^d>J|hi efcdciufowTcll: I 
^ifa «IP% RRPl'JIW^ I 
4)^<ld4 I 

DSM describes kattara nrtya separately (ff.l 18-125). 

VSM (f.23A) also describes dharu and kattara as separate dances: Dharu consists 
of four segments, pillamuru, kaimuru, graceful movements and presented with 
novelty (camatkara ). 

614c. ArddI is described in NN as a vddyapmbandha (2.110, 11 lab); SD (7.249) 
gives addn (probably a corrupt form of arddi) as synonymous with mallikamoda and 
tuduka. Mallikamoda is also a desi Jafa defined in Nfsl (1.145ab) as Moooo. Tuduka is a 
vadyaprabandha well known to the percussionists since the 12th century a.d. and is 
described by Somarajadeva, Somesvara, Sarngadeva, Vemabhupala etc. ( Bhara- 
takosa , p. 252): It is an instrumental (percussive) composition used in dipta (lively, 
fast) dancing; it is composed of suddha patas and kuta patas\ it is found sometimes 
in a very fast tempo in actual practice. According to some, it is rendered in a single 
segment, one of udgraha , dhruva or abhoga ; according to others it is performed in 
the sequence udgraha-dhruva-abhoga-udgraha. Sarngadeva provides an illustration 
in ekatali tala (SR 6.989-991pr. p. 446). 

$ 3 cT«if Tl^fasfKT: V& % J l'HlPl: sJPld<* f«PF#l2 I 

Addi has survived in the traditional dance of Andhra. It consists of rhythmic 
movements of eyes, neck, head, hands and feet to the recitation of pata phrases 
including ‘ tam , tatai, tai,jaga, dattam ’with a suitable tempo but without accompa¬ 
niment on the mrdanga. Addi (addajaggu in Kannada) means rhythmic movement 
of neck horizontally. Addi is also called ‘ kanthabharana' and ‘mai’ (Nataraja 
Ramakrishna, Daksinatyula Natyakalacaritra, p.151). 


































COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


335 


615cd-616ab. Tatatt...pariklrtitah: SD(7.252) borrows with literal correspon¬ 
dence; ‘rdhitam’ may be retained if the previous line (615cd), i.e. asvara pata 
rendering; ‘sahitam’ is appropriate if ‘gitam’ is taken as ‘sung’, i.e. sasvara pata 
rendering. 

617cd. Pillamuru, kaimuru: vide commentary NN 1.89-92 

618-622. Trih....nigadyate: This seems to extend beyond dharu laksana into 
suliipa. 

620a. patti: SD (7.255, 256ab) has a parallel passage, but prescribes telugu 
language. Patti is well known in Karnataka as a musical technique since the 12th 
century a.d.) Rudrabhatta (Jagannathavijayam , 5.3): 

cEmHh sjfqsB Mfg<=biPei ... 

623a. Kalasa is a rhythmic climax or denouement in the middle of a dance. 
According to Devannabhatta ( SangitamuktavaH, extr. Bharatakosa, p.122) it is a 
finale of a song or dance, which synchronises with tala and laya. Here, it is a desi 
lasyanga. VSM (f.23B) defines it as a rupaka (visual form), composed of many kinds 
of patasabdas, interspersed with yati, containing pillamuru in the middle and 
possessed of an attractive ( tala)graha. Asokamalla describes six varieties of kalasa 
( Nrtyadhyaya 1566-1611, pp. 167-183): vidyut, khadga, rnrga, baka, plava and harhsa, 
further divided into six, four, one, four, four and three (totally twenty two) 
subvarieties respectively. These are given by Kumbhakarna also (Nriyaratnakosa). 
Asokamalla defines them as follows: 

1. Vidyutkalasa: 

cl«lT 1dl=bl<H 1 

fcrqrfcT ^TRT: d<lRci: I 

2. Khadgakalasa 

q<4|t|^|c>tRTt T? I 







3. Mrgakalasa 




































336 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


^UflWddlPeidl I 
*Ru|{Jd4l ^ I 

fqp=i?qi ijMiId'h: i 

4. Bakakalasa 


^n4m4Uric 


' : Jr^'?T ■h1b c ( '^fT^ <+iciI'H 1 <M=h>j4 < =h: 


5. Plavakalasa 


IWPRTT ^5<^,e4 ^4 ^ ^ IZt I 
RSftft f^qdldieb’UPddl I 

cf^T yld>: <=h<rii^: yq^4 , =6:l 

6. Hamsakalasa 

6^1 ^T? $*flq icRhl I 

W ^fd t^rra: <*d W: : I 


Kalasa seems to be unknown to Sanskrit lexicographers, but has been known in 
kannada since about the 11th century a.d. as a finale in song or dance. Numerous 
literary references are available; only some excerpts are included below. Thus, 

Ranna (c. 1007 a.d. Gadayuddha, 1.39) <4lH 'Hiq^jH jRl'b^UdR^ 

Harihara (c. 1200a.d . Ayanarara Ragale, 182.8) ■qiR-HdlciTR qqt'lKH ... qiR^q 

«bidddPH^ 

idem. (Bhrhgisvara ragale, 14.2)... fd < -Hgd q>l<rll*HRRl-St) 

o 

Raghavanka (c. 1200 a.d. Hariscandrakavya, 7.6) 

fipfl ^TocTO d»«lc|u) d l df^-d ^ q'cfiuRj ^Tfe 

Lakkana Dandesa (1428 a.d. Sivatattvacintamani, 32.39) ^K^lRl f*Md cT>T 
d u ^H ^5 IlHMir^Rl'M Pm cTfrRR <*dW J l)$c| 

Kumaravyasa (c. 1430 a.d. Bharata, Bhismaparua, 3.58) HNI^Riqx; 4H-Hl£H< 
^IdmddRcl^j, I 



























































COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


337 


Nilakanthacarya (1485 a.d. Aradhyataritra, 8.37) lid l T>dldH Tff^Ft dl^rl 

Narahari (c. 1500 a.d. ToraveRamayana, 4.4.35) Rfl^Rl^l e McllHa u l< chRlRl'l^'ld 

Ratnakaravarni (1557 a.d. Bharatesavaibhava, 12.38) HyctJp'-i'S odT. c 4tR c I c t>e1IH c HR^ i 
■R^rr^fdfTT 

Virupaksapandita (1.584 a.d. Cennabasavapuranam, 2.29) cRld'qiR'ld, 

0l^l l c-4»d ra HPcf^d yqq«HMH 

(ibid., 50.53) HlddlPTTd cjfrj Pl^'id 

Govindavaidya (1648 a.d. Kanthlrava-narasaraja-vijayam, 8.32) cl <> F u I i K icl y b M P<Tel 
HRsRdTi^ciiRi^'ld cTtft ‘Htdid ^ifefRTFT 

Sadaksaradeva (1655 a.d. Rajasekharavilasam, 5.19 pr.) HctadplcoaiciR qlnPlRidlip 

<$<dHH J lPd d'lPelPn 

Venugopala Varaprasada (1672 a.d. Cikkadevaraya Varhsavali, 133) '*!pt<rN- 



Besides the above references, kalasa is well known in kannada yaksagana for at 
least some 300 years as a medial or ultimate finale in dance. ‘ Kaimare’ is the literary 
form of 'kaimuni occurring in-dance treatises. 

624. Kattane has cognates in South Indian languages; kannada— kattana, kattane, 
kattona,kattada etc. Telugu-feattora; tamil-fcattaria; malayalam— kettu, kettaka, tulu— 
kattana, kattalme. It means building, construction, ‘ bandha -tying up together etc.: 

‘ kattane-bandhaparyayah' —NN 4.2.614a. It is sometimes used as kattara and kattari 
also. In the context of music and dance it connotes jatis constructed to carry out 
events in even pace in accordance with tala. Several references to kattane are found 
in kannada literature e.g. Caturamukha Bommarasa’s Saundarapuranam, (1.114), 
Ratnakaravarni’s Bharatesavaibhavam (65.5), Govindavaidya s Kanthirava narasaraja- 
vijayam (8.64), Bhaskara’s Jivandhara Carite (11.7) etc. 

VSM mentions the general character of kattara thus (f.23A): it has alapacan 
(= gajara vadyaprabandha, NN 1.61) composed of patas, and seven segments set to 
seven different talas', it includes cakkara, pillamuru and mana; it is interspersed with 
kaimuru and kalasa. According to others, it has five, eleven or twentyone segments. 
Veda then mentions that the kattaras number as many as 360; he mentions a few 
which are by and large ethnic or folk: dasavatara performed by brahmanas in 
.Andhra, perani, bait gab, kama, paraspara, yogini, matavaR, kola, gopala, suka, matangi, 
daravesi (holy mystic of Islam), pasa, jarasl (Persian), raoul, vorvi, sultanl, rasa, runji, 
mohana, mala, phirahgi, sihghana, malavi, garudl, mundl, sabala, gujjari, radha, jammi. 

































338 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


cataki, bhilR, vlra, mohim-bhasmasura-nartana, silindhn, ravana and bhlma. Among 
these, it describes only four viz. bahgali, kama, paraspara and kuranji; it rests content 
with the observation that the kattaras are practised in many varieties in Karnataka. 

On the other hand, DSM (fF. 118-125) depicts kattara as composed of 3, 4, 5 or 6 
stanzas, each set in a tala other than ekataCi, in which the dhruva segment is set; some 
require that each stanza should have a different tala-, some, a vdkya (prose passage) 
rendered in alapa inserted into the kattara. The danseuse, specially dressed and 
ornamented, stands beautifully behind a transparent curtain and dances to a sabda 
passage with camatkara and can, followed by dance to yati ( vadya ) prabandha. At the 
end of this, the curtain is raised; she stands in a special picturesque sthanaka. She 
performs pillamuru, sabdalapa, pillamuru again for each stanza of the song and ends 
up with a kalasa. This is the general description of desi kattara. DSM then proceeds 
to describe the following kattaras: kuranji, bahgali, kama, paraspara, sabalakari, 
kahjavati, bhairava, naga, kulavani, mohana, bala, cintamani, pasa, suka, gopala, 
matahgi, yogini, vasanta, bhilti, koka and mattalli. It also mentions the total of known 
kattaras as 360. 

Ramakrishna Kavi has called kattada as jati nrtya, i.e. dance by particular castes in 
their characteristic costume, style and manner. He names twelve such kattads from 
an unspecified source and gives vernacular synonyms (shown here in brackets); 
mukhavan, dhannala, virabhadra, yogini, kuravahji, simhaghataka, kuluvari, varasari, 
bhairava (jakkini ), dandaghattana(kalapa), kolavani ( kolusi) and sahkirna(Bharatakosa, 
p. 102). He also compiles a description of kattaji from an authority which he 
(improbably) identifies as Somesvara (ibid., p. 810): 

^JTSR ^ ^ d^dHHd: I 
■Jd: ^1 I 

fasiPT ^ ^ I 

Tic? cfcg(j-jr4 ‘FIT^ W#T I 

^sIS^l I 

629-636ab. Dhruvapada is also ‘ dhrupada ’ in DSM (f.126), 'drupada in SI) (7.272; 
also dhruvapada, 7.272) but dhruvapada in VSM (f.24); and 'dhraupada in AS (title 
for 1.165,166, but dhruvapadain description), which bears considerable correspon¬ 
dence to NN text. This is dhruvapada nrtya, based on the song dhruvapada. However, 
the song bears little or no relation to what is now known as dhrupad in Hindustani 
music, though the dhrupad was known well and practised at the time and place the 
NN was composed, viz. the royal court of Akbar. DSM (ff. 126-128) enumerates and 



















COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


339 


describes eight (mentioned as ten) litnbs of dhruvapada. i. Cad. beautiful move 
ments of head, shoulder, waist and feet with innovative glances and hands to ekatdli 
in madhya laya. ii. Tivata bandha consists of occasional, medial cads in madhya and 
druta layas and mdnas, set to recitation of tivata syllables, iii. Mana repeating same 
or similar syllables euphonically with progressive increase in parts, iv. Gana 
is performing abhinaya to the song-meaning by repeating the words (stanza?) 
in a good raga. v. Manomada: not intelligible cf. Nandi (extr. Bharatakosa^ 

p 471 I ^ 

HH) II (sammatam = sthanakam; caturasra = gati ) vi. Vrtti is profusion of 
abhinaya. vii. Vivasata is the state of the dancer in which he becomes stock still due 
to total involvement in a situation surcharged with bhava and rasa. viii. Rasapurana 
is also called vibodha or rasabodhaby experts; it consists of unexpected horripilation 
and trembling of the body in an (aesthetically) intense emotive situation and 
(involuntarily) innovates slight smile and glance, ix. Talapurana consists of tiripas 
(to complete residual tala portions), x. Madhura bhasa is sweet language. 

VSM (f.24) depicts dhruvapada nrtta as follows: the danseuse performs dance to 
the singing of druvapada gita with beautiful bhava arising out of kdntd, hasya etc. 
glances, along with various gatis (cans), bhava, mukharaga etc., with gentle disposi¬ 
tion oflimbs, and /iaua illuminated with smiles; the dance iscomposed in khandamana 
and shaking of the body now and then. The dhatus are set to words of madhyadesiya 
bhasa (cf. giwana-madhyadesiya bhasa, NN 4.2.629ab, which means Sanskrit and 
Chattisagadhi Hindi), and consist of udgraha, dhruva and abhoga; according to some, 
it has no udgraha ; according to others, it has no abhoga; according to yet others, it 
has neither udgraha nor abhoga, thus justifying the name dhruvapada (because pada 
is set to dhruva dhatu only). It indicates srhgdrarasa through movements of eyes and 
eyebrows. 

VSM is indebted (without acknowledgement to SD 7.272-277ab) for description 
of l drupada' nrtta, which has a colophon: iti vaipotakhyam-nrtyam. 

■#4 cbMKIWlfcsrK^ I 

HHHlfddT^^N^fHIlR'H^cFl I 

^ e b u IHH, I 

cRT 3#^ | 

■SfFTCTt ^^n*434TW m SfTcra: I 

^TF^^T3j)j||^|«4 ft I 























340 


NARTANANIRNAYA 





636c. Anibandha nrtta, i.e. dance which is not configurational and is not 
specified in respect of gatis etc. 

640-64lab. Namavall isbasicallyamusicalform, mentioned briefly by Astavadhana 
Somanarya in his Svarardgasudhdrasa, also called Ndtyacuddmani (MS copy in Sri 
Varalakshmi Academy, Mysore) and a familiar song pattern among the Haridasas 
of Karnataka and is mentioned by Purandaradasa in his song ‘ vasudevana ndmavaliya 
klrptiyanu'\ it is also well known as a devotional song form in marathl. Namavall 
occurs as a congregational devotional song in Sanskrit, kannada, telugu and tamil 
also. The song consists of a string of names (hence the name, nama-avali) of God 
and is set in aditala to simple music which is completed in one, two or four tala 
dvartas. The Namdvati is repeated several times and concluded by a declamation by 
the leader with a pundanka ( pundadnkavaradagovinda’) to which the participants 
reply with ‘ govinda It is a popular form in both harikathd and bhajana and is often 
rendered in antiphony by two groups (spontaneously formed by the devotees). 

Namavall is first described as dance form in NN and elaborated into a classical 
dance form in VSM (f.7B. cf. Bharatakosa, p. 327), which apocryphally antiquates 
the form by ascribing it to Kohala: 

^ ^ FcrfcT I 

<TcT: ^ | 

"3*: FTSfcTl I 

’H^lfcdlcrH ^ddHNdld l H ' I 

Iqildl'f-q FRTT 7^1 I 

F? dc^K*!®-) ^ cTcT cRT ^ 

dc*i<: | 

Thus it was composed in 4,5 or 6 segments and sometimes employed in humour. 

VSM (loc. cit.) also gives an illustration for NamavaB composed by his royal 
patron, Shahaji: 






























COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


341 


*PT TfPTTf 'KMk I 
sMdfHdMd^dH-dU I (SjcfWO 

f^TfcT $*p*l <rFTfd ( P^HMfd?) l( S> ) 

«bfed<mPdd«tHd>fH*Hft I I (3 ) 

3> u 'ScriHiP J sdcifcid < 4)Hl^ I <MiidH'ilq^H(qdl<^ I ( ? ) 

J^Hfcunenfeuipjld^ I MddrddmdHlrtb'h'MI^ I (*) 

^^d-qP4dd1<rRi(A I 4s;D<q<j)d^1<HHU I (H) 

WI(?H)?k(?q)?W^ | WWdN*) «l|dl<ri I (^) 

ifir HiMNdl 

641cd-642ab. Yati is also a vadyapabandha (NN 1.86-91) ; it is the final, parentheti¬ 
cal segment of suladi (salagasuda) prabandha , set to the yati tala. The yatiprabandha 
is of four kinds: Vila, sung in karunarasa ton tala consisting of a pluta and has thirteen 
syllables per verse foot; andolita , with fifteen syllables per versefoot, is sung to tala 
II f ° in xfira and srhgara rasa ; kaumudi has seventeen syllables per verse foot, sung in 
hasya rasa to lalita-tala (5 * 1 ); harhsamala yati has nineteen syllables per versefoot, 
sung in santa rasa to a tala consisting of 000005 ( Subharhkara , Sangitaddmodara, 2, 
pp. 27, 28) 

Yatinrtta (VSM f.8A) or yatinrtya (SD 7.131-134) is performed to an extremely soft 
pata recital composed of patasor those believed to emerge from the mouths of Lord 
Siva set to asta(=adda) tad or ekatali (SD: caccatputa tala , with euphony of recurring 
same or similar syllable), performed to a segment of vadyaprabandha , composed of 
many pauses and repeated again and again. Dance is performed with the stamping 
of feet to the kutapata syllables evenly, side of the foot, forefoot, tip of the foot and 
heel ( astataVi : 00 1|). 

VSM (loc. cit.) proceeds to give the pata texts of astataVi yati and ekataUyati : 

Astatall yati: 

o^To filfchdo cfFfTSTfo | cffao f^lfcbdf^fchdloo S^jjo cT^cTT | 

cTrT^ 1 ( 0 = fWT:) 

Ekatali yati: 

d«2fllo farlo I'WTO fildi dkfd cft^o dfd J l <|0 sjrjTo «pno dtSHf<l([o 

*4<iPl u l° RPlfcPlo Tfrf^fo ^^10 ^hPi«o cfrf^pHieRo dd^Md^o cTtf^jo ^HTSTfo 8j «jtTT 
sp «ffo crentfo ^ Tno ^F*p«n i 

642cd-645ab. Adi...smrta: For discussion of these anibandha neris, see commen¬ 
tary NN 4.2.486-490. 
































342 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


645cd-646. Kaivartana: ‘Kai is hand ( =kara , hasta) in kannada, telugu and tamil; 
vide Asokamalla ( Nrtyadhyaya , 708-753, pp. 69-74) for thirtysix hastavartanas , 
including twentyfive according to Hanuman. 

647. Muru, also muru, is derived from muruvu , mumhu (kannada) which means 
to bend, to curve, to twist ( = motana , Sanskrit). Muri (kannada) also menas to turn, 
to twist etc. cf. kaimuri , Bharatakosa , p. 148. 

DSM describes muru (f. 70) thus: patra assumes utkata\) 0 $e, does {tala) sancawith 
feet sideways apart at two spans, rotates above the ground stretching out tripataka 
hasta to her front; she rotates the body in all directions in pahcama tala or ekatala in 
drutalaya. 

VSM (f.l6B) is more detailed: 



ffe R teUsK 'RFI f?R: I 

cMdfgiPi WR d«bKU|^ | 

648. Rattaimuru: (i) Rattai (tamil) means doubled; here, it means muru (turn¬ 
ing) again and again. 

649. Talarupaka: see commentary NN 4.2.498, 499 for. bandha talarupa kvadas. 
DSM speaks (f.56) of talarupa thus: 

iR tm: cT«TT I 

dld^H R rT^fgSTT I 
dMxildfZ I 

Thus it consists of arbitrary movements of feet or arbitrarily chosen ( bhanavie tc.) 
gatis or cam performed any desired tala employing handposes of one’s own choice. 
This is why it is anibandha nrtta. 

650. Gundala is the name of an aquatic grass, scirpus kysoor ; also called jalodbhuta , 
or gucchavadhra. However, it is known to kannada literature from the 15th century 
a.d. Caturmukha Bommarasa (c. 1450 a.d. Soundarapuranam, 8.10): 

4kdr<4 'cTtft HfiMjcSl 

Santalingadesika (c. 1670 a.d., Bhairavesvara-kavyada-katha-sutra-ratnakara, 258): 
ftdqf'R 3 u -sid cholic ... 





























COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


343 


651. Malaka is swaying according to aditala in a fast manner (DSM f.70). If 
sthanaka according to VSM (f.llB) in which both hands are sikhara at chest in 
mandala sthanaka, in sausthava, back is bent, head is shaken again and again when 
the dancer is facing away from the spectators. 

652. Mandi is a Kannada word which means knee. It occurs in kannada literature 
frequently as an element of nrtta involving the knee. Asokamalla describes mandika 
(extr. Bharatakosa, p. 454) as the fixing of both feet on the ground and rapidly 
turning the left knee to the right and vice versa. 

653. Mudupa is the back of the toes (the surface with hair and fingernail) in the 
professional parlance of dancers according to Asokamalla ( Nrtyadhyaya, 1080ab, p. 
108): ahguBprsthabhagam hi nrttajna mudupam jaguh'. DSM (ff.69-70) expresses two 
views of mudupa: trembling of the forefeet according to the rasa tala in fast tempo; 
the dancer fixes toes and heels on ground, dances appropriately to the dvitiyatala. 
Mudupa is the vernacularisation of madhupa (or madhupa the sanskritisation of 
mudupa). Kallinatha extracts ( Sangitakaldnidhi , commentary SR 7.1017-1018, 
pp. 313-317) twentyfive madhupa desi cam from Kohala. 

654. Murandarl is described only in NN ‘muruntu (kannada) is to contract, 
shrink, double up, turn back etc.; 'murunda ’ (telugu) is a small aquatic animal; (is 
a small aquatic animal; 'muranda ’sanskrit) is the country Lampaka (nowLamghan) 
in Kabul; ‘ murunda (sanskrit) is the name of an ancient king, his dynasty or people. 
However, these meanings do not appear to be relevant to the anibandha urupa, 
murandari. Verna ( Sahgitacintamani , extr. Bharatakosa, p. 499) describes a figurative 
dance viz. murudi in which four danscuses dance at the centre while three others do 
so obliquely in each quarter. Apart from phonetic proximity, this also does not 
appear to be relevant. 

655-656ab. Kudupa (sanskrit) means the clasp or fastening of a necklace or 
bracelet; kudapa is a measure of two joined palms ( Vaijayantikosa, 5.1.53). Kudupu 
(telugu) means a meal or an item of food, enjoyment of an object, a living. In 
kannada it is derived from the verb kudu = to strike with (cognates in tamil, telugu, 
malayalam = kottu, in tulu = koru). Kudu (noun, kannada) being bent, curved 
(Kesiraja, Sabdamanidarpanam, Prayogasara, 53). Its cognates are: telugu— kovali, 
tamil— koda, malayalam— kodda. Therefore kudupa (kannada) means a stick or rod 
curved at the end used for playing on drums (drumstick) or branding (animals), 
applications of collyrium to the eyes, thrashing cotton etc., by extension, it also 
means a bent body (in dancing). It is borrowed into the musical parlance to mean 
a stick to play a drum with ( =kona, sanskrit) and is thus used in musical literature 
(e.g. SR 6.1074,1084,1117etc.) and in kannada poetry from early 10th century a.d. 
(e.g. Pampa, Adipuranam, 9.32; Nemicandra, Ardhanemipuranam, 4.140; Bahubali, 
Dharmanatha-puranam, 6.89; Kumaravyasa, Bharata, Dronaparvam, 1.47). 

Kudupa is described as a padamani (foot movement) by Verna ( Sahgitacintdmani, 
extr. Bharatakosa, p. 139): one foot is sama\ the other with raised heel, stamps the 
ground on the sides. 




344 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


657d. Tirya is sometimes used for tiryak (Monier Monier-Willams, A Sanskrit- 
English Dictionary, p. 447). 

658. Lavani is briefly described in SD (7.159ab) as the rotation of the torso to 
accord with the pancama tala. VSM (f.l4A) however, is more elaborate and calls it 
lavana; see comm. NN 4.2.470cd-522ab. 

660cd-664ab. Jakkadi also assumes theword- forms jakkari, jakkini, jakkadi, 
jhakkini etc. and denotes both a folk dance and semiclassical dance which was very 
popular in Karnataka, Andhra and Tamilnad for several centuries . Jakkini, jakkulu 
etc. denote a gypsy tribe of soothsayers; Kanakadasa, a Haridasa of Karnataka lists 
such tribes in his song ‘kaniya helabande nanu ekkanati, kati,jakkini, jalaje, in telugu, 
jakkini ( < yaksini, Sanskrit) means the consort of Kubera; jakkini means a married 
dead woman whose husband is alive, jakkulu is a nomadic tribe, living on sorcery and 
worshipping seven sister goddesses of whom Kamesvari (=Mahalaksmi) is the chief 
deity. 

Kannada and telugu languages abound in literary references to jakkini (also 
called jakkadi). 

Kannada: Astabhasa kavi Candrasekhara ( Pampasthana-vananam , 90): 

3HI-<tfo5cT HkdK 3TT^fo3 

Caturmukha Bommarasa (Revanasiddhesvara puranam, 30.38): 

Kanakadasa ( Mohanatarahgini , 18.7): 


Virupaksa Pandita ( Cennabasava Puranam, inter alia ): 

Ratnakaravarni ( Bharatesavaibhava ): 

US ddfafofefli (1.58) 

41*1*114*^1** ... $ foci <1*1 <^< 3 , (12.29) 
Pd44#% (12.105) 

4*>-ARMd Hl<dK ^iftqR HI*I<|R< 3 , (74.9) 


Govindavaidya ( Kanthlrava-narasaraja-vijayam, 8 .66): 



<M+UH +ge)'MI<d J '[d 4l‘d4t<;'R 4 Kmfsqt'lW 










































COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


345 


Telugu: 

Nudurupati Venkanarya (Andhrabhasamava Nighantuvu, 1.130): 



Ayyalaraju Ramabhadra ( Ramabhyudayamu, 2.231): 

^>fdq> nfcdR 

Vennelakanti Surana ( Visnupuranam, 7.277): 

Savaram Cinanarayana Kavi ( Kuvalayaryacaritra , 2.92): 

Kanuparti Abhayamatya ( Kavirajamanoranjanamu , 3.88): 

' J lfeP u lci< 4 ci v 5)^11 VlftRta Hli'bVIMdH 
Vallabharaya ( Kridabhiramam, 136, p.33): 

^q^T%e|fdcH°b»dfcK^ c >f| 7f Rfqu| 

3,ftifq>3cq>4*^ ■^FTcRT^) ^fqqi-§ faPifq-^ 4)d J R 





^IHclrtl 




Cengalvakalakavi ( Rdjagopalavildsamu, 1.33 sisapadya) mentions the following 
specialist danseuses in the royal court ofVijayaraghavaNayaka of Tanjore: Rupavati 
— caupada, Campaka—‘ Sabdacudamant, vadhud— jakkini, Komalavalli— koravu, 
Lokanayika—new padas, Sasirekha— desi, Ratnagiri— durupada, Bhagirathi— perani. 
The ruler, Vijayaraghava Nayaka was himself a musician who composed many 
song forms, including jakkini, adhyatma sahkirtana, srngara pada, daru, eld, valviji, 
gujjari, dandalasya, allika, koravanji, kopu, desicaupada, dandaka, ragada, vacana, 
-dngatya and prabandha. He describes in his Prahladacaritra-yaksaganamu various 
dance forms including koravanji , jakkini, durupada, sarada samrajya, cindu, 
'apakadamba etc. 






































346 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


Ekoji who ruled Tanjore from 1736 to 1739 a.d. patronised Muddumanga, a 
great danseuse who danced many varieties such as jakkini, padacali, tullal and 
abhinaya ; she was presented with a tassel of pearls every time she performed in the 
royal court. The following dance forms were patronised and performed in the 
courts of the Nayaka and Bhosle rulers of Tanjore: durupada, kelika, perani , pekkana, 
kundali, kuravahji, padacali, jakkini, sivalila, gujarati, desi etc. (Seetha, S, Tanjore as 
a Seat of Music, inter alia ). 

Jakkula are described in the Madras Census Report of 1901, Nellore Manual as 
an inferior class of prostitutes mostly of balija caste, and as wizards, a dancing and 
theatrical caste. It was customary in Tenali in Krishna District for each family to give 
up one girl for prostitution. She was ‘married’ to any chance comer for one night 
with the usual ceremonies. Under the influence of social reform the members of 
the caste entered in 1901 into a written agreement to give up the practice. A family 
went back on this, so that the head of the caste prosecuted the family and the 
‘husband’ for disposing of a minor for the purpose of prostitution. The records 
state that it was resolved in 1901 that they should keep the females as girls but should 
marry them before they attained puberty, “the deeds of the said girls not only 
brought discredit on all of us but their association gives our married women also an 
opportunity to contract bad habits and all our castemen....” 

(Thurston and Rangachari, Castes and Tribes of SouthJndia, vol. 2, pp.125-153). 

In Anantapur in Bellari district (A.P.) there are still villages bearing the names 
Jakkula Ceruvu, Jakkulodiki Aranalu. 

SD (7.268-271) borrows the text on jakkari from NN with minor changes. This 
is true ofVSM (f.24B) also. Both replace kalladi (NN 4.2.661a) with ‘kauladi’more 
correctly and ‘tvahahgena’ (NN 4.2.661b) with ‘ mahahgena ’. 

Bhandaru Laksminarayana ( Sahgitasuryodaya , 5.632-641) describes jhahkan 
thus: 


-RFTT ( ?) I 


cTFTl^^WI: cj ^T: | 


<*>fqcq "RcTT I 


^IcHIcHH ^ ^THTfcT, 9hHlf<fd I 



(?) ^ I 


cm: ttt i 















COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


347 





Tf^l ^<*,q|sj T^ ^sldlHLH^dl ... I 


... I 



: «RtjMcT: (?)l 


■df^Wis^HT ^ig-OdS-rr ^4^ I 



Laksminarayana prefaces the description of jhahkari (or jhahkari ) with the 
statement' at ha tauruska desottha-prabandhan, katicid fmwe’ (5.591 cd) and mentions 
six regions of the turuskadesa: Khurasan, Persia, Multan, Lata, Avasiya and Ghana. 
He mentions and describes these exotic forms: gazalu, kaulu, hasaka, pratitala, 
manjari and jhahkari) these are desaja tauruska prabandhas (5.592-641). 

This is confirmed by Narahari Cakravarti ( SahgitasdraSahgraha 3.39) who des¬ 
cribes to ‘ jakadi nrtya ’ as performed by a drunken turuska duo who hold a tuft of 
peacock feathers and sing in their own language: 

MHHdl Tftc^T TcTWIT I 
3^^ 'JiwsIRl ^r || 

A few jakkini songs have survived to our own days, through rare, at least from 
three sources: in Marathi from Tanjore, in Telugu from Vizianagaram and in 
kannada from the erstwhile Mysore State in Karnataka. Some seven jakkinis, 
composed by the Bhosle King Serfoji of Tanjore (1798-1832 a.d.) have been 
published by the Saraswathi Mahal Library, Tanjore ( Korvyace sahityace Jinnas- 
nrtyace, No. 79 in Tanjore Saraswathi Mahal Granthamala, Tanjore, 1958): some two 
in anandabhairavi raga and athana raga) in panegyric of Pusapati Sitaramaraja, 
comparatively recent ruler of Vijayanagaram have come to my notice. One in 
kannada is reported to be in a private collection but not accessible. 

Serfoji has composed seven koravanji dance plays on following themes: 
i. wedding of Uma with Mahesvara ( ritigaula raga, aditala) ; ii. the birth of Kumarasvami 
bilahari raga, aditala), iii. Kirata-Arjuna episode ( kedaragaula raga, rupakatala), 
h. arrival of Mahadeva: a humorous story narrated to Parvati by her companion 
bhairavi raga, aditala), v. reproach of Manmatha by a love-lorn woman ( kalyani raga, 
>ai'dri tala), vi. teaching of the doctrine of sagunabrahman through self-experience 
of nirgunabrahman (nilambari raga-attatala). These are in the form of nirupana 
i theme for musical discourse). Everyone of these contains the following eighteen 
musico-dance forms in the same fixed order: 1. jayajaya (invocation) 2. saranu 
zranu (prayer to Parvati commencingwith these words), 3.‘ serva ’(= tattakara=alaru) 





















348 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


4 . sollu (=jati) 5. sabda 6. varna 7. pada 8. svarajai 9. abhinayapada 10. tilana 
11 . abhinayapada\2. jakkini. 13.gftal4. prabandhalb. triputa. (=tivata ) 16. slokavarna 
17. kautta 18. mahgala. It may be noted en passant that sollu and sabda are different 
dance forms here, that abhinayapada is invariably repeated (Nos. 9 and 11), varna, 
svarajati correspond roughly to their modern analogues, as do kautta (but differs 
from the vadyaprabandha kavita) and tilana while pada and gita do not; tivata is 
described in NN, SD, DSM and VSM. 

As mentioned above, the occupies the twelfth position in the performance 

sequence of each play. It is uniformly composed of the elements sabda (pata 
passage), svara (solfa passage), sahitya (word passage) and a concluding svara. The 
third jakkinihas the sequence sabda-sahitya-svara-svara cum sahitya, and the seventh, 
sabda-svara-sahitya-svara-sabda. The svara portion also contains a passage consisting 
of the syllables ya and la in various forms usually commencing with yallam yalilam 
Idle and a few marathi words, and invariably, ‘ hoyiji umera. The following is an 
example: 

TFT-^Kjftdl] |>H«f>tlld 

fit cT^f cd OTf cfft crfstfaRd *PldRfl't» Wf dRhi 

RjRtRtid d^dl cTf^Pl u ldl I 

dftdT 

w 

TTfr Tfnft WlRl m 4^ | 

■q^5T ilfcrldi dlRf I jRfdt qRicrii crtl<rl I 

^ dlf^dl 

fts ^ Rm tthIt Rm tptR: i diRl •MPddi t n«f i dT^l ■zrfddi 

<jdl I dlRt ilfddi I II dT^ ■Mfcld'l ddl II TTfd dfd HdR hhRi«TN dl Rw 

RfSHT Itpift II iTTTfddd h! 4HHpH-HR RN fd«T TFf dfTd II ^11 

TfldT t=FT fd«T ■'TR dTt Rid RtRtiRt IR II 

tpiWT fdt^dRr*NTRm'qRTdiRdftddR t«fr frondRm wife? n3 n 

EfTWlft R-Hfddd RldR "fFlR WTRdN Rl'HR dft dfd dTft dRl ^NT TlRfWl- 
dfdl II* II 

A jakkanidaru in Telugu, a panegyric on Pusapati SItaramaraja is given by 
Nataraja Ramakrishna (Daksinatyula Natyakala Caritra, p. 33): 



































COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


349 


«ir*fn ^3 

3TR^ (TFT)-3TTf^ (TTTcT) 

Wft TTlfa TRT ^ I 

^RTT 

I 

I %!#JW1WWW MMRilft-df+dfi I cT^fi cfecl^ <lf cfe 

mTRFT^ ?T^TT%3 
^WlfcTSRpl I ^Hdld'^el 

mfePlfa I fadPN<**J I 

This is followed by dance to pata passages in the seven suladitalas viz. dhruva, 
mathya, rupaka, jhampa, triputa, atta and eka. 

I have composed the dance to a jakkini from the Koruyace and to the foregoing 

jakkini dam. 

As indicated in NN Sahgitasjuryodaya etc. jakkari seems to have been imported 
into South India in the 15th-16th century a.d. from Persia in the name of jakkari or 
jhahkari and became merged into its native analogue as a desi form. 

664cd-673ef. Rasanrtya: Rasa is derived from the verbal root ‘ras’ of class 1 
Pbhvddi) atmanepadi (Dhatupatha 16.25) and means uproar, loud sound, loud 
lamentation etc. and is appropriate because, as will be shown presently, it occurred 
as a result of loud lamentation by the gopis of their separation from Krsna and 
because it was accompanied by plural sounds of instruments, anklebells, bangles, 
exclamations etc. 

The rasa dance of Krsna and gopis is ancient and is mentioned in the Harivamsa 
and the Puranas ; but its popularity and widespread pan-Indian occurrence is due 
to its description in the Bhagavata Puranam (10.1.33) in which it is variously called 
rasakrida, rasagosthi , rasa-utsava and rasamandala. Here it is group dance of women 
in which a man may participate in the role of Krsna. The women form a circle and 
make a mandala movement with measured steps, hand movements, shoulder (or 
breast) movements, coquettish glances and eyebrow movements accompanied with 
smiles (10.1.33.8): 

























350 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


It was accompanied with singing both by danseuses themselves and musicians. It 
had a dhruva element of high pitch (cf. ‘ rasa ). It was accompanied by the sounds 
of many instruments, ankle bells and bangles (because of clapping their own or 
each others hands. It also consisted of a one-to-one dance in close embrace. 

The rasa dance, probably because of the divine association, acquired a religious 
and spiritually symbolic dimension throughout India. It is mentioned in several 
poetic works such as Gitagovinda and Harscarita. A large number of Sanskrit works 
came to be written on the theme of the rasa e.g. Rdsakrida, Rdsagitikd, Rdsapancadhyayi, 
Rdsapaddhati, Rdsavilasa, Rdsaviveka, Rasamanjari, Rdsamahatmya, Rdsasundara- 
mahakavya, Rdsollasa Tantra, Narmadasundara rasa, Rdsayatraviveka, Rdsayatrapaddhati, 
Rdsaknddpancddhyayi, Rdsapramana, Rasaryagucchah, Rasakrantastotra e tc. as well as 
many commentaries on several of them. Besides these, two natyarasaka uparupakas 
viz. Narmavati and Vilasavati as also a rasaka called Menakahita are also known. Its 
popularity is evident from the numerous poetic and religious works in regional 
languages by eminent poets and saints e.g. Rasa Pancadhyayi, especially in North 
India. 

As already mentioned, rdsarnrtya is integral to the Krsna cult and is widespread 
in the North-Bengal, Assam, Manipur, Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, 
Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Saurashtra jn its essential and cognate 
forms. However, the ones practised in Manipur on the one hand and in Gujarat- 
Saurashtra on the other are widely different and envelop the others. So I shall be 
content with briefly describing only these two. 

Traditional belief traces the origin of RdsaMd (in Manipur) to the 18th century 
ruler of Manipur viz. Bhagyacandra through a legend. Bhagyacandra gave away 
territories of Manipur repeatedly to his uncle Khelai Lungla who ruled the eastern 
kingdom of Meirang at the latter’s expansionistic demands. When at last he 
refused, Lungla instigated the king of Burma to seize Manipur. Bhagyacanda was 
defeated and sought refuge with King Svargadeva of Assam. Lungla continued his 
evil design and tried to induce Svargadeva not to shelter Bhagyacandra. The latter 
had a reputation for divine grace; Svaragadeva yielded to his minister’s suggestion 
that Bhagyacandra’s divine power should be tested with attack by a rutted elephant. 
Lord Govinda appeared in Bhagyacandra’s dream on the night prior to the ordeal, 
promised him victory in the ordeal, restoration of his kingdom and ordered him to 
consecrate his idol carved from ajackwood tree in the region of Kaina. This came 
true; Bhagyacandra looked for the tree in the Nomoijin hill, failed, and with divine 
guidance in a dream, discovered it, got the idol sculpted and consecrated the same. 
Govinda also revealed in the dream the rasa dance as performed in the Brindavan 
in all its details of aharya and angika abhinaya and commanded its perpetuation in 
this shrine. Accordingly, Bhagyacandra’s mother Meichala KumudinI assembled a 
troupe of beautiful girls for the rasa dance. But it remained a failure for want of 




COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


351 


Radha. So Bhagyacandra’s lovely daughter Sijaleraibi dedicated herself as Radha 
and was accepted by Govinda. This tradition has survived even today in the custom 
of the royal princess being in charge of the rasalila, Radha in the rasa mahotsav and 
in charge of the worship of Govinda. 

The nine specific dance forms called thengourol symbolising tantrik rituals as well 
as the secular movement styles known as khousarol together constitute the expres- 
sional mode of the essence of Manipuri culture. The sword and spear dance called 
thang-ta is ancient and native; it is related to the lai-haraoba, rasalila and palacholom 
in kinematic elements, but probably not causally. The rasa is a dance drama based 
on and accompanied by a word theme of the Radha-Krsna or gopi-Krsna love. It is 
choreographed with subtle emphasis on position, movement and posture of the 
dancers, consisting of bhramaris, ardhabhramaris, glides and swaying movements and 
kamala-vartana of hands. It uses only limited hand poses, though there is a 
traditional manual vocabulary derived from Sanskrit treatises. The meaning and 
mood are sought to be evoked or interpreted more in terms of the totality of the 
aesthetic situation than through a system of ascribed semantic equations. Nor is 
facial expression called upon much for this purpose. The accent is on gentle lasya, 
based on continuity, slowness and gracefulness of movement. (There are of course 
vigorous, rapid tandava techniques also in Manipuri dancing e.g. puhg-cholom and 
thang-ta.) The dance proceeds in rhythm and measure of bhahgi pareng, which in 
modern practice tends to become somewhat longer, probably to accommodate the 
fourteen rnalra rajamela tala w.ith an attempt to ‘classicalise’ the dance. Music 
accompaniment consists of singing (often by the dancers themselves), the mrdahgar 
like puhg, large cymbals called kartal and the guitar-like chordo- phone, pena. The 
dance is performed to the asta/iarfisofjayadeva or/ladat/a/A of saints. A performance 
has no fixed time frame; it may be performed uninterrupted for twelve hours or as 
long as twelve nights; more often than not, especially in the villages (which 
invariably have temples of Krsna-Radha and Balarama-Krsna and Krsna-Caitanya) 
there is no rigid demarcation between dancers and spectators; the latter join in 
smoothly, especially in yatras and utsavas. 

The costumes of rasalila in Manipuri dancing are the most gorgeous and 
picturesque in the whole gamut of Indian dancing. Women wear a small conical 
skull cap of black cloth or velvet with a narrow band of pearls at the rim and an 
ornamental, two-inch wide tassel of pearls from the top. She wears a close fitting, 
velvet jacket with gold trimmings and broad golden lace at the edges of the short- 
sleeves. A long narrow white ribbon is wound tightly round the waist from under the 
breasts tojust above the hips. She wears a hoop-skirt (flounce) of a brightly coloured 
silk or a saree like a flounce skrit with tucked-in folds. It has a wide (4 to 6 inches) 
border of zari at the bottom. Round, square or oval pieces of mirror, sequins and 
tinsel are sewn into the body of the skirt. She wears a shimmering, thin, silver gauze 



352 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


veil of muslin, sprayed with mica. The veil is tucked in at one corner at the waist, 
covers the head and face. Her hair is tied into a knot which is circled with fragrant 
flowers. Krsna wears a pitambara of yellow silk (with kaccha, i.e. the free end passes 
between the legs and is tucked in at the back of the waist), and a silk scarf round the 
waist. He is bare above the waist but wears numerous necklaces, bangles and 
bracelets. He wears a crown carrying a tuft of peacock feathers. 

The rasa is of many kinds: Basanta rasa is performed in the spring on the full 
moon night of the lunar month of phalguna (March-April) on the theme of love- 
conciliation between Radha and Krsna. Kunja-rasa is performed in the navaratri 
{dashera festival, September-October); the theme is the relaxed love of Radha and 
Krsna in the arbour ( kunja) on the bank of the Yamuna. Maharasa is danced on the 
full moon night in December on theme of Radha’s desertion by Krsna, her despair, 
anguish and resolve to end her life and reunion with Krsna. Nityarasa may, as the 
name indicates, be performed any day. Diva-rasa is performed in daytime. In Natana 
rasa , Krsna dances with eight gopls; Astagopi-Asta-Syam rasa is held in the spring in 
which there are eight Krsnas and eight gopls . This is called Kastha nrtta , in a 
sanskritised form (e.g. Narahari Cakravarti, Sahgttasarasahgraha , 3.38). 

The rasa dance of Saurashtra is quite different from the foregoing; its theme is 
pranks and adventures of child Krsna, not the erotic love of Radha-Krsna; it is 
performed only by men—boys who dance the roles of cowherd boys. It is vigorous, 
involving complex footwork and movements. It is also a circular dance, performed 
with or without sticks. Rasa with sticks is called ddndia rasa and is very popular and 
varied. As in the garbha dance of Gujarat, the dancers hold sticks (as ideally 
described in NN) to one end of which small ankle bells are attached. In a circular 
formation by the group each member dances separately and individually, conform¬ 
ing to a total pattern, forming smaller circles or other geometric configurations or 
clusters among themselves, striking the sticks in both hands mutually, against those 
of the next, alternate or opposite members in exact accordance with tala and 
laya. They perform the feat in standing, sitting, bending or lying down positions; 
in some cases they attach themselves to ropes suspended from the top and braid 
them into complex plaits through dance movements. Indeed, there are rasa 
troupes in which the members hold the sticks between their toes and perform the 
rasa dance. The dancers wear large turbans on the head, colourful, bordered, full 
sleeved jackets, loose pyjamas held close at ankles and anklebells. They wear waist 
bands, both ends of which dangle in the front. In some rare, rope rasa dances, 
acrobatic feats are performed by some members standing on the shoulders of 
others. 

Rasa dance is popular in Rajasthan also: an interesting description of this dance 
is available from Savai Pratapasimha Deva ( Radha-Govind sahgitsar , ch.3, p. 96) who 
ruled from Jaipur from 1779 to!804 a.d.: Rasamandala nrtya is performed in 




COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


353 


moonlight in a garden by many well bejewelled, colourfully dressed women to the 
accompaniment of many musical instruments playing many ragas to the singing of 
many voices; dancing is done by couples in attractive gatis, to loud acclamation by 
spectators. The theme is the union of Lord Krsna with the gopis on the Brndavan. 
Music is performed to the best expressive capacity of the rdga. Dance should be of 
such divine excellence that it is possible only for the Purnar Brahman Lord Krsna and 
to none else. 

Savai Pratapasimha continues: “The rasa of the theme may be expressed in song 
forms such as dhrupadaprabandha, chanda, dohd, kavitdetc. in the regional language. 
The dance should show the birth of Krsna in Dvaravati; all his exploits from birth 
to childhood; rasamandala etc. in Brindavan, destruction of Kamsa etc. in Mathura; 
his wedding with sixteen thousand consorts; destruction of daityas; his actions of 
politics and householder; his sports in Dvaravati such as dharma, karma , Kama, yajha, 
dana, vrata, niyama etc.; vanquishing of Indra and bringing of the parijata flower 
from paradise; conciliating Satyabhama etc. such that the spectators witness with 
absorbing interest. Dancers should be paid well.” 

Rasaka is a dance composition which is about 1500 years old. Agnipurdna 
mentions twentyseven natakas which include the ten rupakas of Bharata, and the 
remaining seventeen which are elsewhere uniformly called uparupakas: totaka, 
natika, sattaka, silpaka, karna, durmallika, prasthana, bhanika, bhani, gosthi, halVisa, 
kavya, sngadita, natyarasaka, rasaka, ullopyaka and preksana. Kohala classifies the 
uparupakas into marga and -desi: marga uparupakas are ten: natika, prakaranika, 
bhanika, hasika, vyayogini, dimika, kalotsahavati, citra, jungupsita and citratdla, these 
are bereft of music and dancing and are similar to the rupakas; desi uparupakas are 
also ten: dombikd, bhdna, prasthana, sidga, bhanika, prerana, rdmaknda, rdgakavya, 
halUsaka and rasaka. The last six are dance forms. Elsewhere, seven more are 
available: natyarasa, parijata, nartana, sallapa, kalpavalli, mallika and kavya. Bharata 
does not mention uparupakas ; Kohala is probably the first authority to describe 
many of them, though he does not give them the name uparupaka. 

Visvanatha Bhatta, probably the first authority to explicidy use the term ‘ uparupaka ’ 
describes eighteen uparupakas in his Sahityadarpanam: among them, 

i. Gosthi has a single act, 9 or 10 rustic (vulgar) male, 5 or 6 female characters, 
lacks garbha and vimarsa sandhis; kaisiki style; rasa is kama srhgara; theme is not 
elevating, e.g. Raivatamadanika. It many be remembered that the Bhagavata 
Puranam (10.1.33.16) describes this variety of rasa. 

ii Natyarasaka has a single act; hero is magnanimous (udatta ), sub-hero is 
pithamardaka; rasarhasya and srhgara; heroine is vasakasajja ; sandhis are mukha, 
nirvahana (according to others, lacks only pratimukha ); has ten lasyahgas; set to 
many talas and layas e.g. Narmavati, Vilasavati. 

iii. Rasaka has a single act, five characters; has only mukha and nirvahana sandhis; 
bharati and kaisiki styles; is full of bhasa and vibhasa (ragas ? regional languages and 



354 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


dialects?); has elements of vlthl and the (64?) arts; herb is a fool; heroine is 
renowned; nandisloka is composed in pun; lacks sutradhara; display of noble 
sentiments is profuse as the rasaka unfolds. 

Thus, the uparupakas, especially the ones in which dance was predominant, were 
small, loosely knit, stray pieces with a modicum of plot and acting. The rasa varieties 
described above seem to be uparupakas adapted to the Krsna-Gopalakas, Krsna- 
Balarama, Krsna-Yasoda etc. themes of the Bhagavatapuranam. It may be noted that 
NN does not assoiciate the rasaka with such themes; it seems to be largely a form of 
folk dance. 

The present brief study of the rasaka may be concluded with a description of rasa 
and its chief varieties in some textual sources: Saradatanaya deals with twenty 
uparupakas of which rasaka, natyarasaka and carcari belong to the same family of 
nrtya rupaka. 

Rasaka (Saradatanaya, Bhavaprakasanam, 9.120, 121) is a mandala dance per¬ 
formed with Hari as the hero and gopl as heroine, extending from one such pair to 
sixty pairs; the dance, both mild and vigorous, is set to beautiful tala and laya. 
Natyarasaka (ibid., 9.93-96) is a dance of 16, 8 or 4 danseuses displaying pindl- 
bandha, srhkhala, bhedyaka and lata, i.e. choreographic, kinematic formations of the 
dancers, single, entwined, divergent and complex, interlinked shapes on the stage. 
The dance is both gentle and vigorous, consisting of novel visual presentations; it 
imitates in dance the actions of the beloved hero (or enact the doings of the hero). 
Carcari (ibid., 9.97-107) commences with the entry from opposite sides of a pair of 
danseuses in exactly the same can in varna tala and move in dance on the left and 
right sides of the stage and assume, at the end of the varna (tala ? pata recitation), 
the alldha and pratyatidha sthanakas. The instruments are shown the talas employed 
in colikabhidruta (?); now the instrumental composition named cheda is performed 
(in instruments and dance); it consists of peculiar recurring strokes on the 
instruments with the palms with frequent pauses. It is performed in pancaghata ( = 
satpitaputra ? mathyaf) tala; the composition being decomposed into three or four 
segments with dance. They execute complementary body movements and with 
mutual cymbal strokes. Then they leave the stage; at the same time two other patras 
enter without clashing. Puspanjali is made in matra tala by the outgoing pair while 
the entering pair dance in the tala baddhapana, rathya cari and varna (?) patas. At this 
point the musicians sing a suska song, i.e. without instrumental accompaniment. 
The patras perform various configurations and movements such as lata, bheda, gulma 
and all come together in a pindibandha. Then a pata passage is rendered, imitating 
the syllables of the muraja (percussion instrument), without instrumental accom¬ 
paniment, in malla tala. The dancers perform dance with a single stick or double 
sticks. This apasara (converging) is repeated three times. Then the foregoing dance 
is repeated, now to any desired tala and laya. At the end a benediction is recited . 





COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


355 


Vema ( Sahgitacintamani , extr. Bharatakosa , p. 552) mentions the rasa , natyarasa 
and caccan varieties and epitomises the first with 


"tor ursiib i 


He describes the carcan dance thus (op. cit. loc. cit. p. 203): the danseuses form 
pindibandha etc. as in rasaka to instrumental composition in varna tala , enter the 
stage in pairs while the musicians sing the carcan or dvipadi prabandha again and 
again or any song on a suitable theme describing srhgara. This dance is performed 
in the spring festival. For discussion of carcan (or caccan) song, see NN 3.2.232-234 
and commentary.) 

VSM (f.24B) delineates carcan as dance composed to sabda commencing with 
‘tetigidhai\ repeated contiguously four times in rasa or carcan tala and illustrates 
with a sabda passage: RifdPl^: ctldPldldlo RhKl^o clfd^PifcPi^o fthKill ^ clfcPiqcl 
tTo ftPlfePAo clRlPlfcPl^o ( 4 o } indicates a pause). 

This sabda should be repeated four times. 

Jayasenapati gives an elaborate description of the patra in rasa ; he delineates 
rasakanatya , rasaka , carcan and danda rasaka. He prefaces the discussion of rasaka 
(NrttaratnavaVi , 7.80-97) by identifying it with the namesake geyaprabandha occur¬ 
ring in both suddha sudas (which are, according to his uncorroborated view, nine 
in number viz., eld , karana, varnasara, kaivdra, jhombada, tribhahgi, vartanl„ rasaka 
and ekatali) and the salaga sudas (viz. dhruva , mattha, pratimattha, nissdru, atatala, 
rasaka and eka) . The patra performs dance to all these compositions in terms of 
vadyaprabandhas in exact correspondence with the svara and aksara of the song in 
dhatu and kaku. The rasaka is danced by 16,12 or 8 damsels in pinda , srhkhala , bhedya 
and lata (configurations of bandha created by two, three, four and more dancers) 
in s ajatlya or homogeneous pattern (e.g. hang like lotuses from a single stalk) or 
vijatlya (heterogenous) pattern (one like a lotus hanging as from a stalk from 
another who is like a swan). According to Saradatanaya, the dancers come together 
in gulma, join their hands together in a chain and dance in a row in srhkhala; their 
bodies intertwine in lata ; in bhedyaka , one dancer assumes a still pose while the 
others dance in a group outside him/her in various formations. Gulma is executed 
in a very slow pace; srhkhala is slow, lata , in middle and bhedyaka in druta or very fast 
tempi; the various bandhas may be executed with mechanical aids, seals or special 
training (e.g. oil massage etc.). For discussion of bandha nrtta see NN 4.2.423-426 
commentary. 


















356 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


The rasaka then, is performed by sixteen male or female (or both) dancers in 
bandhas to the accompaniment of singing of carcan etc. prabandhas or desi sada songs 
in rdgas appropriate to the raga , rendered with exact synchronisation on instru¬ 
ments; they enter in pairs from either side, moving with the same can to the playing 
of musical instruments. The kinematics consist of khanda (dance segments), 
mandalas , cam and the chief lasyahgas ; abhinaya for word meanings is done by body 
movements. The patras enter, exist, disperse and converge, always forming complex 
and beautiful bandha patterns to the accompaniment of a rhythmic frame set up by 
the snapping ( chotika) of their own fingers or clapping with the hands of others. 

Jayasenapati creates an idealistic picture of the rasaka danseuse in beauty and 
appearance. She wears a saree, half pants, a cotton bodice, wears her hair in a knot 
or plait, bangles and ankle bells. She is full of youth, attractive, has round thighs, 
hips and breasts; she is like lightning, like wish-granting kalpa creeper, like the very 
personification of the art of dancing; the sixteen dancers are like the sixteen digits 
of the moon; she is trained in dance as if by Parvati herself. 

Carcan is a form of rasaka (ibid., 7.98,99) in which the patras dance to the singing 
of caccari or dvipadi prabandha in srhgara and vira rasa on the theme of the hero’s 
virtues or fame or of the season; the dance is executed in mandalas and is held in 
the spring festival. 

It is interesting to note that rasaka is a very well known, ancient metrical form in 
Apabhramsa; it is a dvipadi , structured in dvipadi , dvipatha , adilla or dhosa. For 
example, Virahanka gives three varieties of this in his Vrttajatisamuccaya (only chayas 
are quoted below): 

rasaka I (4 + 4 + 4 + 4) 


faWlRd+I^H I I 

^ II (4.37) 


rasaka II 

TRTcfTt II (4.38) 


rasa (4 + 4 + 4 + 55) 


I I 

l^ftTRTT^^: I (4.85) 


It is possible that the rasa-song was sung in these metres. 

Natyarasaka (ibid., 7.100) is danced by damsels drunken of youthfullness, in the 
spring season in songs composed in desi hindola raga such that abhinaya is made to 















COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


357 


word-meanings (rather than to the overall sense) relating to the history (exploits)of 
the king. 

Dandarasaka, which NN describes is a popular folk dance, called kolata in 
Karnataka, Andhra, Tamilnad and Kerala. This is equally popular as danda rasa in 
North India. According tojayasenapati (op.cit. 7.101-107), there are eight dancers 
initially in danda rasaka and batches of four join in, to a limit of sixtyfour, forming 
two rows. They hold a strick in each hand, a cubit long and of the thickness of the 
thumb, made of the acacia catechu (madana) , round, smooth, painted in multicolour, 
and having gold bands at the ends, or the sticks are attached to small flywhisks or 
flags at one end or to a dagger. When the instruments are playing complex and 
beautiful patterns, they assume postures characteristic of their own region and 
execute lasyahgas, bhramans, padacaiise tc. by turning to the right and to the left and 
join the other sticks with five sounded strokes. All the compositions that are used 
in the dance of a single danseuse may be sung, at the pleasure of the king and 
danced to in the danda rasaka. 

Parsvadeva ( Sahgitasamayasdra , MS in Sri Varalakshrnmi Academy of Music, 
Mysore pp. 127,128) adds a few more interesting details: 

m18 cbiwdleia W&R Wjf^T I 

Scqlfa qisiH-q'ls') I 

wfNRcpfcg TRHT I 

fad HI <o*ll: I 

dHMufPclfair:^: I 
<lfald+<l «J|J<Mgdl0W: I 
WllflWW: I 

TiraSTFIT: ‘SFRPflia f^f W ««hlfadl: I 





^Tfq cT«IT I 


firsrt ^ dmdldfWfHd'^ I 

^H^Wdd^dfHdd^dH, I 

d^lWfafa iVti I 

Danda rasaka is kolata in Karnataka where it is a very popular folk dance, known 
from the earliest times. Since Pandarika Vitthala hails from Karnataka, it may be 































358 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


appropriate to conclude this discussion with a brief discussion of kolata prevailing 
in Karnataka. It is a musico-dance form performed mostly by men—usually 
youngmen. It is believed that it is as old as the childhood of Krsna with whom the 
gopis danced the kolata. It is performed in festivals, yatras , processions, marriage, 
harvest etc.—in fact on all occasions of joy and prosperity. The kodava and lambani 
tribes have very attractive and learned female troupes in this dance form. The 
kadugolla (jungle-cowherd) tribes of Karnataka are renowned for this art. 

Kolata (stick-dance) is not merely an entertainment; it is also propitiatory and 
ritual. For example, in many parts of Karnataka, preparation of the stick involves a 
ritual. The debut of troupe is on the day following the dipavali festival. A fortnight 
before this, i.e. on the fullmoon of asvayuja (asvin) month—and sometimes on the 
newmoon—five members of the troupe with whom the art is a family tradition, are 
on fast, go to the tree (of hard tough wood such as arjuna , teak, sandal, kutajat= 
Wrightia antidysenterica, kare = Webera tetandra Wild., inknut or Terminalia 
chebula Roxb. or Canthium parviflorum Lam, bagini = bastard sago, i.e. Caryota 
urens Lin, honne- Terminalia telmentosa W & A, or Rottleria tinctoria Roxb, etc.), 
worship and pray and cut the sticks—always only one pair from one tree—at the 
evening twilight. The next fortnight is spent in practice which consists of learning 
from the teacher the gattu —rhythmic pattern, varise —footwork pattern, leaps, 
movement and crossing of sticks, dynamic postures etc.; the first performance is 
before the village deity, then before the village elders; then the troupe proceeds to 
perform before every house. The four components of a performance are the 
rhythm frame, synchronised and orderly clash of the sticks, foot movement and 
song. The last mentioned is the most important bechuse the others receive their cue 
(especially the percussionist) of changes in rhythmic and movement patterns from 
changes in tune and ‘ tala . 

The dancers are dressed in undershirt,shortpants (or kaccha dhoti at knee level) 
a turban and scarf around the waist, making a picturesque, colourful appearance. 
Women are dressed in kneelength saree, the free end of which is tucked in at the 
waist in the left, a half-sleeve blouse; the troupe is harmoniously matched in colour 
each member wearing anklebells; the stick is from nine to eighteen inches long, 
painted in attractive colours, somewhat thicker at the inner (first) end, and 
sometimes a tuft of small, spherical bells ( gejje) is attached to the playing end. 

The artists form a circle at the beginning of a performance, place the sticks at the 
centre, worship them, bow in reverence to the leader (who is also the guru) and then 
commence songs in propitiation of Ganesa, ‘personal deity’ ( istadaiva ), village 
deity, Nature, sarana (a virasaiva guru) and vira (hero; Virabhadra; or minor 
religious guru) . Then they commence the kolata of general and special repertoire 
to the accompaniment of songs on mythological epic, historical, legendary, moral, 
devotional, worldly or contemporary themes; one or two among the troupe give 





COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


359 


loud exclamations of the pata ‘thaiya ’, 'ududaiya at intervals during the dance. Each 
song or a ‘gattw’thereof concludes with a finale ofvocal passage ( mugitaya, muktaya) 
of ‘takitu tagulitu, yak-hihgayitu, thaiya thaiya thagadadattaiya' (it struck, it touched, 
why did it so happen? thaiya etc.) or a similar passage. Musical accompaniment is 
provided usually by song and a percussive instrument such as a frame drum only. 
The song is provided by the leader, or in snatches by the artists or by a band of 
singers, sometimes of women. 

Each regional, rustic genius develops its own special forms, designs, variations 
and techniques; the more common forms of kolatain Karnataka are: (the word 'kolu ’ 
must be suffixed to each name): Ganesa stuti , cittaragombe, muralu-suttadu, giru, 
cendatada-, teru, kadalugopu, kukkaragalu,jadeele, uyyale, bagu, dandesobana, sivagahge, 
karibantana-, alavani, suttu, nillu, hari, kattige (to be distinguished from ‘kattige ’ 
which in the North Karnataka folk parlance means the 'kolu ’ itself), cakke , jiru, 
kalucitlu, harugaddi (haru- leap, gaddi< kaddi-kolu ), uddri, cinnadic tc. Each of these 
has different ways of moving and clashing the stick. Jadekolu is also called 'malakina 
kolu , ‘lavala or ‘gopu-henike’ijademeans plait, so called because, with ropes attached 
to them, the artists choreograph the dance in such a way as to generate different 
kinds of plaits such as (simple) jade, pata gane , barakolu gantu, sarapani, kalli, nelavu, 
jodi-jade etc.; when the plait is complete, the dance proceeds to unravel it to the 
original condition. 

In koravahji kolu, two rows of four dancers each are formed with a lane in between. 
The artists stand in their own places and perform stick movements according to the 
‘ tala-gutuku ’ (^/a-accentuations); koravahji (i.e. Krsna) is at one end of the lane and 
under the pretext of reading her palm moves to and holds the hand of Rukmini, 
at the other end of the lane. 

North Karnataka features manv varieties of kolata ( 'kolu 9 should be suffixed to 
each name): tekke, cit, aladatu, vilata, nabandi, ombattu citagi ( cit- citagi< chotikd= 
snapping of fingers), rande ata, onti (^single), pagadi, balli, palatu , suttu, katri 
(=scissors), extra, ahgadi, bennali, muralu (three members), muralina hejje (= steps of 
three persons), tamalaku, bagu, davani, huvu, biccu, tolasu etc. Mandya district 
features, among others, the following varieties: cadurubhaga, gudala gopu, renugopu, 
venugopu, alu suttu, jade also called parijata, udalagopu. 

Several regional variations in techniques and patterns in kolata are available. 
Thus the Tumkur district has ganastuti talagatige ( gatige< kattige = kolu = mode of 
stick movement and clash), trikala (= third speed )—eradane tala (second tala ), citige 
tala , hadinaru( sixteen )—varise (row, turn, swing), biccu( open) katige, adugopukatige, 
ramabhadrikopukatige, hadinelu (seventeen) varise, biccukatige, hadinaru citigav a katige, 
elu citagina katige, jodu(pair) bagina(bending) katige etc. 

The kolata of North Karnataka employs the following gattu (rhythmic pattern), 
also called vidhi : eradu (two) cutige (-citige), muru (three) cutige, elu (seven) cutige, 




360 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


(these indicate the number of tala —high points, shown.by cutige, i.e. snapping of 
fingers) in one event or round, eda magula (left side), bala magula (right side), 
kuntelucutagi (seven chotikas executed in sitting posture), nintelu cutagi (seven 
chotikas executed in standing posture), sail, cajjala gumpu, magolu, balidu kolu, 
pdtlekolu-jadekolu, banu kolu, edemyalekaddi (stick over the chest), aligealu tirugu (one 
member revolving round another), menasina-salu (pepper-row), elu alina kolu, 
dandekolu, kani golu, suji (needle) kolu, mitu (lever) kolu, malakugolu, sdlugolu, 
kuttugolu etc. 

In Coorg (Kodagu) district, the sticks are 3 to 3.5 feet long, made of cane, thicker 
at the inner end; some of the kolata forms are jappai kolu, candutore kolu, pature kolu 
and huttari kolu. 

Many kolata forms involve acrobatic feats; many involve rhythm patterns with 
little or no correspondence to their analogues in classical music and dance. A 
discussion of these is beyond the scope of the present study. 

673e. Caru is an important criterion of excellence in dancing; it means pleasing, 

agreeable, beautiful, charming, pretty and approved. PandarikaVitthala’s prescrip¬ 
tion of this condition in the context of desi dance is specially significant and suggests 
that the performance should eschew roughness, crudity or vulgarity of word and 
movement and should be aesthetic oriented in form, content and expression. 

673f. Vidambana: Any dance which has no caruta is a parody, a satire. Monier 
Williams (A Sanskrit English Dictionary, p. 962) compiles the following semantic 
dimensions and overtones for the word: imitation, copy, disgracing, profaning, 
mocking, deriding, ridiculing, imposture, cheating, deceiving, afflicting, distress¬ 
ing, annoying, degrading, desecrating, scorning, abusing, misusing, distorting, 
mortifying, frustrating, contemptible and despicable. Pandarika Vitthala deserves 
warm admiration for the mot juste. A similar expression of his, carmaghataka for a 
mrdahga player who is ‘atalajha, araktijha and asdstrajha ’ (NN 2.16cd commentary) 
may be recalled here. 

674a. Samdigdha: Monier Williams (op. cit. p. 1143) may be again invoked for 
the several shades and overtones of this significantly employed word: samdigdha 
means smeared over, besmeared, confounded with, mistaken for, questioned, 
questionable, precarious, doubtful, dubious, ambiguous, uncertain, unsettled, 
despairing of, riskful, hesitant, indistinct, dangerous and disputed. All these are 
applicable here in the context of a disharmony between practice and theory, 
empiric and norm, pragmatic and ideal, actual and optimal. Pandarika Vitthala is 
justified, by and large, in his claim ‘nihsandigdham akari’ (674d). 

676. Guravo bhutva: This is the reason detre of NN: to transform disciples into 
teachers. 



COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


361 


CONCLUSION 

PV commences NN a treatise on dance, by worshipping his istadaiva (Krsna) who 
of the nature of the rasa dance (NN 1.1) 

dPdddNci ^P^MlP^dH I 

^1 ^ II 

He concludes NN appropriately with a description of the rasa dance. 



























TEXT CRITIQUE 














INTRODUCTION 


Nartananirnaya (N.N.) was first published in 1986 by the Karnataka State Sangeetha 
Nruthya Academy, Bangalore with my critical edition of text, translation, critical 
introduction, commentary, indexes etc. by me, as part of Pundankamala. It was next 
published in 1991 by General from Calcutta with the critically edited text and 
introduction by Dr. Mandakranta Bose (MB). This third publication of the same 
work, consisting of a critically edited text, translation, critical introduction, 
commentary on the text, text-critical comments, indexes etc. in the original 
Sanskrit and English by me is being brought out by the Indira Gandhi National 
Centre for the Arts, Delhi (1994-95) in three volumes. This includes the critical 
apparatus of the Pundankamala edition as well as the Calcutta edition. It is therefore 
updated and thus has the benefit of the whole available critical apparatus. It is in 
this context that a Text Critique is now being attempted based on a comparison of 
the Calcutta and Delhi editions. 

In her brief Introduction (pp. xxxv - lxxii) MB has given an account of the 
importance of NN, her search for the manuscript material (xxxv), manuscript 
material (xxxvi), its description (xxxviii), orthography (xli), the transmission of 
the text (xlii), Pundarlka Vitthala and the dates of his works (xlv), critical apparatus 
(lix) and abbreviations (lx). 

Altogether, MB has consulted fifteen collative sources: seven from the Khasmahal 
Library, Jaipur (Ji toj 7 ), two from India office Library, London (Li L 2 ) one from 
Asiastic Society of Bengal, Calcutta (Ci), one from the Oriental Institute, Baroda 
(Bi) one from Bharatiya Kala Bhavan, Varanasi (Vi), one from Ranbir Sanskrit 
Research Institute, Jammu and Kashmir (JKl), one from Saraswathi Mahal Library, 
Tanjore (Tl) one from Ahmedabad (Al) impressi typis. Among these, five are 
dated :Jl (1644), J 2 J 4 J 6 (1663), J3 (1673) J5 (1694) andJK, (1835); only the 
following are complete: J 1 J 2 J 4 J 5 CI.J 2 is only a table of contents; JKl and Vl are 
extremely corrupt, the latter is probably a copy of the former; these two offer little 
help in constituting the text. Only four MSS from Jaipur viz. J 1 J 2 J 4 J 5 contain a 
prefatory chapterette of 33 slokas, divided into two sections called prastavana and 
Visayapravesah respectively. This chapterette is called Akbara-Stuti or simply Stuti by 
MB. Its occurrence or absence is used as an important criterion in classifying the 
collative sources and to derive the stemma codicum. MB has not used florilegia and 
testimonia, especially works like the Natyasastramand Sangitaratnakara from which 
NN has borrowed freely and literally as the Delhi edition has. An examination of 
the critical apparatus suggests that J2 may have been derived from a somewhat 
different archetypal source, which now not available, may have been the result of 
diaskeusis by the author himself or a learned scribal intervention (diorthotes). In 


366 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


such cases manuscript chronology is not much help because a later copy may 
emerge from a prior source and Vice Versa. J6 is probably integral toJ2 but does not 
list the Stuti. 

As already noted, the Stuti is found only in Jaipur MSS and not in any other MS 
such as Cl (andJKl Vl which have a beginning but not the Stuti). It employs the 
metrical forms which are common to NN. Ragacandrodaya, Ragamala and 
Ragamarijarl but the style is pedantic and flamboyant unlike the imaginative 
ragadhyana slokas (3.1.168.233). Its contents are not wholly consistent (esp. 
Visayapravesah) with the main theme of NN. It also contains acknowledged literal 
extracts from Yajnavalkya Smrti , Veda and Ragacandrodaya which is not the normal 
practice of PV, but unacknowledged literal extracts from Sarrigadeva and Arijaneya, 
which is his normal practice. For these and similar reason, Stuti may be regarded 
as an after-thought and later addition by PV as MB has suggested or a forgery on the 
lines of his other works viz. Ragacandrodaya , Ragamanjan and Dutikarmaprakasa. 

MB has, with exemplary patience and enthusiasm, recorded a vast, detailed 
critical apparatus including even non scribal contributions. Indeed, it is so detailed 
that to pick up a significant variant is like the proverbial needle in the haystack. The 
problem is aggravated by two things: the lexis cited from the constituted text as a 
referent for variants and shown in the critical apparatus with a square bracket (]) 
is often exchanged with the variants. The supralineal addition r (rm) often omits 
the bindu (m), leaving only ‘ (r), causing much confusion and uncertainty. It is also 
found that a grammatically or contextually incorrect lexis is admitted into the 
constitutio textus in preference to the correct one available in the apparatus criticus. 
Vowel coalescence by savarnadirgha , guna and yan , Samdhis is frequently ignored, 
creating artificial hiatus, and therefore hypermetry. Hypometrical instances are 
left unnoticed. Only a few instances of such prosochial solecisms are cited in the 
table of comparison given below. This table further shows the reciprocal support 
for expressions admitted into the constituted text of each edition from the coilative 
sources of the other edition. Altogether, only four instances (3.1.16a, 4.70a, 4.139b, 
4.269d) are available from the huge critical apparatus of the Calcutta edition which 
are better readings than the corresponding ones in the Delhi edition. The 
conjectural editorial emendation of the numerogram ‘ramagni’ (vulgate) (4.61 d) 
with ‘bhava hi’ is unwarranted. On the whole, it may be remarked that the 
contribution of thejaipur group of manuscripts to the Constitutio is inconsiderable. 
Its main contribution lies in the offer of the Stuti chapterette, which is transmitted 
in a somewhat corrupt and sometimes opaque form. This is offered in the present 
Text Critique in an edited form with translation and commentary. 

The Stemma Codicum postulated by MB for her coilative sources is acceptable 
by and large, not withstanding these observations (i) it is possible to postulate a 
hyparchetypus between Ji and its lineal descendants, (ii) the critical apparatus 






INTRODUCTION: TEXT CRITIQUE 


367 


contains trends of other affiliations or affinities among the MSS. sources, though 
weak, (iii) instances of conflation need to be explicidy noted in the formulation of 
a stemma codicum. (iv) study of the contribution of the Bikaner MSS. group, when 
and if available to the formulation of the stemma would be an interesting and 
instructive exercise, (v) it would be fruitful to separate the substantive variants in 
J2 and to find out how many of them may be traced to texts and their variants from 
which J2 has borrowed without acknowledgement e.g. Natyasastram and 
Sangitaratndkara. In such cases the divergences would be reduced to a secondary 
importance. Not withstanding these minor considerations, MB has approached 
this text critical task with system and science which deserves admiration. 

MB feels that the dances described by Bharata came to be regarded by his 
successors as marga. I am not aware of any specific dance compositions described 
by Bharata in the available texts of the Natyasastra. His objective was simply to 
provide a straight forward, simple apparatus of the alphabet, vocabulary, grammar 
and idiom of various disciplines such as music and dance, without definition or 
discussion, to the actor who had to use them to prepare a music or dance structure 
suitable to the dramatic situation on hand. Because of his meticulous and 
comprehensive modalities of abhinayaiox every part of the body, specialisation into 
form and style became possible by a process of selection. It is because of such 
systematic and comprehensive codification of every nuance of every expressive 
potential of every part of the human body by Bharata, Abhinavagupta, Sariigadeva 
Haripala, Parsvadeva and others that it has become possible to trace the origin or 
authority of all major dance styles and idioms in India, especially the so called 
classical dances, to great antiquity e.g. Bharatamuni. Each so called ‘classical’ dance 
of India shares some common elements with all others (which confer a common, 
national character on it) and some differentiating elements (which confer on it a 
distinctive character): angikabhinaya and sattvikabhinaya constitute the former 
while ahdryabhinaya and vacikabhinaya constitute the latter. The storehouse of 
anga-pratyanga-upanga abhinaya created by the ancient masters and described by 
Bharata et al provides the common granary from which each classical idiom or style 
draws upon and nourishes selectively and develops a nrttdnga. Similarly, the 
referential representation ( citrabhinaya) and transactional representation ( abhinaya 
correlates in vacikabhinaya) are drawn from ascribed equations in hastabhinaya 
with viniyogas (which must be periodically enlarged and renewed in consonance 
with social and cultural environment). This constitutes the nrtyangaoi the particular 
dance style and idiom. These are selectively taken from the elaborate storehouse 
of effective representation ( sattvikabhinaya ) found in the sixth and seventh 
chapters of the Natyasastram, , seventh chapter of Sangitaratndkara and similar 
textual sources. 

It is in ahdryabhinaya and compositional repertoire that every ‘classical’ dance 
stvle distinguishes it from its compeers. Technique in relation to expression is 


368 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


developed from the selectively drawn and developed material in the common areas 
of ahgika and sattvika abhinaya. Emphasis and stylisation contribute to such 
development e.g. Kathakali, Manipuri, Odissi, Kathak, Bharatanatya. These 
contributions are characterised by the cultural ethos of the people who form the 
hinterland for the particular dance stream e.g. colour, make up and costumery in 
Kathakali and Yaksagana, ghargharika in Kathak, costumery, make up and gentleness 
in Manipuri etc. 

In the light of the above considerations, it becomes understandable why there 
have been no treatises till quite recently on specialised classical dances, but only 
with common and general subject matter on one or more of the fourfold abhinaya. 
Provincial characterisation was effected, by and large, in terms of the dance forms 
peculiar to the region, as may be seen from works such as Sahgitaratndkara of 
Sariigadeva, Nrttaratnavali of Jayasena etc. Nartananirnaya is distinguished from 
such precedent texts in its pan-Indian scope: cindu from Tamilnad, dharu from 
Andhra, rasa from Karnataka, Gujarat, Bengal, Assam etc. It describes dhvada, 
kvada, urupa etc. choreographic elements which were commonly practised in 
South India, especially in Karnataka and Tamilnad. It may be noted that NN. 
describes ghargharika not as a separate dance style but as integral to the cindu; NN 
describes jakkadi as an exotic form beloved of the persians, performed in mughal 
royal courts and not as a composition in Kathak; Vatu was also known to the South 
(See Sathyanarayana, R. The Bandha Dance in Souvenir of Mayur Dance Festival, 
94). Local adoption or adaptation into a regional dance repertoire probably came 
later. The dance elements dhvada, urupa, kvada, bidulaga etc. which NN. describes 
are found in prior and later textual sources (e.g. Sangitamuktavaii) and numerous 
literary reference in the South. 

MB’s interpretation of bandha as dance restricted by prescriptive rules and 
anibandha as not so governed is quite acceptable: ‘gali’ here refers to the bhanavi, 
mainie tc. nine movement varieties described in NN. after mukhacaU (4.2.465-479) 
integral with it; ‘adi ' ref er s to tala,yati, can, karanae tc. Both bandha and anibandha 
contain desi dances. Nibaddha {-bandha) and anibaddha were perhaps originally 
evolved in the context of music, restricted to gana (distinct from gandharva), but 
specifically applied to nrtta by PV. The quotation from Sahgitaratndkara (4.5) on 
nibaddha and anibaddha (as varieties of gana) on p. liv should read 
‘alaptirbandhahinatvad anibaddham itirita ’ wh ich means ‘alapti is said to be anibaddha 
because it lacks bandha’. Nibaddha is so called because it is bound {bandha) by 
prescriptive rules regarding dhatu and ahga; dhatu here refers to the melodic 
components udgraha etc. and ahga refers to textual components pada, biruda etc. 
Musical compositions structured in dhatu and ahga are called nibaddha. Alapa has 
no prescriptive restriction of dhatu and ahga and is therefore called a-nibaddha. 
Therefore the translation should read ‘Nibaddha is known by being structured with 
dhatusand ahgas. Alaptiis said to be anibaddha because it has no bandha (restriction) 




INTRODUCTION: TEXT CRITIQUE 


369 


(of dhatu and anga)'. Therefore this textual element from Sangitaratndkara has no 
bearing on PV’s definition of bandha and anibandha in the context of dance. 











TEXT AND TRANSLATION 


372 


NARTANANIRN AYA 







f^i<*>Kqci1 H^MpNdl '•HNHdl I 

ct(cTt?) t% H<M<=I dlHd^P^lPc^cM^ 

eft ^sfisiddldHIZ<*H4l ?m ^ HMNPdH, II * II 

$Pd=bPdd^d ^4eT: 

!f^)^ PdP<dl^^^^^| 
f^TZqZTZe^ WkHefedCT^sf^f) W*F{ 

TTORTW* ( ! UHiUKdd) ^ q tep? cTW^ IRII 
ddR%d<l<1 ^TfeT^(^) 'UgiWIu&chmisft 



^'^<m^y<dd4qd] ^k^(^r?) fFT^fl 

tldP^i-^^'Ml- P<^fdPu<crl^^THHIdfu^-du^: || 3 || 
cTFirdyH<=Kl5fq ^t^hi 

'^I^H vm^\ d % Wti f^W^mT: I 
cTFTT^^l^dd^d: SJ+Pid:''H^IH^U-0 

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^=hq^Hcl % ch^dl'+lPef^ef 

tf^(+ T)fT( tft)^tWelRR( !^T)^ I 











































































TRANSLATION 


373 


SALUTATION TO GANESA 

4 • • 


1. At the command of a mere movement of the eyebrows arising out of the glory 
of the mind of the Lord of Laksrru (i.e. Visnu) dances the danseuse Maya who is of 
the form of the Universe and who possesses great attributes (or manifests the great 
multiplicity of the Universe). Who makes her dance ? He ( Laksmipati) makes her 
dance beautifully in His own forms (of incarnation) viz. Vamana and Nrsimha. I 
bow to them both, Maya and her Lord, who enact the play of the whole world. 

2. [Who is there] who does not know of the celebrated <srutikalita> venerability 
<gurutvam>, Origin from the Sun, lordship over the four seas, of the superiority (in 
position) to Indra, the loud acclaim (in battle) from the terrible <vikata> Warriors, 
the power gained from his discus <cakratva> (or his power to inflict pain on 
enemies): <cakkatva>, of the enjoyment of the [battle] sentiment (of valour) [of 
Akbar ?] 

3. In the beginning, there was an excellent king in the North, lord of Khurasana 
and Kekana [provinces], foremost hero among warriors in battle; he rejoiced in the 
name of Lihga prefaced with Timira (i.e. Timiralihga > Taimur lang)', [he was like] 
the wind which disperses the clouds called fierce enemies in awesome battle field 
and was, with the assemblage (i.e. expertise) of [his] thirtysix weapons, like the 
fierce Sun on earth which sundered the darkness called foes. 

4. Eigth from him in [descent] was born on this earth the king Babar. In warfield 
there were no heroes equal to him [even] among the Kings who were Guardians 
of the Quarters. Born from him shines the king Hummaii (Humayun) who gladdens 
his auspicious clan <srikulanandand>, who splendours like a treasure <nikara> of 
great majesty and who is a (veritable) lion in battle. 

5. From this milk ocean called Hummaii arose this Akbar whose excellent fame 
is like LaksmI, speech is like amrta (nectar), eyes like rasamani (?), smile like the 
parijata [flower], [whose] sportful grace is like Rambha, [whose] granting (of 
wishes) is like the kalpavrksa, [whose] giving happiness to good people is like Candra 
(Moon), who is like the [divine] physician [Dhanvantrin] in curing the disease 
called poverty, [who is like] the bow (or trident) ofRudra (?) and who alone shines 
like (all) the fourteen gems put together. 

6. The danseuse Night dances at this auspicious time of birth of King Akbar and 
revolves [so] fast in tir(i)pa [bhraman] that the string of her glorious <snkara> 
necklace is broken; the (numerous) gems (conches?) <jalaja> scattered from this 
very string are seen as star clausters in the sky, and the central gem (viz. Akbar) 
splendours like the full moon. 

7.0 king Akbarv/ho art an icon of (pure white, copious) fame like the kandaVi, 
Hari, Hara, Hari’s daughter ( Ganga ), Brahman, Tara and the Sword bear on their 





374 


NARTANAN1RNAYA 


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TRANSLATION 


375 


many powerful heads you (spotlessly white) fame (respectively in the form of) the 
gem (kaustubha?) Moon, Water, [aksa] mala, sakti and blade with determination 
<chala> and (so) prosper. 

8 . O king Akbar, your excellent fame is splendoured in the flow of the Gahga, 
the Himalayan mountain, the cliff (?) of the mount of ‘Siva’ (Kaildsa), airavata, the 
candrakanta gem (lustre of the Moon ?), milk-ocean, the white) lotus, blossomed 
flower, the (white) radiance of (Adi)sesa, Bala (rama), moonlight, gem (conch ?), 
amrta, smile of a beautiful woman and in the tip of the weapon (sword) blade. 

9 . Who is this Akbar. Arjuna (in valour), Kama (in gifts), or an incarnation of 
Hari ? Or (is he, because of) protecting the cow ( Veda ?), brahmana and the earth 
(even) in this Kali Age, the veritable Dharma in human form ? If counted as an 
individual own form, Akbaris only one; but he is twenty four in names. Indeed, we 
know that Brahman himself sports in the company of the five primordial elements 
(in the form of Akbar). 

10 . By the Stamping of his battalions <dala> of elephants, horses, chariots and 
infantry in crores, the bent into ups and downs (as hills and dales). [For the same 
reason] the hoods of the serpent (Adisesawho supports the earth on his head) hold 
up the breath (out of exertion) and exhales very slowly with dilatory movement (of 
the neck) so that his necklace is broken. 

11 . The (Rajya)laksmi (good fortune of a kingdom) of various kings sorrowfully 
roamed all over the three worlds (looking for shelter); coveting the lotus feet of 
Akbar, she (finally) settled there. The kings, bereft of their (Rajya)laksmi and 
trembling with fright day and night, fall at the feet of Akbar (straight) like a staff. 

12. In his seat at Delhi King Akbaris served by the kings of Kdsi, Kdsmira, Kahci, 
Maratha, Malaya, the mature Karnata, Lata, Vahga, Kohga, Tilahga, Mam, Kum, 
Kuluta, Haihya (Haihaya), Sauratta, Thattha, Rddha, Mevada, Gauda, Magadha, 
Dravida, Kalihga etc. 

13 . (On one such occasion ?) King Akbaris seated on his golden and bejewelled 
throne, accompanied by his retinue and faithful ministers before a dance pavilion 
which is decorated with various paintings, canopy, fly whisks of many kinds, flower 
garlands, lamps, incense and perfumes. 

14 . Akbar then witnesses a dance performed by excellent dancers who were 
expert in both desi and marga styles to the accompaniment of vxna, vamsa (flute), 


376 


NARTANANIRNAY4 


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TRANSLATION 


377 


tala (cymbals) hudukka, hinnari, kurma(mnd) and other special instruments, excellent 
musicians, litterateurs, singers and panegyrists. 

15. He then said, ‘Why are there contradictions and numerous departures in 
the practice and theory of this dance? Let the(se) enlightened <kavivara> experts 
make it consistent <ekavdcyarrt> in both practice and theory : Lord Akbar, jewel 
among kings having said this, Pandarika Vitthala effects [through this treatise] a 
simple uniformity in the practice and theory from the ancient (decayed) pathway 
(tradition) in sangita. 

16. (He said) ‘you, venerable scholars, renowned in (all) the three worlds and 
connoisseurs are competent to indulge <Ksamayitum> in both the correct and 
incorrect [statements] made by me (in this treatise). There is nothing in the three 
worlds which is capable of withstanding your shattering (criticism). (Therefore) 
respected sirs, please accept this (treatise) composed by me out of compassion or 
of love for me. 


INTRODUCTION TO THE SUBJECT-MATTER 

17. Sa>gita, which is of the nature of the threefold turya is declared to be 
nadabrahman. Song is said to be of the nature of nada; musical instrument is 
extolled because of its manifestation through nada. Nrtta follows both. (So) the 
three are subordinate to nada. 

18. Or, Sangita is said to be the face (or mouth) of the body of articulated sound 
<vak; speech t> which does not abide in [all] the three worlds without sangita. 

19. The syllable is manifested by nada, the word, from the syllable, and speech, 
from word. All this (worldly) transaction (accrues) from speech. Hence the world 
is subordinated to nada. 

20. Nada is stated to be twofold viz. ahata (sounded; lit. ‘struck’) and anahata 
(unsounded; lit. ‘not struck’). Of these, anahata nadais (worshipfully) practised by 
the sages. 

21. It bestows moksa (spiritual emancipation) [only when practised] in the 
manner taught by the guru (preceptor), but not (aesthetic) joy to the mind. Ahata 
(nada) is well known. It affords (aesthetic) joy and endows both mundane enjoyments 
and spiritual emancipation. This may be put into practice by means of sruti etc. 

22. Nothing is more enjoyable <ramya> than nada; there is nothing which 
affords more happiness than nada; there is no (spiritual or religions) meditation 
greater than nada; (indeed) there is nothing beyond nada. 



378 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


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TRANSLATION 


379 


23. Even Ananta (= Krsna), lord of the gopis is devoted to the flute. Brahma is 
enamoured of the song of the Samaveda. Sarasvatl clings to the vina. 

24. Maharudra wears the horn at the neck, (the famous semi-divine serpent duo 
singers) Kambala and Asvatara as earrings. What (then) [need to be said of] (the 
lesser beings such as) yaksa, gandharva, gods, demons and humans ? 

25. Even a child, ignorant of the tastes of sensuous pleasure, crying in its cradle, 
drinks in the nectar of sangita and attains to heights of joy. 

26. Even the young deer, a mere beast, roams in jungles, feeding only on grass, 
gives up its life, being enchanted by the ravishing music of the hunter. Even the 
great serpent lying in its ant-hill allows itself to be captured because it covets nada. 

27. Even Sarasvatl knows not the further shore of the nada-ocean. Who, then, are 
competent to laud the greatness of sangita ? 

28. Yajnavalkya (-smrti) says: ‘He who knows the principles of r'ma-playing), a 
Cognoscent of the Srutiand Smrtiand knows tala, attains moksa (Spiritual liberation) 

29. In the Asvamedha-prakaranaand in the Vedait is said: ‘let a brahmana duo sing 
gathas (while playing) on the vina. In the Rdgacandrodaya it is said: ‘The Lord of 
Rama (i.e. Visnu) abides in its neck; his consort (Rama), in the strings, Mahesa in 
the kakubha (bridge); (his consort) Uma is in the pattn. Brahma abides in the gourd; 
(his consort) Sarasvatl is in the nabhi. In the doraha (rope) 

30. (Is) the lord of serpents (Vasuki), the Moon in JIva, the Sun in the keys; 
similarly, the Asvin (duo) abide in the pair of pegs; Lord of the gods (Indra abides) 
in the meru. Thus the vina is full of divinities. 

31. [Even if merely] seen, it purifies a great sinner; what more (needs to be said) 
if it is held in the hands (and played)! This is why the savants speak of the rudravina 
which is beloved of Kapalin (Rudra). 




380 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


^Ri^Ri^rr yfcwiftwi^T 



cTr^T^n^fafa: WHIcJJI^T II 

?ip>i4l steift ^ i 

MW<l<*KU|d: obi 4 fHufi|d| W || 33 
ifcT HcfnfH«J^ 3RFsR*<jfW: 


















TRANSLATION 


381 


32. (Therefore) the vina, which is expounded in both the Sruti and smrti and 
is held (played) in the hands of Sarasvatl etc. and is the bestower of the fourfold 
human achievements, should be understood by the singer <kavi> in (all its) truth 
with special effort. 

33. Here (in this sastra) the subject-matter to be expounded is ananda, the 
expounder is this treatise; the (person) competent (to learn) is he who seeks to 
know; its aim is spiritual liberation. The ascertainment of the effect ( prayojana)<karya> 
is (to be inferred) from uninterrupted tradition, which is the cause <karana>. 

This ends the Praise of Akbar in Nartananirnaya (which is) composed by 
Sri Pundarika Vitthala or Karnata-jati. 














— 








COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


The additional text found in the Jaipur MSS Jl J2 J4 J5 and called Stuti by MB 
consists of 33 slokas. It is divided into two pordons of 16 and 17 slokas, called 
Prastavana and Visayapravessa respectively. These contain eulogies of PV’s patron 
Akbar and of sangita respectively. They may be called Akbara Stuti And Sangita Stuti 
respectively. They are composed in different metres: sardulavikndita 1,4,9,13,14, 
15; sragdharaS , 5,6,8,12; sikharini ? 16, mdlini2 , 7,10, 11; indravajra 29, 30,31,32; 
anustubh: 17-28,33. These contain numerous violations of prosodial rules. The text 
is often opaque. In the Akbar Stuti PV has exploited his unrestrained poetic 
enthusiasm to the point of indiscriminate, implausible simile: I have tried to restore 
the text through several conjectural emendations based on both intrinsic and 
extrinsic probability. Sangita Stuti is composed largely of borrowals or adaptations 
from SR, Veda, Yajnavalkya Smrti, Ragacandrodaya, Anjaneya etc. with only minor 
contribution from the author. 

The Akbar Stuti bears striking similarities with the beginning of Raga-manjari: 
Both scenes are set in the royal court, in the presence of musicians, dancers, 
scholars etc. In both the patron is aware of inconsistency between practice and 
theory of the art and asks the experts to reconcile both. It may be noted that PV is 
not personally or particularly invited to take up this task (as for instance, Ramamatya 
is by his royal patron to compose the SvaramelakalanidhiWixh the same objective); 
in both cases PV undertakes to.do so on his own, seeking the approval and sanction 
of-not his patron - but of the experts. The colophon to each chapter of the NN. 
emphasises such divergences and his attempt to concile the differences. It also 
states that this path of tradition had become worn out and decrepit, full of 
repressive forces. 

The Sangita Stuti is not wholly consistent with the main theme viz. dance. Both 
the introductory scenes of R] and NN delineate a situation involving dance, though 
the atmospheres are pious and aesthetic respectively. But the eulogy in the Sangita 
Stuti is limited to gita and vadya, especially to the vina; it is true that Sangita is 
defined at the very beginning of the passage as comprising the triad gita, vadya and 
nrtta, but not a word relating to dance is found in this ‘visaya pravesa’\ Such a 
relevance is well established by the author in the invocatory verse of the Stuti and 
of the actual NN. PV has done so in the mangalacarana sloka of each of his works in 
pun. 

2. It is not clear to whom or what this description refers and how it leads to the 
next sloka. 

3a. Khurasana and Kekana refer to provinces in Iran. These were remembered 
in the family history of the Mughal rulers at Delhi probably because Babar migrated 
from here to India. Kekana = Caucasus ? 


384 NARTANANIRNAY4 

3b. Timiralihgais an ingenious sanskritisation of Taimur Lang. Son of the tribal 
chieftain Taragai, he was born in Kesh in Tansoxania and was a bigoted champion 
of Islam. He is known to history as a fierce, cruel, terrorist, plunderer, arsonist and 
iconoclast with a megalomania of conquering the entire known world, in which he 
succeeded to a large extent. His empire included the then Mongolian empire, 
Transoxamia, Kashgar, Samarkand, Persia, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Mesapotamia, 
Georgia, parts of Russia, Egypt etc. He crossed the Sindhu river on 24th September 
1398, vanquished Muhammed bin Tughlak on 17th December at Panipat; he 
plundered it for 17 days and then plundered and razed the city of Meerut on 9th 
January 1399. Then he moved to Haridwar, Kangda and Jammu, he returned to 
Samarkand on 19th Marth 1399 taking with him hundreds of engineers, architects, 
artisans and artists besides vast building materials from Hindu temples out of which 
he built a masjid in Samarkand. He lived from 1336 to 1405 A.D. 

3d. Sattrimsad sastrasahgha : Only the following thirty two (a sacred number) 
weapons are known to Sanskrit literature: 

Cakra, bhindivala, bhrsundi, drghana, damsakahtaka, ilahasta, isu, musala, maustika, 
mayukha, laguda, lavitra, parigha, prasa, pasa, sakti, sataghni, sira, sthuna, tomara, 
gada, gosirsa, amuktavajra, astara, asidhenuka, pattasa, mudgara, pinaka, kunta, kalaratri, 
yapana, nalika (Nitiprakasika, Samkhydratnakosamdta p. 290). 

bana, khadga, tomara, stoma, srga, ceri, sakti, yasti, bhindivala, parigha, parasu, gada, 
prasa, mudgara, musala, sula, pasa, cakra, musundi, vajra, danda, hala, asani, kunta, 
arista, krakaca, sahku, totra, venu, trisula, kusula (Vidyakalpataruvu p. 13). 

khadga, karacuri, kakkada, kadugatti, senegatti, sabala, iti, idurugatti, ubbana, 
kabbi(na)kolu, Cakra, Candu, Voti, calleha, balleha, hahku, hana, nede, naradi, sula, 
siradi, curi, cikka-kathari, kirase, parasu, pasa, patteya, matta, ahkusa, varhki, laudi, 
Javadade (Kannada names, Vivekacintamani, 262, 263; 6.4.34). 

PV may have derived the number thirty six from Islamic tradition, by conflation 
of sources such as the above, or from the armoury of Akbar’s army. 

3d. bhumi-candah : another sun, on the earth besides the one in the Sky, or as 
if the sun in the sky descended to the earth; canda, fierce because of proximity. 

4a. astamako ’pi babara nrpo: Zahiruddln Muhammad Babar 1483-1530, founder 
of the mughal empire, poet, dairyist. He had Taimur laiig as ancestor on the 
paternal side andjenghis khan for ancestor on maternal side. He vanquished the 
sultan of Delhi, Afghans of Bengal and Bihar, as well as the Rajputs of Rajasthan and 
consolidated his throne at Delhi. 

5. PV has elaborated a simile into a series in this sloka: Hummau (Humayun) is 
here likened to kstra samudra (milk ocean) and Akbar to its major product. The 
Bhagavata purana, Mahabharata and other puranas describe how the gods and the 
demons churned the milk ocean for elixir amrta. During this, the ocean gave up 
many of its precious gifts and all of them (except poison) were white. Some of these 
viz. Laksmi, Amrta, Rasamani, Parijata, Rambha, Kalpavrksa, Candra, Dhanvantari, 
Pinaka( ?) - are here imaged as born together with Akbar as his attributes, which are 






COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


385 


pure and radiant. The comparison is Laksmi-i ame, Amrta- speech, Rasaman i-eyes, 
Parijata- smile, Rambha-sporxivd grace, Kamadhenu- philanthropy, Candra- gift of 
happiness to good people, Dhanvantari - destruction of poverty. The milk ocean 
also yield Kaustubha and thirteen other precious gems. 

6. This sloka informs us that Akbar was born at night on a full moon. PV relates 
the birth of Akbar to a cosmic dance and shows that the stars and the moon 
appeared as a consequence of such dance. The cause of this, viz. tiripa bhramari is 
described by PV in the NN (4.2.558). He has again related the theme of his treatise 
viz. dance, to another cosmic dance, now involving both a nata (Laksmlpati) and 
a natl (Maya), which to the origin of the playful emergence of the multiplicity of the 
cosmos (NN. 1.1.1). PV here returns to the theme of gems, fourteen of which arose 
during cosmic creation in Ksirasamudra manthana; each of this comparable to a 
tithi, and its totality to the full moon. Kari is elephant, hasti\ was Akbar born on a 
full moon night when the naksatra was hash ? 

7. KandaTi is a flowering plant which yields huge quantities of pure white, 
fragrant flowers. The central idea here is the fame of Akbar, which is spotless, 
radiant white. All divine manifestations of white are but representations of Akbar’s 
fame and therefore prosper. Indeed, these symbols of his fame are borne proudly 
by the divinities on their very heads : Hari - (Kaustubha) mani (on Chest ?), Hara- 
Moon, Hariputrl (Gaiiga) Brahma-aksamala i.e. rosary of crystal gems, Tara 
(Durga)-sakti (trident), Asl (Sword) (reminder of Akbar’s Valour in battle) - tip of 
the blade. 

8 . The idea of the radiant whiteness of Akbar’s fame is extended in this sloka 
also. It is symbolised wherever pure whiteness occurs far and near, beautiful and 
dear : flow of Gaiiga, snow capped Himalaya mountain, the silver cliff of Kailasa, 
Airavata the white elephant which is the royal mount of Indra, the white lotus, the 
(white) flower in bloom, the white Adisesa serpent which is the bed of Visnu, 
Balarama who is fair in complexion in contrast with his brother Krsna, the white, 
cool moonlight, stars, gems (conch ?), amrta, and the smile of the beautiful belle, 
also, in the tip of the battle weapons. Wherever these occur, there abides Akbar’s 
fame. 

9. Akbar is eulogised for his many excellent qualities; as an implausible 
extreme, he is compared to Parabrahman in material manifestation. 

10. After extolling his patron’s fame and attributes, the author now turns to his 
battle prowess and uses a hyperbole to express it. All the ups and downs on earth 
are caused by the marching of his army; even Adisesa who supports the weight of 
the earth on his head, feels tired because of the weighty stamping of Akbar’s army, 
and exerts with bated and slow breath. In doing so, he dilates his hood; the mark 
on his chest (hood) now looks like a broken up garland, with free, ringed ends. 

11. PV is now gradually moving towards his denouement about composing the 
NN. As a first step, he mentions the numerous kings of lands far and near, who seek 


386 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


refuge from him. Many of these names are improbable; some are ancient and 
forgotten, such as kuru, kuluta, Muru? Magadha; some like the kings of Karnataka 
(the just fallen Vijayanagar or its feudal states, had not sought the shelter of his 
white umbrella at all. Radha is a small region is west Bengal. Korigawasawell known 
South Indian State of the Tamils, who had not at this time, any alliance or affiliation 
with Akbar. Tatthais unknown. If it is corrupt for Ratta, this was a small state on the 
Western Ghats, around Saundatti, but long gone and forgotten. 

The fifty six countries (enumerated in traditional accounts) comprising India 
in early days are : 

Ariga, Vanga, Kalihga, Telunga, Koriga, Lata, Bahgala, Cola, Kerala, Gauda, 
Paricala, Simhala, Kuntala, Nepala, Malayala, Tuluva, Saindhava, Kohkana, Kuru, 
Magadha, Matsya, Vidarbha, Kosala, Surasena, Kasmlra, Maharastra, Karnata, 
Kirata, Turuska, Sankara, Barama, Tigarta, Nisadha, Madhya, Jalna, Barbara, 
Bah Ilka (Lata ?), Caina, Karala, Odra, Ghuijara, Kambhoja, Saurastra, Sauvlra, 
Pandya, Huna, Yavana Mleccha, Haihaya, Aryavarta, Bhoja, Dvaipa, Amaraka, 
Uttara Kuru, Graiti ( Vivekacintamani , 4.404). 

Ariga, Vanga, Kalihga, Karnata, Kerala, Kamarupa, Gauda, Vanavasa, Kuntala, 
Kohkana, Magadha, Surastra, Malava, Lata, Bhota, Varata, Sahara, Kukara, Kuru, 
Avanti, Pandya, Madra, Simhala, Ghurjara, Parasika, Mithila, Pancala, Surasenl, 
Gandhara, Bahlika, Haihaya, Tangava, Salva, Pundraka, Pragjotisa, Matsya, Cedi, 
Barbara, Nepala, Gaula, Kasmlra, Kanyakubja, Magadha, Khurasana, Maharastra, 
Kosal, Kekaya, Ahicchatra, Trilinga, Prayaga, Karahataka, Kambheja, Bhoja, Cosa, 
Huna, KasI ( Sivatattvaviratnakara , 5.4.2, 5.11; Sabdaratnakaramu, 560). 

Ariga, Malayala, Malava, Magadha, Barbara, Kalinga, Kasmlra, Kohkana, Sindhu, 
Hammlra, Vanga, Hoysala, Tuluva, Cola, Cerama, Pandya, Yavana, SauvTra, Matsya, 
Bahgala,Jaina.Jonega, Sagara, Haiviga, Teluga, Gurjara, Gaula, Nepala, Saurastra, 
Sihgala, Dravida, Kamboja, Lata, Pancala, Vaidarbha, Kuru, Kukula, Karahata, 
Karpara, Avantika, Pariyatra, Karnata, Kosala, Mandabhadra, Kuntala, Mahaclna, 
Videha, Bhotaka, Turuska, Oddiya, Parusika, Mahaghotaka, Pulindaka, Strl rajya, 
Korigu, Maratha ( Cennabasavapurunam , 1.6.49-51). 

13. The second step of the author is the preparation for the dance performance. 
So the dance pavilion and the auditorium are next described. The emperor is 
seated before the dance pavilion on his throne with ministerial and other attendants. 

14. The third step is the witnessing of the dance recital as well as describing the 
accompanying instruments ( samprudaya ). PV explicitly states that both marga and 
deststyles of dancing were performed before the king and courtiers. He has defined 
these terms following Sarrigadeva (NN. 1.106-108, p. 120). The dance forms 
described by him towards the end of NN — both nibandha and anibandhas viz. 
mukhacaU, urupas, dhvadas, bidulagas, sabdacaU, different varieties of sabda, svara 
mantha, gita, prabandha, cinda varieties, dharus, dhruvapada, svarabhinaya, as well as 
ndmavati, yati, neri varieties, kaivartana, muru tdlariipakas, gundala, malaka, mandi, 





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mudupa, murandan , kudupa, tiryakarana, lavani , and vatu —are all dance forms 
and are stated by PV to be as such (NN. 4.2.339) NN. contains no marga forms of 
gita , vadyaand nrtta. In other words, both nibandha and anibandha which he defines 
and describes only in the context of mtfabutnot gitaand vadya , are comprehended 
in desi . PV classifies both nibadha and anibaddha gana under (3.2.1, 2). 

15. Thus PV gradually leads to the reason for composing the NN. viz. inconsistency 
between practice and theory as well as the numerous styles in dancing which must 
have prevailed in Akbar’s court which witnessed the confluence of both native and 
exotic varieties. But he nowhere points out, throughout NN. where and how the 
inconsistencies occurred in the dances he describes as Kallinatha, for example does 
for raga and tala and Ramamatya does for svara and mela (e.g. intervals, scales, 
temperament, accordature, tonicity, range, keyboard). That the sangitamargahad 
becom ejirna in his days is confirmed by authorities before, during and immediately 
after him such as Sarngadeva, Kallinatha, Ramamatya, Govinda DIksita, Somanatha, 
Venkatamakhin and others. PV sets for himself the task of a simple, uniform and 
consistent presentation of sangita in its threefold aspect. He iterates this problem 
and aim in the colophon to each chapter of the NN. as well as towards the end of 
the treatise (NN. 4.2.675). He is justified in both aim and theme because the court 
of Akbar must have witnessed a proliferation of sangita into a bewildering complexity 
of form, content and style due to internal and external cultural dynamics. 

16. As in the case of Ragamanjarl, PV is inspired or impelled by his patron’s 
command or suggestion and pressents it in the royal court in the presence of 
experts. It is to be noted that he seeks acceptance of his treatise not from the king 
but from the experts, towards whom he shows deference. ‘ TribhuvanaprasiddhaW 
may have been of course an exaggeration but it is true that he is addressing experts 
in music and dancing who thronged to the royal court of Akbar from far and near 
from different cultures. The very fact a treatise in Sanskrit was presented in such a 
diverse assembly is indicative of its sympathetic reception, for the court of Akbar was 
attuned to a keynote of synthesis and harmony in the spiritual, religious, cultural, 
social and political areas under the enlightened leadership and visionary enthusiasm 
of Akbar himself. 

17a. turyatraya : ‘Turya’ is derived by Panini (Astadhyayl, II. 4.2.) from ‘tura’, as 
also from ‘turi’ (III. 1.97, ‘yat’) andbyHemacandra (Abhidhanacintamani,II. 286) 
from ‘tur + nyat’. This verbal stem belongs to class IV and means, to move hastily 
( gati-tvarana) and to inflict himsa ( himsayah ); turyate = tadyate (beaten). It 
connotes a musical instrument by semantic extension. Turya (nom.), taurya (adj.) 
are known to Sanskrit literature from very early times and is found in Katha- 
upanisat (1.1.125), Mahabharata (Bombay edn. 1.122.45; 1.96, 97; 1.148.46, 
1.200,27, 39 etc.), Ramayana (3.35.19; 5.4.5; 6.10.4; 6.11.9 etc.). 

Singing, instrumental music and dance have creation, expression and enjoyment 
of beauty or rasa as their raison d etre and have thus common origin, nature, 



388 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


technique, method and objective. Therefore they are found to possess a natural, 
mutual affinity and are collectively transacted in all cultures. Dependence of dance 
on singing and musical instrumentation and of the latter on singing is also a reason 
for this. Historically, the development has proceeded in the direction glta-vadya- 
nrtta. This collectivisation, after reaching a climax in the 13th cent. A.D., has, 
interestingly, proceeded in the reverse direction, till today, when sangita connotes 
singing by and large. The mutual affinities gita-vadya , gita-nrtta and vadya-nrtta in 
the course of their history will be illustrated in the next comment (‘ sangita ). 

Turya originally connoted musical instrument, probably the percussive: 
‘turyam murajadau bhavam : “an” (PaninI, 4.3.53). The epics Ramayana and 
Mahabharata employ the word ‘ turya’ exclusively to mean musical instrument. The 
term ‘atodya’ (an + tud + nyat) was developed later to connote it. Kautalya uses turya 
repeatedly (Arthasastra, 1.19.16; 2.27.44; 2.36, 57; 5.3.91; 7.17.123; 13.3.172, 
14.3.179 etc.) to refer to musical instrument. One of the earliest uses of turyatraya 
(or tauryatrika) in the collective sense of singing, playing musical instrument and 
dancing is found in Manu ( Manu-smrti 7.47) as explained by his commentator 
(Kullukabhatta, Manvartha-muktavaR , under ibid. loc. cit.). Another similar use is 
by Amarasimha (Amarakosa 1.7.10). Who seems to synonymise tauryatrika with 
natyaas interpreted by his commentator Kslrasvamin (Amarakosodghatana under 
ibid. loc. cit.). This view has not found further support in textual tradition. 
Mahesvara, another foremost commentator of Amarasimha (under ibid loc. cit.) 
interprets the passage, restricting tauryatrika to npta , gita and viidya (and suggests 
that 'turya 1 originally means i murajadi +, tatra bhavam tauryam’. ‘Muraja’ is taken as 
upalaksana to include other instrumental classes and taurya to include gita and 
vadya. However, Bhavabhuti (Uttara-ramacarita, act4,p. 122) echoes Amarasimha 
and describes Bharata-muni as tauryatrika-sutrakara. Bharatamuni however, has 
himself used turn to and turya to mean musical instrument, taurika to mean a 
musical instrumentalist and turyapati to mean an expert in playing all musical 
instruments (Natyasastram, 35.27). In a connotative extension, he includes Bharata 
(actor), Vidusaka (comedian, jester, taurika (instrumentalist), nata and vadi as 
bharatasraya (ibid. 35.21). 

However, the term tauryatrika has been stablised in textual tradition in the 
collective sense of gita , vaditra and nrtta (or nartana ) e.g. Somesvara (Manasollasa, 
4.16.4-8), Sarngadeva (Sangitaratnakara, 7.1351). 

In some rare instances (e.g. Markandeyapuranam 103.63) tiiryaand vaditraare 
mentioned together suggesting a difference in meaning, the former term restricted 
to the percussives and the latter to cover all other musical instrument classes (viz. 
chordo-phones, aerophones and idiophones). 

17b. sahgitam : The history of Indian music theory is witness to an interesting 
evolutional phenomenon viz. extension of the connotation of a term to its cognate 
subjects and collective usage of the term for the entire group; in course of time, this 



COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


389 


is reversed, using the collective term only for partial affinities, finally resticting it to 
denote only one member of the group. The terms turya, atodya, gandharva and 
sangita are instances of this kind. 

The word sangita is formed by adding the prefix ( upasarga ) ‘sam’ to ‘gita’. ‘Gita’ 
is derived from the verbal stem ‘gai ’ (class I, bhvadi, nityaparasmaipadi, occasionally 
atmanepadi) by the addition of ‘ktah ‘Gai’is found in the second class ‘adadi’ (gati 
etc.) and the third class ‘juhotyadi’ ( ‘jigati’e tc.). Its primary meaning is ‘to sound’, 
but is extended to ‘rhythmic singing’ Amarasimha synonymises gita with gana 
(1.7.25) while Hemacandra (op. cit., 2.294) synonymises the terms geyam, gzti/i and 
gandharvam. Hemacandra includes gitavadya nrtyaas well as natyaunder tauryatrika, 
thus comprehending both the visual and the aural aspects of the natya experience, 
through an associative process. This probably indicates an interim phase which 
occurred before the gtia-vadya-nrtta trio separated as an independent entity. 

The prefix ‘sam’ in sangita has two sementatic directions : (i) sam, = well, 
completely, well adorned, comprehensively etc. (ii) sam= sakala (whole). The first 
refers to only gita (song). The second also has two interesting semantic tributaries. 
The first of these means collective singing, sangayana (cf. Sarikhayana Brahmana 
and Katyayana Srauta sutra. This wasjoined somewhat later (as found in purana and 
poetry) by instrumental accompaniment and culminated in about the 12th cent 
A.D. by absorbing dancing also. Then the term reversed the collectivisation, 
indicating only singing and instrument playing and finally, only singing. 

Thus sangita connoted only singing in the beginning. Among such copious 
textual references, only afewmay be cited here: Kalidasa (Purvamegha56, Uttaramegha 
1; Malavikagnimitram Act 1, p. 6; Act V, p. 92), Banabhatta ( Kadamban, Uttarabhaga, 
45, in which sangita is mentioned separately besides vina, venu, muraja and to refer 
to singing alone), Bhasa (Pancaratra). Most references in the puranas associate 
sangftawith singing only equating it with gandharva ; e.g. Vayu purana(86.26; 36.69), 
Visnupurana (3.6.28), Bhagavata purana 9.3.30; 10.21),Brahmandapurana (4.17.33; 
4.19.62; 4.17.46). This is more or less true of epigraphic sources also e.g. Epigraphia 
Cornatica 7. Sk. 176,4. Ng. 3; 5. ii. Hn. 89, Bl.l6,58,71, Hn. 116, B1.58 etc.; South 
Indian Inscriptions 9. i. 159 etc.), wherein the convention is to refer to singing by 
sangita, dancing by bharata and instruments by vadya. 

The earliest reference to sangita as singing in a musicological context is found 
in Bharata on at least three occasions(op. cit. 36.33,34.181 and 34.299). The words 
sangayana (sarn+‘gai’), sahgiyate mean singing together e.g. Sankhayana Srauta- 
sutra, Kathasaritsagara and some puranas. Exclusivity of singing in sangita yielded 
place in course of time to predominance of singing; this was true of tauryatrika also. 
A transition of such usage in clearly seen in Abhinavagupta (Abhinavabharati, 
under Natyasastram 1.14-18. 26.35, 27.93, 35.21, 27 etc.). Thus the concept of 
collectivity of singing was broadened to connote collectivity of singing with 
instruments, and later, with dancing also, including the last two by upalaksana. 



390 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


As mentioned above, a study of the use of the terms g.ta, vadya and nrtta in Veda, 
epic, classical Sanskrit literature etc. shows a gradual trend of individual reference 
and dual groupings in the permutations gita-vadya, gUa-nrtta and vadya-nrtta and 
the total complex of gita-vddya-nrttaunder tauryatrikaznd sangita. Thus dance alone 
is mentioned in a metaphorical reference to Ushas in the Rgveda (1.92.4); song and 
dance are clubbed together in the context of yajna and yaga: Taittinya samhita 
(6.1.4; 7.5.8-9), Tandy a Brahmana (5.6.8), Baudhayana Srauta Sutra { 16.21) Apastamba 
Srauta Sutra (21.17), Satyasadha Hiranya Srauta Sutra (16.6-21), Kdtyayana Srauta 
Sutra (13.3-21), Latyayana Srauta Sutra (4.2-5) etc. Singing to ones own 
accompaniment on the vinais mentioned in TaittinyaBrahmana (3.9.14), Satapatha 
Brahmana (13.1.5), Baudhayana Srauta Sutra (15.8.9), Apastamba Srauta Sutra 
(20.6), Satyasadha Hiranya Srauta Sutra (14.2), Katyayana Srauta Sutra (20.2, 3), 
Chandogya upanisat (8. 2,8) etc. Singing with dancing is mentioned frequently in 
Vedic literature in the context of various sacrificial rites e.g. Tandy a Brahmana (5.6), 
AitareyaAranyaka (1.1), Baudhayana Srauta Sutra (16.22,23), Apastamba Srauta Sutra 
(21.11, 20), Satyasadha Hiranya Srauta Sutra (16.6.39-41), Kdtyayana Srauta Sutra 
(13.3), Latyayana Srauta Sutra (4.3.1), Drahyayana Srauta Sutra (11.3.17-19) etc. 
Dancing to the accompaniment of musical instrument is not infrequent in Vedic 
literature e.g. Sukla Yajurveda Samhita (30.20). It is superfluous to say that these 
were reflections of social usage and convention, but standardised and formalised 
by special prescription. 

That such mutual affinities were an on-going phenomenon is witnessed by the 
epics and puranas and similar literature. A few instances may be cited here : 
Ramayana : gita-vaditra (2.61.6, 2.88.8; 3.35.9; 4.27.27; 33, 21; 43, 53; 61.6 etc.) 
nrttavaditra (ibid. 2.69.4; 5.10.32; 6.91,89); gita-vdditra-nrtta (2.48,37; 91.25-28,49. 
5.20.10); Mahabharata : gita-vaditra (2.9.30; 4.11.23), gita-nrtta (1.77.15; 4.3.47; 
38.56/13.98,89; 159.24); gLtavaditranartana. (1.70.24; 9.5.11.12; 131.36-48; 239.4- 
5/2.7.25; 8.38; 9.30/; 71.38-41/ 3.4.3.48-43, 45.43-44/4.3.46; 11.18; 38.55; 77.9/ 
etc.) KhantivadiJataka(3A0 ), RdyaPesaniyaSutta (211), NayaDhammakahao (1.23), 
Samavayanga Sutra etc; Kautalya ( Arthasastra 1.12.8; 1.1.19; 2.27.44), Gautama 
Dharma Sutra (1.5.18). 

It is not known precisely when the gita-vadya-nrtta trio came to be collectively 
designated as sangita. The earliest known explicit reference is found in the 
Kannada work called Abhidhana vastukosa of Nagavarma II composed in the royal 
court of Jagadekamalla IV of the Calukyas (12.13). Among musicological texts, 
Sangita ratnakara is the earliest known work which explicitly states that gita etc. trio 
is collectively called sangita (1.1.21). It also emphasises the predominance of gita 
among them (1.1.24-25). This is almost universally seen with or without defining 
the term sahgitairom about the 12th cent.A.D. as revealed in the titles of such works 
: (S = Sangita-) S-meru (Kohala), S-makaranda (Narada), S-ratnavali (Mammata; 
Somarajadeva), S-cudamani (Jagadekamalla), S-sudhakara (Haripaladeva, 



COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


391 


Simhabhupala), S-samayasara (Parsvadeva), S-ratnakara (Sarngadeva), S-sara 
(Vidyaranya, Harinayakaetc.), S-kalanidhi (Kallinatha), S-upanisatsaroddhora (Sudha 
kalasa), S-cintamani (Vema bhupala), S-muktavali (Devendra, Devannabhatta), 
S-raja (Kumbhakarna), S-darpanam ( Catura Damodara) S-suryodaya (Laksml- 
narayana), S-makaranda (Veda), S-sudha (Govinda Dlksita), S-setu (Gaiiga rama), 
S-bhaskara (Jagajjyotirmalla), S-ratnakara (Bhanuraka and other authors), S-damodara 
(Subhamkara), S-sar (Pratapa siihha), S-saroddhara (Kikaraja), S-sdramrta 
(Tulajendra), S-narayana (Narayanadeva, Purusottamamisra?), S-cintamani (Kamala 
locana) et al. 

An interesting question may be posed here : It has been shown that the term 
turya indicated each of git a, vadya and nrtta. Did—or does—the term sangita refer 
to each of them similarly ? The answer is, no. Unlike turya which had a plural form 
turyani, sangita does not have a plural form. Tauryatrika is a collective term for the 
three turyas. e.g. each of gita, vadya and nrtta is called turya, whereas sangita is 
collective of all three of them taken together, and each or any of them is not called 
sangita. This is why treatises dealing separately with each of the trio was not entitled 
as sangita-. Examples of these are GitaratnavaU, Vadyaratnavati and Nrttaratnavali 
(Jayasenapati), Svaramela kalanidhi (Ramamatya), Raga candrodaya, Rdgamala, 
Ragamanjan, Nartananirnaya (Pandarlka Vitthala), Raga Vibodha (Somanatha), 
Rdgalaksanamu (Shahaji), Caturdandiprakasika. 

The process of deglutination continued in the 17th-18th cent, narrowing 
progressively. First, many fine arts which were generally or collectively designated 
as silpa, kala, vidyae tc. separated into the naf^a-complex as recorded by Bharatamuni. 
Then the components of natya viz. gita, and Vaditra deglutonated from this 
complex as a single entity called gandharva. Again, the gita-vddya-nrtta triad became 
naturally agglutinated and separated as a single entity under the name of tauryatrika 
or turyatraya after each acquired a general connotation of turya. This was transformed 
with an individual glutinous unit viz. jangitawhich denoted all three together, but 
none-individually. This collective or integral status continued for some five centuries 
when deglutination started again. As a consequence, each of the triad came to be 
separately treated, but, especially gita, came to be represented by the generic term 
sangita itself. This trend seems to have begun with Sangtiaparijata (Ahobala). 
Among works which deal with only gita but are named as sangita treatises, the 
following may be mentioned: (S: sangUar)-. S-kalpavrksa, Anupa-S-ankusa, Aniipa-S- 
1 'iidsa, Anupa-S-ratnakara, S-raghava, S-kambda, Spatra, Spuspanjali, S-sarasangrahamu, 
S-sundara, S-ratnamala, S-sarvartha sarasangraha, S-vinoda, S-gangadhara, 
S-svaralaksana, S-laksanadipika, S-laksana, S-sastra dugdhabdhi, S-raga kalpadruma, 
S-sdstra samksepa, S-candra, S-m, S-raghunandana, S-bhaskara, S-candrika, S-sahgraha- 
antdmani, S-aditya, S-malae tc. Most treatises composed on only gita in the 20th cent, 
contain the word Sangita in their names. Some of these deal with vadya also e.g. 
v sarasangraha (Sourindra Mohun Tagore), S-bhava (Maharana of Dharmapur, 





392 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


Sanglt of India (Atlya begum) Hindusthani Spaddhati (V.N. Bhatkhande) and 
others in North India, S-sampradayapradarsini (Subbarama DIksita), S-ratnavali , 
S-citrambari, S-cintamani (K.V. Srinivasa Iyengar), S-jhanakalanubhavamu 
(Venkataramanayya), S-cillakkoravai, S-rasarnavam, S-Anandaratnakaram 
(Venkatanarasimhachar), S-tattvapradarsirii (Vedantabhagavata), S-samayasara 
(Subrahmanya Ayyar), S-saruasacintamani (P.B. Srinivasa Iyengar), S-kalpadruma 
(Muttayyabhagavata), S-svarajndnabodhinx (Muttukumarapillay), S- 
prathamasiksaprakarana , Karnataka S-vidvangal etc. etc. in South India. The term 
samgita has now stabilised largely for gita and occasionally for vadya. For a detailed 
study of turya, turyatraya , samgitaetc. Vide Sathyanarayana, R., Bharatiya sarhgitadalli, 
Paribhasa prayoga (pp. 11-18, 66-79). 

The word turyatrayawas normally employed in the context of dance. The word 
sangita was normally employed to refer to the gita etc. triad during the time of 
PandarikaVitthala. Since his work deals with dance but dealing with gita and a little 
on Vadya (flute) it is appropriate that he defines sangita as a synonym of Turyatraya. 

17ab. nada brahma : The relevance of nadabrahma to the subject of nartana or 
nartaka is somewhat oblique and is established in the next sloka. Sarrigadeva, to 
whom Pandarika Vitthala is divectly indebted for the concept of nadabrahma, 
renders the relevance more direct and immediate because he follows it up with gita 
which is the most predominant of the gitae tc. triad (Sr. 1.1.25). He relates his thesis 
to nadabrahma in the very opening mahgalacarana<um-anubandhacatustaya sloka 
and in the opening verse of the third prakarana of the first chapter ( svaragatadhyaya ) 
in the form of a (repeated) obeisance at the commencement of his description of 
gita. Thus both are highly appropriate. In the first, he describes two forms of 
nadabrahma : anahata which is unmanifest, without name, form, attribute; ahata , 
which is manifest, with name, form and attribute. He accomplishes this description 
through a beautiful pun on nadabrahmagita and his istadaivav iz. Samkara. This is 
a general, common rationale of his whole thesis. In the second, he defines or 
describes the concept of nadabrahma as of the nature of sat-cit-ananda , nondual, 
manifest in all its multiplicity through the process of inversion. 

Nadabrahma is a conceptual extension of sabdabrahma and sphota of the 
Grammarian philosophy, according to which brahmanis of the nature Sabda which 
again is Omnipresent, nondifferentiated (and therefore nondual), unmanifest, 
partaking of nada-bindu , the basis of the creative activity of Parasiva and is the 
primary cause of the Word and its meaning. This is the external and undifferentiated 
(whole) Sphota. This is extrapolated, mutatis mutandis , as a philosophy of sangita by 
Sarhgadeva, who seems to be influenced by Matanga also on the subject. Thus 
nadabrahmais trifold in its aspects of sat (existence), cit (Consciousness energy) and 
ananda (spiritual bliss). Everything which is, of the nature of or result ( Karya) of the 
primordial cause, viz. caitanya. This is in the form of jnana in all beings. It is the 
substrate of and is manifest as all cosmic existence (sat) . It is also ananda: ‘anando 



COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


393 


brahmeti vy-ajanat 9 (Taittirlya upanisat). Kallinatha succintly summarises the sphota 
dimension of the nadabrahma concept (Sarigltakalanidhi, under Sh. 1.3.1, p. 63 
Adyar edn): 

nado hi sphotatmana samasta-padartha-prahasakatva-sadharmyena caitanya- 
ropavisoyatvdccaitanyamjagaddtmandparidrsyamdna-cardcaraprapahcdkdrena vivrttam 
atattvato ’nyathabhiitam, nade srutivarnddi-sakalasabdaprapahcapratibhasa-sadharmyena 
ndmarupollikhitasya jagato’py-adhisthandropatvat, anandam abhivyanjake’smin a- 
bhivyangyanandaruparopat, tad-iti sarvalokaprasiddham, nadabrahma , nadaevabrahmety- 
abheda-pradhanya dropavisayabhiitanddan-apahnave Caitanyadyavayavayuktatvena 
samasta vastuvisayam savayavarupakam. 

Nada is accorded an honoured place in many Indian philosophical systems. 
According to Tantra, nada and bindu are cosmic categories of sakti. A qualitative 
distrubance ( gunaksobha) in brahman gives rise to spanda , which is called maya, 
sakti, devi etc. The entire corpus of speech (Communication) accrues from spanda 
through dhvani and vak. The whole world is formed composed of the five 
primordial elements through the pressure and concentration of spanda. The world 
is the objective correspondence to the speech corpus. Brahman enters this as jiva 
and conducts worldly transactions. According to the pratyabhijha school, Siva and 
Saktiaxe non differentiated; but the individual sovXjiva becomes subordinate to the 
three impurities viz. anava , karya and mayikaand loses awareness of this nonduality. 
Moksa consists of removal of these impurities and of attaining to ones real nature 
which is Siva. At the beginning of creation, there is spanda ; from spanda is derived 
nada and binduirom nada ; sabda derives from nada and the three impurities, from 
iabda. These impurities cause the individual soul’s bondage. 

Ganapatya holds nadanusandhana as the only means to moksa. In Snvidya the 
Goddess Sri will appear manifest to the yogin practising the extra mudra , in the form 
of the nine nada varieties. The first bija mantra of the pancadasi and sodasi mantras 
signifies nada. The Srividya hrllekha is the integrand of the nine phases of nada 
manifestation. The Lalitasahasranaman repeatedly describes Lalita as of the nature 
of nada (e.g. names 236, 237, 299, 328, 350, 366-371, 455, 630, 640, 678, 833, 846, 
S50,851,901,909). Samkara, explicates the names in the Lalita trisati that she is of 
the nature of Caitanya and of the form of nada. Purvamlmamsa holds that sabda 
which is the quality of akasa (space) is two fold viz. ahata and anahata and refutes 
±e Nai\ayika view that sabdais ephemeral with the contention that the ephemerality 
lies in preception and not in sabda. The five Bindu-upanisats expound nada as 
: rahman. According to Mantra sastra nada is manifested by the union of pranavayu 
md bodyfire. Nadayoga is a major branch of Yoga according to which in certain 
zostures and states, the yogi perceives various forms of anahata nada in different 
z arts of the body, and dissolves them progressively into his purified consciously, 
Jrimately attaining the unmani (‘beyond-mind’) state, as is described in 
Hc^hayogapradipikd , Hamsa-upanisat, Svacchan. 




394 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


17c-f. gitam .... trayam : cf. Jagadekamalla ( Sangitacudamani , MS Copy in Sri 
Varalakshmi Academy, Mysore), pp. 4-5: 

svaradigitavddyam ca talasceti catustayam / 
siddhyanti na vina nadat, tasmdn nadatmakam jagat / 
bindur utpadyate nadannadannikhila vanmayam // 

On mutual dependency of Vadya and nrtta on gtta cf SR. 1.1.24 cd : 
nrttam vadyanugam proktam vadyam gitdnuvarti ca / 

18cd. tannasti... vartanam : cf. SB. 1.1.1 cd: nadatanumtamuddhurajagad-gitam/ 
Pandarlka Vitthala develops this theme in the next sloka. 

19. nadena .... jagat : is borrowed literally from S.R. 1.2.1. Thus nada is the 
substiate of all spoken sound (sabdabrahman) and without the spoken word, of 
musical sound. 

20ab. ahato . nigadyate : is borrowed literally from S.R. 1.2.3ab. 

20cd-21ab. tatra . ranjanam : is an adaptation from SR. 1.2.166 : 

tasmad ahata-nadasya srutyddidvdrato’khilam / 
geyam vitanvato lokaranjanam bhavabhanjanam / 
utpattim abhidhasyamas tatha srutyadi-hetutam // 
gurupadistamargena munayah samupasate / 
so 5 pi raktivihinatvan na manoranjakam nrnam / 

21ab-cd. ahatas tu .... bhavet: is an adaptation from SR. 1.2.166 : 

2. na nadat . paratarah : Supremacy of nada is sought to be brought out by 

other authorities in other ways : 

Matanga {Brhaddesil. 18): na nadena /vina gitam na nadena vina svarah / 
na nadena vina nrttam tasman-nadatmakam jagat / 

(ibid. 1.19) nadarupah smrto brahma nadarupo janardanah / 
nadarupa parasaktir nadarupo mahesvarah // 

Jagadekamalla ( Sangtacudamani , MS. loc. cit. pp. 4-5) 
nadatmanas trayo deva brahmavisnumahesvarah / 
omkarasca parasaktir nadarupamidam dvayam / 

23. gopi . sarasvati borrowed from SR. 1.1.26cd-27ab. 

24ab. kantha . srutih : probably composed by Pandarlka Vitthala 

26ab. kim manye . jivitam : borrowed from SR. 1.1.27cd-29cd. Kim-manye 

(24C) occurs as kimanye in SR. (1.1.27C). 

26cd. valmikastho . baddhyate : probably composed by Pandarlka Vitthala. 

27ab. nadabdhestu . sarasvati : attributed to Anjaneya by Catura Damodara 

(Sangltadarpanam 1.31, p. 6): tatha ca Anjaneyah — 
nadabdheh param param najanati sarasvati / 
adyapi majjanabhayat tumbam vahati vaksasi // 

The second hemistich is dropped by Pandarlka Vitthala 

27cd. tasmat . miisate: adapted from SR. 1.1.30ab: 

tasya gitasya mahatmyam ke prasamsitum isate / 












COMMENTARY ON THE TEXT 


395 


28. vina . gacchati: ‘smrti’ seems to be a mislection (lectio simplicior) for jali 

which is the consensus reading in available sources of Yajnavalkya Smrti 
(Yatidharmaprakaranam, Prayascittadhikaranam, 3.115). Srutijati refers to dipta, 
dyata, koruna, mrdu and madhya which are different modes of rendering the notes 
of a saman and are described in Naradiya Siksa and other Samavedic literature. The 
last quarter of SI. 28 ( ‘sa gacchatij is variously read as ‘sa yacchati’, ‘ni yacchati’, 
nigacchati’ etc. in different sources of the work. The hemistichs 27cd, 28ab,ed are 
contiguous in Sangitadarpanam. 

The passage under reference is found in Yajnavalkya Smrti in the context of the 
spiritual efficacy of the madrakae tc. prakarana gitis. It is followed by another relevant 
verse: 

gitajno yadi yogena napnoti paramam padam / 
rudrasyanucaro bhutva tenaiva saha modate // 

29a. Asvamedhaprakarana in Taittinya Brdhmana 3.9.14; Vede : Satapatha 
Brdhmana, 13. 1-5. 

29-32. Raga candrodaya (ed. Sathyanarayana, R, in Pundarika mala) 2.1.2-5 
29-30. cf. SR. 6.55-56: 

dandah sambur uma tantn kakubhah kamalapatih / 
indira patrika brahma tumbam nabhih sarasvati // 
dorako vasukirjiva sudhamsuh sarika ravih / 
sarvadevamayi tasmad vineyam sarvamahgala // 

Thus Pandarlka Vitthala differs in the assignment of presiding deities for 
ianda, tantn, kakubha and pattrika : he gives additional presiding deities for kilaka 
peg) and meru (nut). 

31ab. naram . kim’c f. SR. 6.54: 

darsanasparsane casya bhogasvargapavargade / 
punito viprahatyadi-patakaih patitamjanam / 

32c. t find .... bhuta. cf. SR. 6.54b : 
bhogasvargapavargade 

32a. sruti smrtibhyam pratipadita yd: The following are among references to the 
aw in Vedic literature: 

General : Taittinya samhita 6.1.4.1; Kdthaka samhita 34.5; Maitrayaniya samhita 
: - 8 Satapatha Brdhmana 3.2 A.6\ 13.1.5.1; Jaiminiya Brdhmana 1.42. 

Mnaplayer is pasu in Asvamedha yaga: Taittinya Brdhmana 3.9.14.1; Satapatha 
*rL-.narui 13.1.5.1; 13.1.4.2; 13.8.11.14; 13.3.5. 

And as sri Taittinya Brdhmana 3.9.14; Satapatha Brdhmana 13.1-5: 

•mdnusi vina: Aitareya Aranyaka 3.2.5 

Singing and vina playing by yajamana patni: Tandya Brdhmana5.6.8; Apastamba 
Sutra 21.17; Satyasadha Hiranya Srauta Sutra 16.6-21; Kdtyayana Srauta 
6 13. kandika 3.21; Latydyana Srauta Sutra 4.2.5, Drahyayana Srauta Sutra, inter 





396 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


Besides the above, there are numerous other reference, to particular vina 
varieties in Samhita, Srauta Sutra, Brahmana etc. Vedic literature e.g. ahati, ghatati, 
apaghatalika, karkari, kanda, kapisirsti, bekuri, godha, vana, audumbaraetc. For details 
vide Sathyanarayana, R., Nihsanka-hrdaya, comm, under SR, pp. 23-27. 

32d. kavi has many relevant meanings here enlightened, wise, sage, seer, gifted 
with insight, singer 

34. pratipadya . prayojanam : The systematic exposition of any sastra is always 

commenced with anubandha catustaya i.e. obligatory declaration of four related 
essentials viz.: Subject matter, ( visaya) , expounder (prati padaka) , competency to 
study it ( adhikan) and purpose (prayojanam). While such declaration is common 
enough in disciplines like vedanta, yoga, mantra, tantra etc. sastras, it is rarely 
encountered in music or dance treatises. I have shown elsewhere (Nihsahka- 
hrdaya, comm, under SR, 1.1.1, p. 5) how Sarngadeva has accomplished this. 




COMMENTARYON THE TEXT 


397 


COMPARISON OF READINGS NOTES 

1. Delhi edition: presentedition, published by Indira Gandhi National Centre 
for the Arts, Delhi, edited by R. Sathyanarayana; this includes the readings 
of the Bangalore edition, published by the Karnataka State Sangeetha 
Nruthya Academy, Bangalore, edited by R. Sathyanarayana. 

2. Calcutta edition, published by General (1991), Calcutta, edited by 
Mandakranta Bose. 

3. Sigla shown under the Delhi edition are those of the collative sources of the 
Calcutta edition which contain the respective reading as variant and Vice 
Versa. 

4. Differnces in sarhdhi are not noticed unless they violate prosody or 
grammar. 

5. Hypr (1) means hypermetry of one excessive syllable, Hypo(l) means 
hypometry of one deflicit syllable. 

6. TCC means Text-Critical Comment of the Verse-quarter under reference. 

7. (*) means illustration following the verse-quarter under reference in Ch. 

I. 

8. (!) means imporbable. 

9. (?) means reading is approximate but probable. 

10. CT means that the Calcutta edition shows the reading as constituted text 
(CT) wrongly, while actually CT is found in its critical apparatus (CA), or 
Vice Versa. 












COMPARISON: TEXTUAL VARIANTS 


399 


CHAPTER -1 : Taladhartr Prakaranam 


DELHI EDITION 


1. 

5a 


2. 

5a 


3. 

8b 


4. 

8b 


5. 

8d 

-cTCFT 

6. 

13d 

: C 1 J 2 J 4 J 5 

7. 

14a 

■gf^^PTT-ort 

8. 

15a 

(J 2 J 4 J 5 ) 

9. 

18a 

<?Ci 

10. 

18d 


11. 

19c 


12. 

19d 

-Sficr^li 3 ^ See TCC 

13. 

22b 


14. 

26b* 

PhPh % 

15. 

26d 


16. 

27c 

-ww- 

17. 

27d* 

Pm : fa^i cid'tipN 

18. 

28b 


19. 

28c* 

fat ... fafafai ... 

20. 

28c* 


21. 

29b* 

... ... 

22. 

29d* 

^ d^ 

23. 

30b* 

%; fa m fa 

24. 

30c 


25. 

31a 


26. 

31b* 


27. 

31d* 

fad'l^ft ...Pt><il 

28. 

32d 

3<Hldl: 

29. 

32d* 

fff 


CALCUTTA EDITION 


1. 

4a 

l 1 ^- 

2. 

4a 

fac 

3. 

7b 


4. 

7b 

y^Rd<+>! 

5. 

7d 

WTTWlt 

6. 

12d 

M 

7. 

13a 

fay4Pi'i«ii 

8. 

14a 

cTf^rsTf 

9. 

17a 


10. 

17d 

if 

11. 

18c 


12. 

18d 

s'f^ii i ^ 

13. 

21b 


14. 

25b 

Puf+Ul f 

15. 

25d* 


16. 

26c 

-^TTER- 

17. 

26d* 

faPl : fafaddPlH 

18. 

27b 

ms\- 

19. 

27c* 

faLfafaf % 

20. 

27c* 


21. 

28b* 


22. 

28d* 

# c#* cFT$ 

23. 

29b* 

% is replaced wi th ^; fa^IT fa 

24. 

29c 


25. 

30a 

#ira b 

26. 

30b* 

...ST?TFT«if ..facrf 

27. 

30d* 

fa«FT «rf 

28. 

31a 

3<faldl: 

29. 

31d* 

.... 3^fff ^fff 










































400 NARTAN NIRNAYA 


30. 

33b* 


30. 

32b* 

^1 

Vr^ r. rv 

31. 

32. 

33d* 

37 


31. 

32d* 

jafchd fcbuis 

•vr* A . 

32. 

36c 

cllN^d! 

33. 

39c 


33. 

38c 

B 

34. 

40c 


34. 

39c 

- 

35. 

42b 


35. 

41b 


36. 

37. 

44a 

fasiBT 

36. 

43a 

faqrc! 

47a 


37. 

46a 


38. 

50a 


38. 

49a 

^Zl^TST 

39. 

40. 

51a 

53c 

-%7t- 

39. 

40. 

50a 

52c 

Mr - 

rHiidnsyl 

41. 

54a 

q^q- 

41. 

53a 

- ! 

42. 

55d 

-ttfrr; 

42. 

54d 

-wm 

43. 

62c 

-cRt 

43. 

61c 


44. 

63b 


44. 

62b 

! 

45. 

64b 

WTfZfT: 

45. 

63b 

Wf: B 

N ♦ *\ 

46. 

72a 

c^cRl (Clj! J2J5) 

46. 

71a 


47. 

73b 

P.P 

47. 

72b 

r> ^ 

48. 

77b 


48. 

76b 

TORI: 

49. 

78a 

wtf- 

49. 

77a 


50. 

79a 

(B 1 Cl;J 2 ) 

50. 

78a 

♦ r 

51. 

83d 

cb^+f^clld °(BiCiJ]j 2 j 4 j 5 ) 

51. 

82d 

fl^t(Hpr) 

52. 

88c 

^ (J2J4J5) 

52. 

87c 

^rraRi 

r ♦ 

53. 

90a 

P. . u L J 

53. 

89a 


54. 

90c 

iHd^: 

54. 

89c 


55. 

92d 


55. 

91d 

T 

56. 

93b 

WI: (CJ) 

56. 

92b 

3JW- 

rs 

57. 

94c 


57. 

93c 


58. 

95a 

9^1 Wl: 

58. 

94a 


59. 

97a 

fa'll - (J2J4J5) 

59. 

96a 

f^- 

60. 

98c 


60. 

97c 


61. 

99b 

cTMPT 

61. 

98b 

WIFT 






















































COMPARISON: TEXTUAL VARIANTS 


401 


62. 

100a 

UH<=bl<rTt Us? 

62. 

99a 

*midii$- 

63. 

lOOd 

sbl^WK (Bi J 4 ; J 5 ) 

63. 

99d 

■%cl: IFF? 

64. 

106b 


64. 

105b 

ftsft- C.M; Cf^RTt, Ji) 

65. 

108d 

et seq 

65. 

107d 

et seq. 

66. 

114b* 

5^155 

66. 

113b 

1131551^ (J t - tf|55tf) 

67. 

116d 

TT 7 KI 7 lK^Tj 2 j 4 

67. 

115d 

TITT^rTTTf^iT 

68. 

130a 

STSScJ 

68. 

129a 


69. 

130d 

-T=n^ 3 t 5 «T Bi 

69. 

129d 

-TPF3S 

70. 

135a 

C1J2J4J5 

70. 

134a 

: cftcTT "S 

71. 

136c 

J Mdld- 

71. 

135c 

o^ldld 

72. 

136d 

Bi Ci 

72. 

135d 

^ihN 

73. 

140d 

vT# 

73. 

139d 


74. 

141c 

fgcfHt 

74. 

140c 

fgcfft 

75. 

141d 

3t|dlv) ... dg^H, 

75. 

140d 

3Tf .... (ST?) .... d^H, 

76. 

142a 

fl«T- < 

76. 

141a 

- 

77. 

143a 

: eft* CiJi,CT 

77. 

142a 

-dqdf, Bi Ci 



. II 



||oooo||ooo||o|| Jj 



. loll 



||oooo|ooo||o|| J2J4 






||0000|000|00| Jg 

78. 

144b 

^Tt eft ^cft eTJ: 

78. 

143b 

-■pTdl:(o|);^cT)(oo| 






0j5 

79. 

144c 

....eft ^ Ji J2J4 

79. 

143c 

M 4 (00) c 

80. 

145d 

eTS 

80. 

144d 

SS (III) 

81. 

146b 

srss 

81. 

145b 

eT^J “S ■'C'dd = (00 1 ) X 8 , 






but not (00") X 8 + laghu 

82. 

147 b 


82. 

146b 

S=ft (o|||) B 

83. 

148b* 

— 

83. 

147b* 

0 |o |oo |oooo |oo 1 

84. 

149b 

- <ft t 

84. 

148b 

<ft ^ eFpSST (-00I) B 

85. 

149c 

(o|oo||) 

85. 

148c 

TPTtft (oiooi) 

86. 

150a 


86. 

149a 

I 

87. 

150c 

^<ft sft 

87. 

149c 

s[<ft d^dl.oo| 

88. 

151a 

-l^Ci 

88 . 

150a 

-fS- 




































402 

89. 151b ePy 1 J 4 J 5 

90. 151c eFJleft 

91. 151d -W:* 

92. 163a fwiRT: 

93. 153c ^teT^ 

94. 154c 

95. 154c ll"^teft 


NARTANNIRNAYA 


89. 

90. 

91. 

92. 

93. 

94. 

95. 


150b eFJ 

150c same, but “left,J 2 J 4 J 5 
150d same, but-T^FTT, Cj^ 

152a same, but Cj 

J2J4J5 

152c same, but <1(3^, Ji 
153c same, but J 2 J 4 J 5 

153c same, but ^teft, Ci 
J4j5;^4,j2 


96. 

155a 


96. 

154a 

same, butFFft:,^ 

97. 

155b 

e^W«TT 

97. 

154b 

same, but eT^T«n,J] 

98. 

157a 

^Tf 

98. 

156a same, left, J 2 J 4 J 5 but 
prastara is |o| 

99. 

158a 

^ejif ?ft 

99. 

157a 

same, but ^ejeif, J 5 

100 . 

159b 

^ eft 

100 . 

158b 

same, but ^ft, J 2 J 4 J 5 

101 . 

160a 

eF^t- 

101 . 

159a 

e^ft 

102 . 

161a 


102 . 

160a 

same, but left, J 2 J 4 J 5 

103. 

161a 

eft (eft M) 

103. 

160a 

same, but ?ft,j 2 j 4 j 5 

104. 

162d 

eft ^eft ^eft 

104. 

161d 

same, but eft ^eft Ji 

105. 

163a 


105. 

162a 

same, but —leTT,J 5 : cooed 
(!) 

106. 

164b 


106. 

163b 

same, butf^nftft, J 2 J 4 J 5 

107. 

165b 

eft 

107. 

164b 

eft eft C 1 J 2 J 4 

108. 

165c 

eT^: 

llo :: 

108. 

164c 

ef&; but eT,J 2 J 4 j 5 
lloo : 

109. 

166c 


109. 

165c 

same, but eP|l, B] Ci Ji; 
Bi Ci : llo | ; Jj; : 0 ||o || 

110 . 

166d 

.V 

110 . 

165d 

same, but J 2 J 4 J 5 

111 . 

167a 


111 . 

166a 

same, but eT^f, J 2 J 4 J 5 

112 . 

167a 

eft 

112 . 

166a 

same, but eft, J 4 

113. 

167b 

left 

113. 

166b 

same, but left, J 2 J 4 J 5 

114. 

167b 

-7R% 

114. 

166b 

same, butTFft,J] J 4 











COMPARISON: TEXTUAL VARIANTS 


403 


115. 

169b 


115. 

* 

168b 

same, but J 5 

116. 

170b 


116. 

169a 

same, but -fM), Ci 

117. 

170b 


117. 

169b 

same, but eisj, J 2 J 4 J 5 

118. 

171a 


118. 

170a 

same, but ef^,Ji( l°° :) 

119. 

172a 


119. 

171a 

same, but ef?efT ?) eft, J 4 

120 . 

I72d 


120 . 

171d 

same, but 

121 . 

173a 


121 . 

172a 

same, but ei^dl,J 2 J 4 J 5 

122 . 

173a 

J 4 

122 . 

172a 


123. 

173d 

eft 

123. 

172d 

same, but ^ft, J 4 J 5 

124. 

174d 


124. 

172d 

same, but?ft,j2j4j5 

125. 

174a 


125. 

173a 

faff) 

126. 

174a 

eT^M) 

126. 

173a 

el^tKl) (-15) 

127. 

176b 


127. 

175b 

same, but cTcT:, Cj J 2 J 4 J 5 

128. 

176c 


128. 

175c 

same, butjft,j2j4j5 

129. 

176d 


129. 

175c 

same, but &ti),Js 

130. 

177b 

TFMt 

130. 

176b 

same, but «l , l u l, J 2 J 4 J 5 

131. 

177d 

cTTcT: 

131. 

176d 

same, but flieiKiiel: J 2 J 4 J 5 

132. 

178b 


132. 

177b 

same, but sjcft, J 2 J 4 J 5 




133. 

177b 

same, but <pT,Ji J 4 J 5 ( II 

133. 

178b 




/ ' \ 

0000 ; 




134. 

177b* 

same, but T^, Ji 

134. 

178b* 


135. 

178a 

same, but Ci 

135. 

179a 

wrzm; 

136. 

178a 

same, but Bj (Bj 

136. 

179a 




Cj- 0000) 

137. 

180c 

?)# 

137. 

179c 

same, but^f eft, J 2 J 4 ; 'ft 






^»J5 

138. 

181d 


138. 

180d 

same, but^f, J 2 J 4 J 5 

139. 

181d 

cTT^ff 

139. 

180d 

same, but^f, J 2 

140. 

182c 

failHM&d) 

140. 

181c 

Pcrww' 

141. 

182d 

eft 

141. 

181d 

same, but?),J 4 

142. 

182a 


142. 

182a 

same, but ^ J 2 

143. 

184a 

idl i 

143. 

183a 

same, but ^tT),Jij2j5; 



















404 


NARTANNIRNAYA 


144. 187a ^Reraf 

145. 187b 

146. 188a fq^i 

147. 189a 

148. 189a 

149. 190a : 

150. 191b TOftrT 

151. 191b 

152. 191c f^dldl 


144. 186a 

145. 186b 

146. 187a t^T- 

147. 188a same, but T^T,j5 

148. 188a same, but H 5 J 4 J 5 

149. 189a same, but J4J5 

150. 190b same, but dlcil, J5 

151. 190b 

152. 190c same, but-efarf J2;-cTtcrT, 

J4; <rtidXj5 


153. 

192cd 

t 

154. 

194c 


155. 

194d 

^tCij 2 J 4 j5 

156. 

194d 


157. 

194d 


158. 

195b 


159. 

195d 


160. 

195d 

cTWTTj! 

161. 

196a 


161. 

196b 

Ji 

162. 

197a 

I 

163. 

197c 


164. 

198a 

Ji 

165. 

199c 


166. 

200a 


167. 

200c 

TTcf 

168. 

200d 

y«1l<l5^ 

169. 

200d 


170. 

201a 


171. 

201c 

c^TT qei'l^:j4j5 

172. 

201b 

S^^fcT: 


153. 191cd same, but ^,J 4 

154. 193c ( loo); eii^d1,Bi Ci; 

^Js 

155. 193d wnfr 

156. 193d same, but J 2 

157. 193d same,ef^: J 4 ; cT^, J 5 

(3551) 

158. 194b ^Ttj 2 j4j5 

159. 194d but^4,j 2 j4j5 

160. 194d 

161. 195a same, but x ^cTU,Ji 

161. 195b 

162. 196a same, but'*!:, J 2 J 4 J 5 

163. 196c 

164. 197a -IFRt 

165. 198c same, but J 2 J 4 J 5 

166. 199a same, but 3T*JH - J 4 J 5 

167. 199c same, butTT3f,J 4 j5 

168. 199d same, but , J 5 

169. 199d same, but cT^T, J 2 J 4 J 5 

170. 200a ^T, but^rfj 2 j 4 j 5 

171. 200c 

172. 200d 1 but J 2 J 4 

J5 






























COMPARISON: TEXTUAL VARIANTS 


405 


173. 

202 c 


„ 173. 

201 c 


174. 

202 c 

faSTTfaT 

174. 

201 c 

same, but silPd, Ji 

175. 

203a 


175. 

202 a 


176. 

203a 


176. 

202 a 


177. 

203b 


177. 

202 b 

same, but‘9^ 3 ? T^,j2j4j5 

178. 

203c 


178. 

202 c 


179. 

204b 


179. 

203b 

same, but ^TT ^TT, J 2 

180. 

204d 

sFRTtT 

180. 

203d 

same, but SPHlTd J 2 J 5 

181. 

204d 

•iilOHUd: 

181. 

203d 

same, but^MM: J 2 J 4 J 5 

181. 

206b 


181. 

205b 


182. 

206b 

C 1 J 2 J 4 J 5 

182. 

205b 

same, but dld^dl:, Cj 

183. 

208b 


183. 

207b 

same, but J 4 

184. 

208b 


184. 

207b 

same, butf?*lclRs,CiJij 2 






J4j5 

185. 

208cd 


185. 

207cd 

missing 

186. 

210a 


186. 

208c 


187. 

212b 


187. 

210b 

same, butWT^J, Ci 

188. 

212d 

cdlfdd*) 

188. 

210d 

c^Hfddl^ 

189. 

212b 

^ifddl^ 

189. 

211d 

same, but Hlfddl, Cj 

190. 

214b 


190. 

212d 

same, but ifdci 

191. 

214c 

ddR-H^j2 

191. 

213a 

dR-H't— 

192. 

215b 


192. 

213d 

same, but k^dl, J 2 J 4 

193. 

215c 

3T^T^TT% 

193. 

214a 

same, but : J 2 J 4 J 5 

194. 

216b 


194. 

214d 

same, but faofa, J 2 J 4 J 5 

195. 

216c 


195. 

215a 

■^iwl 

196. 

217a 


196. 

215c 

same, but Ci; 






WlM,J 2 J 5 

197. 

219a 

cTTcT 

197. 

217a 

same, but dldl, J 4 J 5 

198. 

220b 


198. 

218d 

same, but -^fdfd s6Hlt^,j2 






J4J5 

199. 

222a 


199. 

219c 

^>Ff 

200. 

221c 


200. 

210a 

same, but Ji 













































Z' 
















— - - -- 








COMPARISON: TEXTUAL VARIANTS 


407 


CHAPTER-II MRDANGI PRAKARANAM 


1. 

2c 

dM Cl J5;J2 i 

1. 

2c 

3TFTt 

2. 

2c 

'eir<«bdlj2 

2. 

2c 

dld+df: CT 

3. 

7d 

-74J 7 

3. 

8d 

-T^TFWT - ! 

4. 

17a 

hRc^-^ 

4. 

17a 

3ftc3%J: 

5. 

24a 

FSPT (SD-T^RSRt) 

5. 

24a 

33P% 

6. 

24d 


6. 

24d 

f333p^ 

7. 

25c 

- 

7. 

25c 

383^d - ! C 

8. 

30b 

-WPT^-Cij 2 j4j5j7 

8. 

30c 

-3>HdMdc|$- 

9. 

38c 


9. 

38c 

-f7373T- ! 

10. 

57c 

wnf^T: 

10. 

57c 

wrRi ! 

11. 

57d 

-731$ Pd H Bi 

11. 

57d 

73T <^Ric^ ! 

12. 

58d 

W^T: Bi Ci J 2 J 4 J 7 

12. 

50d 

3T33T 

13. 

60d 

T ^B 1 j 1 J 2 J 3 j4j5j7;Ci? 

13. 

60d 

!j°sO (always) 

14. 

62c 

373 

14. 

62c 

3ft 

15. 

75b 


15. 

75b 

73 37%feh^(1 Hypr. (1) 

16. 

78a 

3 see CTT 

16. 

78a 

%33 

17. 

81a 

% 

17. 

81a 


18. 

82a 


18. 

82a 

■H^Ni 

19. 

84b 

dufoiiiRcj 

19. 

84b 

-duMlRd: 

20. 

86c 

3U 3T 7T3T 3T 7TJ3T- 

20. 

86c 

W3T THCrlTslu^i: 

21. 

86d 

•stadtocKi: shHiq^ 

21. 

86d 

: ^niq^Hypr. ( 1 ) 

22. 

87a 

3F .... RrRt - see CTT 

22. 

87a 

33 ...Ml: 

23. 

93a 

-S-^eh Bi J 7 ; see CTT 

23. 

93a 


24. 

93b 

-^3: 

24. 

93b 

-93: 

25. 

94c 


25. 

94c 

-3T°FT 

26. 

96c 

ddP+4 

26. 

96c 

aTiqRhs 

27. 

96d 

-T3f 

27. 

96d 

-731$ 

28. 

97c 

33- 

28. 

97c 

ft 3- 

29. 

97d 

cljsfa 

29. 

97d 

ciwr 

30. 

103a 

w 

30. 

103a 

3?TT 






















































408 NARTAN NIRNAYA 


31. 

104b 


31. 

104b 

tTleTcT: 

32. 

105d 


32. 

105d 

-rift- 

33. 

109c 

Oeisti: (misprint; see CTT) 

33. 

109c 


34. 

110 a 


34. 

110 a 

-fft- 

35. 

110 c 

■(S'Hill: 

35. 

110 c 

^TT^: 

36. 

112 a 

always 

36. 

112 a 

always 

37. 

112 d 


37. 

112 d 

! 

38. 

116b 


38. 

116b 


39. 

116c 

Bi Ji J 2 Ci J 4 J 7 

39. 

116c 

Si^Usdl 

















COMPARISON: TEXTUAL VARIANTS 


409 


CHAPTER - III 

gAyaka prakaranam : i. rAgAdhikaranam 


1. 

4a 

T"BiJ 5 

1. 

4a 


2. 

10a 


2. 

10a 

■jfed- 

3. 

16a 


3. 

16a 

better reading 

4. 

17a 

-15- 

4. 

17a 

-F ! 

5. 

17a 

f^TT- 

5. 

17a 

td^T- 

6. 

20a 

^J2j5 

6. 

20a 

Scfft- 

7. 

21a 


7. 

21a 

^ (cf. 17a) 

8. 

21b 

w- 

8. 

21b 

fT ! 

9. 

23c 


9. 

23c 

fdd3TTc*TT ! 

10. 

27b 

-TtxRT: Ji 

10. 

27b 

-flrR: 

11. 

31b 


11. 

31b 

-T<TcT: Bj R 

12. 

34a 

WWJdfd: 

12. 

34a 


13. 

38c 

d^STT: 

13. 

38c 


14. 

40c 

-Tdt- 

14. 

40c 

Ttft ! 

15. 

40d 

fd^FTcl: B] 

15. 

40d 

cran Cl R 

16. 

42b 

-cdPT- 

16. 

42b 

-rdFl: 

17. 

48c 

J 2 J 3 J 5 L 2 T 1 

17. 

48c 


18. 

52d 

-^nfr^T^T^TtWcT:j2j3j5L2; 

18. 

52d 


19. 

57a 

Jl? 

tM- ( CR: TFTt- ) 

19. 

57a 

TFTt- Ci R 

20. 

60b 

1*5*: 

20. 

60b 


21. 

62a 


21. 

62a 

C 

22. 

63a 


22. 

63a 

cl^R 

23. 

67c 

fgdldM 

23. 

67c 

fgdldlc^Hypo(l) 

24. 

78d 

^diysPT- 

24. 

78d 


25. 

80c 


25. 

80c 



80-103 Vertical stroke on initial 


sa is omitted in 
illustrations. 


















410 


NARTAN NIRNAYA 

* 

26. 

80d 

-W* B] J 2 J5 

26. 

80d 

-■Rsqif ! 

27. 

82d 


27. 

82d 

^^#1- ! 

28. 

84a 

Bi Ti 

28. 

84a 

r 

29. 

85d 

Bi 

29. 

85d 


30. 

88d 

d<l 55f$P<I 

30. 

88 

<T?T3nf$P<i Hypr(l) 

31. 

90a 

Bi Ti 

31. 

90a 

3flTtIRt CM? 

32. 

91a 


32. 

91a 

¥" 

33. 

91a 

Ji L2 

33. 

91a 


34. 

92a 

Moomqdl 

34. 

92a 

TTd OrHcfl ! 

35. 

93a 


35. 

93a 

¥- 

36. 

93c 


36. 

93c 

! Hypr(l) 

37. 

94d 


37. 

94d 

-5^ ! 

38. 

95c 

(Cijij2)?js 

38. 

95c 

-cblN^l 

39. 

108c 


39. 

109c 

erfssiE 

40. 

114a 

ftT^nJTF^ 

40. 

114c 

fi?9RT^ ! 

41. 

121b 

«R4Mld3f: Ci 

41. 

121d 

Bi R 

42. 

124a 


42. 

• 124c 


43. 

128c 

-®ptc*lT 

43. 

129a 


44. 

134c 


44. 

135a 


45. 

135c 


45. 

136a 

! 

46. 

138c 

(J2j5) ? 

46. 

138c 

vm: 

47. 

140b 


47. 

140d 

tww 

48. 

143c 

^T- J1J3L2T1 

48. 

144a 

^T- 

49. 

144c 


49. 

145c 

^Tt%- 

50. 

149b 

T^TT C1J1J2 

50. 

149d 

<«+!- ! 

51. 

152c 


51. 

153a 

! 

52. 

152d 


52. 

153b 

%3 ! 

53. 

158b 


53. 

158d 

% 

54. 

160d 


54. 

161b 

-R<i<q u lHHypr(l) 

55. 

162b 

sfaFTFI % ^IPRT: 

55. 

162d 

#[FT wf?TdT: 

56. 

165b 


56. 

165d 


57. 

166a 

4 ||usq,c;|<- 

57. 

166c 

■jfrs%^TCT: 





























COMPARISON: TEXTUAL VARIANTS 


411 


58. 

166b 

-*k u ii <4 

58. 

166d 


59. 

168a 

3ft: 

59. 

169c 

ft: ! 

60. 

168b 


60. 

169c 

Trfr: 

61. 

168c 


61. 

169c 

-^J: ! 

62. 

168d 


62. 

169d 

^Flt ! 

63. 

176d 

Ti 

63. 

177d 

W™‘ 

64. 

177a 

fs- 

64. 

178a 

fg 

65. 

178a 


65. 

179a 

^jf: ! 

66. 

67. 

185b 


66. 

186b 


185c 

ai*^ni^mfci J iil^ Ci J3 L2 

67. 

186c 

dl^dl-WI 3tcFTft ! 

68. 

189c 


68. 

190c 

! 

69. 

190c 

■5%^- Ti 

69. 

191c 

R 

70. 

71. 

191c 

-ftrrg^- Hypr (i) 

70. 

192c 

-ftl*V 

rv rv 

192b 

Iqgldci 

71. 

193b 

Iqcjl^ci 

72. 

73. 

193b 


72. 

194b 


194a 


73. 

195a 


74. 

75. 

195c 

fcm- 

74. 

196c 

N *s. 

196a 

q^iHcri SJ'Jiici: 

75. 

197a 

'dldWIdW Ci R 

76. 

196a 


76. 

197a 


77. 

197a 


77. 

198a 


78. 

198d 

«fft- 

78. 

199d 

«fft: 

79. 

199c 

^ 5 “ J2J3 L2 

79. 

200c 

^ 1 - 

80. 

200a 

TTfT: 

80. 

201a 

7#- 

81. 

201c 


81. 

202c 


82. 

203b 


82. 

204b 

-MI 

83. 

204b 

03 L2) ? 

83. 

205b 

^Tftm- AS, Ti 

84. 

205c 

-wrt Ti 

84. 

206c 

7 RR1 

85. 

205d 

s4 

85. 

206d 

*TT 

86. 

207a 

Tff 

86. 

208a 

! 

87. 

207a 


87. 

208a 

■gziStRl M 

88. 

208a 

TTft ! 

88. 

209a 

T rfcT 

89. 

210a 

5Xf: T! 

89. 

211a 

C, M 




































412 



NARTANNIRNAYA 


90. 

213d 



90. 

214d 


91. 

213d 

«Mddl^ 


91. 

214d 

<=Mddl 

92. 

214a 



92. 

215a 


93. 

215b 

-%TT^F- 


93. 

216b 

na saka-! 

94. 

215d 



94. 

216d 

-^T 

95. 

216a 



95. 

217a 

cR- 

96. 

216a 

TRsTtf^T : 


96. 

217d 


97. 

220b 



97. 

221b 


98. 

220c 

l 2 


98. 

221c 


99. 

222b 

fPTcRR- 


99. 

223b 

f VWK- 

100. 

223a 



100. 

224a 

R 

101. 

224d 

5ft«n 


101. 

225d 

far ! 

102. 

225a 

5f^r*TT- 


102. 

226a 

fwr ! 

103. 

225b 

^n- 


103. 

226b 

^T- 

104. 

225d 



104. 

226d 


105. 

226a 

3M 


105. 

227a 

W ! 

106. 

226d 

s*jsr<sy 


106. 

227d 

galKI^II ! 

^ p • 

107. 

227b 

°h4<4i 


107. 

‘228b 

Chichi <*>%<\ 

rv P • 

108. 

228b 

c t>^ ) 0 h 


108. 

229b 


109. 

229b 

-Tn^TT- 


109. 

230b 

-■RTdT- 

110. 

229c 



110. 

230c 


111. 

229c 

^J2j3j5 CiTiL 2 

111. 

230c 

ttto, ! 

112. 

231d 



112. 

232d 

fWf ! 

113. 

232b 

TO 1 ^- 


113. 

233b 

TO *fld- ! 

114. 

233d 



114. 

234d 


115. 

234d 

-■^RlTJl 


115. 

235d 

-■^RTT 































COMPARISON: TEXTUAL VARIANTS 


413 


CHAPTER-III 

GAYAKA PRAKARANAM : 2. PRABANDHA DHIKARANAM 


1 . 

lib 

-Tte Bi Ti 

1 . 

246b 

-TftFF: Ci R 

2 . 

13b 

^RtBiJ 5 

2 . 

248b 

(always), Bi R 

3. 

17a 

d)'*Ht<i B i; T l ? 

3. 

252a 

#ST51T5T: Ci R 

4. 

18c 


4. 

253c 

(CT) 

5. 

18c 


5. 

253c 


6 . 

19b 

WRTf- Bi Ti 

6 . 

254b 


7. 

20 c 


7. 

255c 

Wfe- ! 

8 . 

22 c 


8 . 

258a 

Wf: 

9. 

23d 

m: 

9. 

259b 

m ! ct 2 

10 . 

24a 


10 . 

259c 

TTTTST 

11 . 

26d 

(^>TR) T n j TT: 

11 . 

261d 


12 . 

29c 


12 . 

265a 

^jrfnn ! C^TTfun, Ji J 3 R) 

13. 

29c 


13. 

265a 

FTdlft Hypr(l) 

14. 

29d 

Msi+lfHdl Bi C1J3 

14. 

265b 

ycblRdl: ! 

15. 

30c 

y . FT: 

15. 

266a 

^ ! : «n, Ti Ci ? 

16. 

34c 


16. 

270a 


17. 

35b 

<11=181^ 

17. 

270d 

(F)FTST^ 

18. 

39b 


18. 

274d 

?Tt*R: 

19. 

41c 

J2J5 

19. 

277a 

C 

20 . 

43b 


20 . 

278d 

nrstu taveva ! 

21 . 

46c 

F 7 T 

21 . 

282a 

WT 

22 . 

41b 


22 . 

282d 

Hypr(l) 



N ^ 



p A 

23. 

48c 


23. 

284d 

-iilHlrd<rl c bl 

24. 

51c 


24. 

287a 


25. 

52d 


25. 

288b 

! Ti 

26. 

55c 

ITi 

26. 

291a 


27. 

57b 


27. 

292d 

ftsrfcT 

28. 

67b 

•HldWHl- 

28. 

302d 

4KddHl- 

29. 

70a 

— ^trT— 

29. 

305c 

"FtrT- 


































414 NARTAN NIRNAYA 


30. 

71b 

-OoMliJIui- 

30. 

306d 

teTTRR ! 

31. 

73b 

^ C1J1J3T1 

31. 

308d 

RRT ! C 

32. 

74a 


32. 

309c 

R^R^ ! 

33. 

7Sc 

TO: J 5 

33. 

315a 

WR 

34. 

86a 

^Ciji Ti 

34. 

321c 

RtRt 

35. 

89a 


35. 

324c 


36. 

89b 

fFR (-W?)- 

36. 

324d 

frw?- 

37. 

93b 


37. 

328d 

Rcftt^ ! Hypr(l) 

38. 

98b 

FOMcrIOT 

38. 

333d 

WIFI ROT Mi T2 

39. 

99d 


39. 

335b 

SRfW 

40. 

108b 

3T5rf5T^TtTT 

40. 

344a 

rF ! 

41. 

112c 

wr 

41. 

348a 


42. 

121d 


42. 

357b 

RgteriR ! 

43. 

122c 

f^F'lKS^I Bl Cijl J2J5 

43. 

358a 

fgFRHIlQFl ! 

44. 

123c 

F , 

44. 

359a 

MBiR 

45. 

124d 

C1J1J2J5 

45. 

360b 

fFF (cf. 248c) 

46. 

125d 

WR (see TCC) 

46. 

361b 

FTCT 

47. 

126a 

*n^ft 

47. . 

361c 

RlfMt (cf. 248c) 

48. 

126c 

tes?ij5 

48. 

362a 

■ter ! 

49. 

127a 

-wti- J 3 

49. 

363c 

te- ! 

50. 

135a 

RSFTSJ- 

50. 

370c 

R$OT- ! 

51. 

136a 

R: 

51. 

371c 

’’TT: 

52. 

139b 

9T«Tij 2 j3 

52. 

374d 

CT 

53. 

139c 

teR 

53. 

375a 

R*FR R 

54. 

140a 


54. 

375a 


55. 

150a 

eTIcT— 

55. 

385c 

RTR: 

56. 

164a 

RTF 

56. 

399c 

RTF C] r 

57. 

173a 

Bi 

57. 

408c 

W1tF\ R 

58. 

174d 

-Cl^rscil 

58. 

410b 

^Pso) ! 

59. 

175d 


59. 

411b 

(RFTT)^F^te C 

60. 

176a 

TFt 

60. 

411c 

*fF 

61. 

176b 

RRRT 

61. 

411d 

RfRR: 


































COMPARISON: TEXTUAL VARIANTS 


415 


62. 

179d 


62. 

415b 


63. 

180c 


63. 

416a 

RR^RRR: Ci Ri Ti 

64. 

182c 


64. 

418a 

! Ci R 

65. 

188a 


65. 

423c 

3Rl^Ci M 

66. 

190ab 

Ti 

66. 

425c 

cTT^ TT^t R 

67. 

193c 


67. 

429a 

! 

68. 

195a 

3TcIRf- 

68. 

430c 

3RRT: ! 

69. 

198b 

-TT^ 

69. 

433d 

-TPfa>t: ! 

70. 

199d 

'4lpH'dKI=ldR <: 6: Bi Ti 

70. 

435b 

"^TTfcT: dlPml C 

71. 

203b 

Hiqdd: Bi Ti 

71. 

438d 

HlPd4)l: 

72. 

205d 

fRfrFSI Bi Ti 

72. 

441b 

Pi^TpISRI R 

73. 

208a 

-TTRR: 

73. 

443c 

-Ti^fm- 

74. 

209d 


74. 

445b 

^3^1^ ! Hypr(l) 

75. 

210d 

cTTcT: 

75. 

446b 

did ! 

76. 

212d 

RRft 

76. 

448a 


77. 

214c 


77. 

450a 


78. 

216a 


78. 

451c 

-R13- 

79. 

218d 

-RR(^F) 

79. 

454b 

-RR- Hypo(l) 

80. 

219a 


80. 

455a 

WT 

81. 

222b 

^5^BiCiJiJ 3 J5 

81. 

457d 


82. 

226c 


82. 

462a 


83. 

228a 

5U|Ph^tF Ci 

83. 

463c 

5«f Pd^Tb^ ! 

84. 

235d 

TRRT Bi 

84. 

471b 

^Rt- 

85. 

241b 

^11 

85. 

476d 

TTTJ- 

86. 

241d 

T* : C1J2J5 

86. 

477b 


87. 

242b 


87. 

477d 

fT^rFt 

88. 

243d 

wft 

88. 

479b 

rPrI 

89. 

252b 

^CiJ 2 J 5 

89. 

487d 


90. 

258d 

f^facIT 

90. 

494b 

fepjfRTI: ! 

91. 

261c 

STJtFRTR - 

91. 

497c 

Sl^rFT 'qRf - ! 

92. 

262a 


92. 

498c 

-a 

93. 

265b 

d$lg*4l£Hsl ,J £d: 

93. 

500d 

■3$JTt?: ■WKisi'J-sd: ! 



































416 


NARTANNIRNAYA 


94. 

267c 

Ti 

94. 

503a 

R 

95. 

275c 


95. 

511a 

fa-dic ! 

96. 

278c 


96. 

514a 


97. 

281a 


97. 

516c 

M ? 

98. 

281d 

3^d) T^Tcft 

98. 

517b 

Sf^RUdl 

99. 

283ab ffd rTT^ft faMs 

99. 


see TCC 







100. 

286c 

^Jl 

100. 

521c 

t^TlCT 

101. 

292c 


101. 

527c 

^TT ! ( C f. 526b) 

102. 

293a 


102. 

528 


103. 

300ab 

dl<r^<*dld1 

103. 

535ab 

^didldl 1w 

104. 

301a 

-WIT 

104. 

536a 

-firm- 

105. 

301b 

-TTdNd'l Tj 

105. 

536b 

-TMTWt 

106. 

302b 

-eTTWt J 2 J 5 

106. 

537b 

-iidlHd)- 

107. 

304d 


107. 

539d 


108. 

315a 

TFlW 

108. 

550a 

TFld 

109. 

318c 


109. 

553c 


110. 

320b 


110. 

555a 

^6^ - ! 

111. 

322a 

Bl Ti 

111. 

557a 

Mi Tj 

112. 

323a 

cll^ B] 

112. 

558a 

cTM- 

113. 

323b 


113. 

558b 

FTTtJ ?T- 

114. 

325b 


114. 

560b 

! 

115. 

338d 


115. 

573b 

w$- 

116. 

341 ab 

«n^ddc4 

116. 

576ab 

Pi4^j'Jaded Ci R 





















COMPARISON: TEXTUAL VARIANTS 


417 


CHAPTER - IV 

NARTAKA PRAKARANAM f 1. NARTANADHIKARANAM 


1. 

24d 

^7HCiJ 2 J5 

1. 

24d 

ild ^Tbl 

2. 

33d 


2. 

33d 


3. 

34b 


3. 

34b 


4. 

34d 

fp^:JKi Li Vi 

4. 

34d 


5. 

36c 

l^CiJ 2 J 5 

5. 

36c 

yidduil 

6. 

46d 

fgSTT 

6. 

41d 


7. 

42c 

^Tf^TfwitLl;(JKi Vi)? 

7. 

42c 


8. 

43c 


8. 

43c 


9. 

45c 

3TT?Flfr^FPTr Li 

9. 

45c 


10. 

48a 

^TT«f CiJKj Vi 

10. 

48a 


11. 

48a 

'rfgk: C 1 J 2 J 5 

11. 

48d 


12. 

52c 

3lf^lfWTrj2 Lj 

12. 

52c 

3TT%^lP*H^ 

13. 

54d 

-■sfnfHt Ci Vi 

13. 

54d 

<*iP<Pji 

14. 

56d 


14. 

56d 

Wf^CR 

15. 

60c 

^fr 

15. 

60c 


16. 

61d 

TT*CiJiJ2J 5 ;(LiJKi)? 

16. 

61d 

(conjectural emen¬ 






dation by editor.) 

17. 

63c 

%l:JlJKi L 1 V 1 

17. 

63c 

%71- 

18. 

67b 

^^-JlJsJKl Vi 

18. 

67d 

J<HlPH4<^ 

19. 

70a 

i ( 4i4p<) 

19. 

70a 

4N1PJ better reading 

20. 

71b 


20. 

71b 


21. 

75c 

•Hslfddl^f- 

21. 

75c 

WsIlPddl 

22. 

78a 

#?- ! 

22. 

78a 


23. 

79c 

C 1 J 2 J 5 JK 1 Li; 

23. 

79 c 

— 'K1 r 5\l _ 

24. 

80d 

-dlcycHJ^^IAVi ? 

24. 

80d 


25. 

86c 


25. 

86c 


26. 

89d 

5¥lHl£lP*FFTt 

26. 

89d 

SVlHHKpTPTt 

27. 

92d 


27. 

92d 

HIcUM ! 

28. 

94b 

-dHI^IlP^- 

28. 

94c 

! 











































418 NARTAN NIRN AYA 


29. 

94d 


29. 

94d 


30. 

99a 

-tcNcRTJi JKj 

30. 

99a 

-Pad'll 

31. 

100c 


31. 

100c 

Hypo(l) 

32. 

101b 


32. 

101b 


33. 

101a 

? C1J2 

33. 

1 Old 


34. 

104d 

WT cT«JT 

34. 

104d 

Hypr( 1) 

35. 

105b 

*R: 

35. 

105b 


36. 

108d 

-■^lyfanfridi 

36. 

108d 

yfanlddi ! 

37. 

Q Q 

118d 


37. 

11 Id 


DO. 

120c 


38. 

120c 


39. 

120d 

-WTR: 

39. 

120d 

-WTO: ! Hypr(l) 

40. 

127c 


40. 

127c 

-TTFTFn 

41. 

129b 


41. 

129b 


42. 

131c 

f^JlJKi Vi Li 

42. 

131c 

fro 

43. 

A A 

133cd 

-134ab 

43. 


interchanged 

44. 

136c 


44. 

136c 


45. 

138a 

ci jj J2J5JK1 

45. 

138a 

MWsf (-f%€ra ?) 



Vi 




46. 

139b 


46. 

139b 

9<Jn- better reading 

47. 

145a 

M^jki Li Vi 

47. 

145a 

fwftct 

48. 

147d 

-^THy-dldHH, L] Vi 

48. 

147d 

-TT y-dlcUH, 

49. 

150a 

Ll 

49. 

150a 

CT 

50. 

153c 

^nfcl^PHcl: V i; JKi ? 

50. 

153c 

Li R 

51. 

CO 

155c 

-9ldls*>P<- Li 

51. 

155c 

-9ld*P<- 

52. 

156a 


52. 

156c 

=FeT^v^T^ 

53. 

161a 

Ci;J 2 ? 

53. 

161a 


54. 

168c 

MW- 

54. 

168c 

TWTT^T: 

55. 

171a 


55. 

171a 


56. 

173c 


56. 

173c 

! 

57. 

175b 


57. 

175b 


58. 

175c 

-■%T^Cij5 Ll 

58. 

175c 

—r^RT : 

59. 

179c 

3Tg^T- JKi Vi 

59. 

179c 

^fg*TT- CMR 



































COMPARISON: TEXTUAL VARIANTS 


419 


60. 

179d 

CJ2J5JK1V1 

60. 

179d 

-HI ^<*41^1 

61. 

180a 

cTcTRTcT^ Gl J 2 J 5 Li Ci) ? 

61. 

180a 


62. 

181a 

w U 

62. 

181a 


63. 

184d 

fwm 

63. 

184d 


64. 

186c 

Wt^:Ji; 05 jKl vo? 

64. 

186c 

yfd«ni\: 

65. 

188c 


65. 

188c 

TJPTt 5^ CT; CM 

66. 

190c 


66. 

190c 


67. 

192b 

C1J2J5 

67. 

192b 


68. 

199b 

C1J2 

68. 

199b 

f^FHRT- 

69. 

201a 


69. 

201a 


70. 

201d 


70. 

201d 

^ _ 

71. 

206b 

<Jj J 2 Ll) ? 

71. 

206b 

-#f«psp?r: 

72. 

206c 


72. 

206c 

-Tif^r- 

73. 

209b 


73. 

209b 


74. 

212a 

C1J1 Li 

74. 

212a 

TCTFI- 

75. 

215a 

TJtRFTT 

75. 

215a 

^qprr 

76. 

218a 

Li Vi 

76. 

217a 


77. 

218b 

^!Tj 2 j 5 jKl Vi 

77. 

218b 


78. 

222a 

^J2 

78. 

222a 


79. 

227c 


79. 

227c 


80. 

229a 


80. 

229a 


81. 

229b 


81. 

229d 

rdwMa 

82. 

229d 

^Jlj 5 jKl Vi Li 

82. 

230a 


83. 

231c 

¥ 

83. 

232a 

¥ 

84. 

233a 


84. 

233a 


85. 

234a 


85. 

234a 


86. 

235d 

(! ^t) 

86. 

235d 


87. 

236a 


87. 

236a 

WIT ^?T«TT ^ 






















NARTANNIRNAYA 


420 

CHAPTER-V 

NARTAKA PRAKARANAM: 2. NRTTADHIKARANAM 


1. 

11a 

^J5 

1. 

250a 


2. 

14c 

Ti^n 

2. 

253c 


3. 

15a 

f?ITOr C1J2 

3. 

254a 

Bi 

4. 

18c 

^CiJi 

4. 

257c 

-WT| ! L 

5. 

25a 

■dco: Ci Li 

5. 

264a 


6. 

25b 

’HcTT: 

6. 

264b 

^4l4dl: (Pcf: CA) 

7. 

26a 

I^JKj Vi 

7. 

265a 


8. 

26a 


8. 

265a 

wr^nsf- 

9. 

29b 


9. 

268b 

mfe- 

10. 

30d 

-Tf- 

10. 

269d 

^PT- good variant 

11. 

21a 


11. 

270a 


12. 

31c, 40ab, 52d IJi J2JK] V! 

12. 

270c, 

279c, 290b 3 

13. 

33b 

-w- 

13. 

279b 

-TSTl 

14. 

42c 

^IBj C1J1J2L1 

14. 

28 lc 


15. 

45d 


15. 

284c 


16. 

47a 

■dPT- 

16. 

286a 

W- 

17. 

49a 

V! Bi Li 

17. 

288c 


18. 

52a 

-WW1- 

18. 

291a 

-WW- 

19. 

52d 


19. 

291d 


20. 

55c 


20. 

294c 

! 

21. 

55d 

3 

21. 

294d 

^RR 

22. 

57d 

W^JKi Vi 

22. 

296d 


23. 

58b 


23. 

297b 


24. 

65a 

^rf^yiJKi V!)Bi Li 

24. 

304b 

^IlRdl 

25. 

65b 

WI: 

25. 

304b 

HP: 

26. 

72d 

B1J1J2L1 

26. 

31 Id 

-PPPF: 

27. 

74d 

cm : J 5 

27. 

313d 

cTSTT 

28. 

83c 

Bi C1J2L1 

28. 

315d 

TTffcT: 

29. 

84d 


29. 

323b 




















COMPARISON: TEXTUAL VARIANTS 


421 


30. 

84d 

-W' 

31. 

85d 


32. 

90d 

-WFT^dllfflcTRSZRlT 

33. 

92a 

WTFTRJi;Ci? 

34. 

93d 


35. 

95b 


36. 

96a 


37. 

98a 

IF*'- 

38. 

99d 

^R 1 F~ Bi 

39. 

lOld 

^BiJiJKi LiVi 

40. 

102 d 

-W: (CiJ 2 ) ? 

41. 

103a 

-■qi# 

42. 

103d 

-«cRf: 

43. 

104d 

(Ci J 2 J 5 JK 1 Li 



Vi)? 

44. 

105c 

(jKi Vi) ? 

45. 

11 Id 


46. 

114ab 


47. 

115a 

-Ulft?- J 1 J 5 

48. 

115c 

^ISjcTF- 

49. 

116a 


50. 

118b 

~Tl<^ Cl 

51. 

119b 

d>r<cRl ....crFdl<*R: (C 1 J 2 J 5 



Bi) ? 

52. 

120c 


53. 



54. 

122c 


55. 

123c 


56. 

125b 

-vm- 

57. 

125d 

w$m- 

58. 

126a 


59. 

127d 

dfddlldfd 


30. 

324d 


31. 

324cd 


32. 

329cd 

-^IRRT WQ K L 

33. 

331a 


34. 

332d 

^%cTT^-CKL 

35. 

334b 


36. 

335b 

^sP- BLK 

37. 

337d 


38. 

338d 

^RTF- 

39. 

340d 

11 

40. 

341d 

R’JF: 

41. 

343a 


42. 

342d 

-cUI 

43. 

343d 


44. 

344c 


45. 

350d 


46. 

353b 


47. 

354a 

-^ff 

48. 

354c 

fig'll 

49. 

355a 

d<]<3l u l 

50. 

357b 


51. 

358a 





52. 


(KL) ? Hypr(l) 

53. 

359c 


54. 

361c 


55. 

362c 


56. 

364b 

31- 

57. 

364d 

Tr^fr 3i- 

58. 

365a 

■3^=f- 

59. 

366d 

































422 NARTANNIRNAYA 

60. 131ab % .RRRT: BJ 2 J5 ; Li 


61. 

133b 

fqGhK^) Ai Li 

62. 

137d 


63. 

138d 

3TT^^A U I 

64. 

140a 


65. 

142a 


66. 

142d 

-T«l 

67. 

143c 

F-J2JK1 Li 

68. 

143d 


69. 

143e 


70. 

145a 

Bi; Cl ? 

71. 

152d 

f^TOT 

72. 

154d 

U5? 

73. 

156a 

SFT 

74. 

157c 


75. 

161c 

^Mj2j 5 

76. 

162d 


77. 

163a 


78. 

163c 

ddl-^d) Bj 

79. 

164b 

Tdl^kd: 

80. 

164d 


81. 

166c 


82. 

168a 


83. 

171c 

^•5^ see TCCJ2J5 

84. 

175b 


85. 

175d 


86. 

176d 

RC: 

87. 

177a 

qpRt 

88. 

177c 


89. 

178d 

■q^cTT: (JKi Li) ? 

90. 

179b 


91. 

181b 



60. 

370ab 

1 •jdSWI 



fpTRTcT: 

61. 

372b 


62. 

376d 


63. 

377c 


64. 

380a 

<=hPlBiyi ^T- 

65. 

381a 

KL 

66. 

381d 


67. 

382c 


68. 

382d 


69. 

383b 


70. 

384c 


71. 

392d 


72. 

394b 

I 

73. 

395a 

9T«1 

74. 

397a 


75. 

401a 

4T 

76. 

402b 

fftcl: 

77. 

402d 


78. 

403a 

ddl^Pd: 

79. 

403d 

OcdlJuKd: 

80. 

404b 


81. 

406a 


82. 

407c 


83. 

411a 

rT^l-^cr4l ! 

84. 

414d 

7?Tsf 

85. 

415b 

HdH^ 

86. 

416d 

5RT: 

87. 

416c 


88. 

417a 

Hypo(l) 

89. 

418b 

B 

90. 

418d 

ddM^ 

91. 

420d 

pzm- 





































COMPARISON: TEXTUAL VARIANTS 


423 


92. 

181c 


- 92. 

421a 


93. 

181d 

^Jlcf 

93. 

421b 

^iq- 

94. 

183a 

PWJui)^ 

94. 

422c 


95. 

184a 


95. 

423c 


96. 

185a 


96. 

424c 


97. 

189b 

qfSjqT Ci 

97. 

428d 


98. 

192c 


98. 

432a 

■qTpf— 

99. 

194c 

WfT^CiJsJs 

99. 

434a 


100 . 

195c 

-sFRq 

100 . 

435a 

-qqq bk 

101 . 

196a 


101 . 

435c 


102 . 

198a 

^Ul 

102 . 

437c 


103. 

198b 


103. 

437d 

-^q TrfrqcfT ! 

104. 

200 d 

-P<dl- 

104. 

440b 


105. 

210 c 


105. 

450a 

■'JStr^TT- 

106. 

211 c 

Tfc^: 

106. 

451a 

TRqt 

107. 

222 c 

f^K-d<u|) 

107. 

462a 

f^mqr 

108. 

224a 

arffqrft- 

108. 

463c 

3lPfdK- 

109. 

224c 

q?PT Bi 

109. 

464a 

den 

110 . 

225a 

q^RJKi ? 

110 . 

464c 


111 . 

225a 

qFTT: 

111 . 

464c 

qpq ! 

112 . 

226b 

xnf^Pif- 

112 . 

465d 


113. 

227a 


113. 

466c 


114. 

227c 

^Fl 

114. 

467a 


115. 

234d 


115. 

474b 

«pqT 

116. 

239b 

qfddl^ 

116. 

478d 

dPddl^ 

117. 

242a 


117. 

481c 

IcTRm&CKL 

118. 

243d 

fd4«t> 

118. 

483b 

qirt 

119. 

244c 

TTtcff^cTT 

119. 

484a 

<5c3>fiiai Hypr(l) 

120 . 

245b 

3T^Trl#T 

120 . 

484d 

3Md<rH 

121 . 

247d 

■qqTsq 

121 . 

487b 

qqqq 

122 . 

248a 

31%: 

122 . 

489c 

3%t 

123. 

248c 

W?i- 

123. 

488a 








































424 



NARTANNIRNAYA 

124. 

252b 



124. 

491d 

125. 

257a 



125. 

496d 

126. 

257c 

^RJKi 


126. 

497d 

127. 

258a 



127. 

497c 

128. 

260c 

-PSRT 


128. 

300a 

129. 

261c 

y^iiRdi- 


129. 

501a 

130. 

261d 

^qtafpsr- 


130. 

501b 

131. 

262d 



131. 

502b 

132. 

263c 



132. 

503a 

133. 

265c 

-f$jRT- 


133. 

505a 

134. 

266d 



134. 

506a 

135. 

270d 



135. 

510b 

136. 

272a 

^TfT Wftd=b 


136. 

511c 

137. 

272b 

c^TfSRTl 


137. 

51 Id 

138. 

273b 

TH 55%gT 


138. 

512d 

139. 

274a 

^tn 


139. 

513d 

140. 

276d 

^d^(?^Ret)CiJij2 

140. 

516b 


JsJKl L! 

141. 277b 7TT5-q^n 

142. 279d ^l4ff 

143. 285b 

144. 

145. 285c 

146. qfcicll 

147. 291b -qT#^ 

148. 291c ^dlPd^lj 

149. 294b efa- 

150. 296c $sH^Pdd^ 

151. 300a ^ 

152. 304b ddfddlRlcI 

153. 309d 


141. 519b 

142. 519b 

143. 524 

144. 


145. 

146. 525a 

147. 530d 

148. 531a 

149. 533d 

150. 536a 

151. 539c 

152. 543d 

153. 548d 


3T*f- Hypr(l) 

%3T- Hypo(l) 

■deli C L 

-fSRT 

wftcits 

-■^Tl WfP«T- 

- 

! 

fSRT- 

■?T3njs 

^ 3TTp8RlT Hypr(l) 

TTf 37Tto Hypr(l) 
7H^nCTHypr(l) 

^TT SR^qi Hypr(l) 

■did 31^ Hypr(l) 
^if^T^Rn^: (SR. 7. 
1015d) 

but suvividdha in uddesa 
and laksana in both 
editions, SR etc. 

^#RTT BL 
‘9T$f' j ii 

■qnJ- 

ddPddlP^d^ 

eft 






























COMPARISON: TEXTUAL VARIANTS 


425 


154. 

309d 


154. 

548d 


155. 

313a 

TffftcTT JKi Li Vi 

155. 

552c 

-Wtl 

156. 

314c 

tef: 

156. 

554a 

faTRT- 

157. 

319b 


157. 

558d 


158. 

321b 

C1J2JK1 Vi 

158. 

560d 

—tcff^T^TcT— L 

159. 

321c 

^^Ci?J 2 J 5 JKiLiVi 

159. 

561a 


160. 

322a 


160. 

561c 

ddc^L 

161. 

322c 

fadHKLJKi Vi 

161. 

562a 

PddHI^J: 

162. 

323d 

TO 

162. 

562b 

WII 

163. 

323a 

-wp 

163. 

562c 

-SIT 7 !? 

164. 

329a 

C1J2J5 

164. 

568c 


165. 

331d 

toCiJi Lj 

165. 

571b 


166. 

334b 


167. 

573c 


167. 

336d 

^RT 7 ^ 

167. 

576b 

LK 

168. 

339a 


168. 

578c 

lldc^l 

169. 

339b 

-UlScdHbfKKrldl JKj Vi 

169. 

578d 


170. 

340d 

dl£Hl)d4l: 

170. 

580b 

'flddl£l4h L 

171. 

345a 

dlRddd 

171. 

584c 

■dlRddd L 

172. 

345b 


172. 

584d 


173. 

345c 


173. 

585a 


174. 

347b 

■?f?T 

174. 

586d 


175. 

347c 

^fz- 

175. 

587a 

wzt- 

176. 

347d 


176. 

587b 

-Ml 

177. 

348b 


177. 

587d 

^Tfcdild 

178. 

348b 


178. 

587d 


179. 

349a 


179. 

588c 


180. 

351b 


180. 

590d 

ZTtTFT 

181. 

352a 

■^cTIW 

181. 

591c 

TTcTM- 

182. 

356a 

f^3TRT 

182. 

595c 

f 7 T:shl'd 

fS * 1 

183. 

356a 

M C P JU I c^Tdcrl 

183. 

595d 

H^TTTJI^ ! 

184. 

357d 

^?:CiJ 2 j5 GKlLiVi) 

184. 

597b 

ft* ! 

185. 

358c 

ddU^ 

185. 

598a 

ddlH^I: 









































426 


NARTANNIRNAYA 


186. 

358d 


186. 

598b 

• Wlfefed: cf. 597b 

187. 

360a 


187. 

599c 

-wm 

188. 

360d 

d)4f^ C1J2J5 

188. 

600b 

dMfdd-M 

189. 

362c 


189. 

602a 


190. 

363a 


190. 

603a 


191. 

364b 

A f 

191. 

604c 

IFTdT 

192. 

366c 


192. 

606cd 

ncmdf: 44tr4- ! 

193. 

370c 

4)lvl4)4)<'J|$J4& 

193. 

610c 

^1: 414)1^^49 

194. 

371d 

MR^Kebl: 

194. 

611d 


195. 

376b 


195. 

616b 


196. 

377d 


196. 

617d 

mm 

197. 

378c 


197. 

618c 


198. 

385b 

5^1- 

198. 

625b 


199. 

386b 


199. 

626b 


200 . 

387b 


200 . 

627b 


201 . 

390b 

--J<rl4): 

201 . 

631b. 

-^T4T: 

202 . 

391d 


202 . 

631c 


203. 

392d 

1WT- 

203. 

'632a 

^m4«n- 

204. 

395a 


204. 

635a 


205. 

396d 


205. 

636d 

ztw- 

206. 

397a 


206. 

637a 


207. 

404b 

Lj; (JKi Vi)? 

207. 

644b 

4e- 

208. 

41 Od 

4^(4 dl 

208. 

650d 


209. 

411a 


209. 

651a 

WT: 

210 . 

412c 

s4t 

210 . 

652c 

^T4t 

211 . 

413a 


211 . 

653a 


212 . 

413d 

%%1T 557m: 

212 . 

653d 

4'N^ J ldlMdl: 

213. 

415b 

TFTt^fd: 

213. 

655b 

IMlI^Pd- 

214. 

419a 


214. 

659c 

cRT 

215. 

424c 


215. 

644c 


216. 

432d 

-4)f4d^Hypr(l) 

216. 

672d 

-4ir^ 

217. 

435a 


217. 

675d 





































COMPARISON: TEXTUAL VARIANTS 


427 


218. 

436d 

sFTTRTT 

219. 

442c 

-zm 

220. 

444a 


221. 

445c 


222. 

446c 

wn 

223. 

448a 

TWZrf- 

224. 

452d 

W (?W) 

225. 

455 


226. 

456c 


227. 

456c 


228. 

457c 


229. 

458b 


230. 

459b 


231. 

464* 


232. 

464* 


233. 

470c 


234. 

473c 

Wf™ C1J2J5 Ai 

235. 

480a 

<*>dl^ 

236. 

480c 


237. 

482a 


238. 

482c 

w 

239. 

482d 


240. 

483c 


241. 

486c 


242. 

487b 


243. 

489b 


244. 

490d 

-■ctsisi-dd: 

245. 

491a 


246. 

491b 

Wl: WNKl 

247. 

494c 


248. 

499ab* 


249. 

499c 

*T*IT 


‘ 218. 

676d 


219. 

682c 

-iw 

220. 

684d 


221. 

685a 


222. 

686c 

74R (?) TTRT, conjectur 



emendation by editor, 1 

223. 

688a 


224. 

692d 

w 

225. 

695a 


226. 

696c 


227. 

696c 

fr^aiq^-ciNf 

228. 

697c 


229. 

698b 

Rraf 

230. 

699b 

3>gi<ilHfcl Mldcl‘kaukhi 



tlm’ - conjectural emen¬ 



dation by editor, A 

231. 

702* 


232. 

702* 





233. 

709c 

IRRT: ! 

234. 

712c 


235. 

719a 

d>dW<*> 

236. 

719c 

Ml (CL) ? Hypr(l) 

237. 

721a 

''JS 

238. 

721c 


239. 

721d 


240. 

722c 


241. 

725d 


242. 

726b 


243. 

728b 

•HfddH 

244. 

729d 

cRT : ! 

245. 

730a 

■H'dldcp 

246. 

730ab 


247. 

733c 


248. 

738ab* W 

249. 

738c 

— 









































428 


NARTANNIRNAYA 


250. 

499d 


251. 

500b 

-df^dlf%: 

252. 

505d 


253. 

506b 

W 

254. 

509d 

-fqr^r^Ci Q2j5) ? 

255. 

510a 

-^R 3 ! 

256. 

512d 

Ci ? 

257. 

514d 

fog*" Ai 

258. 

517a 

w 

259. 

519a 


260. 

519a 


261. 

521c 

Ai ; Bi ? 

262. 

522b 


263. 

524c 

^IUT- 

264. 

528b 

RcT: 

265. 

529ab 


266. 

530d 

(^U-) 

267. 

533b 

3T3Ty]^f- 

268. 

536a 

TdRllfc 

269. 

537a 


270. 

538c 


271. 

541a 

-gfTS'RRt 

272. 

541b 


273. 

541d 

cT«n 

274. 

545a 

fdHdd: Ai 

275. 

546b 


276. 

547d 

-■ciS^R: 

277. 

548b 

Pi^nUso) 

278. 

548d 


279. 

549a 

IRFlfo 

280. 

550c 


281. 

554a 

¥ 


250. 738d » 

251. 739b 

252. 744d 

253. 745b 

254. 748d 

255. 749a 

256. 751b 

257. 753b 

258. 755c 

259. 758b 

260. 759a 

261. 760a 

262. 760d 

263. 763a 

264. 767d 

265. 76gd 

266. 769b 

267. * 771 d 

268. 774a 

269. 775d 

270. 777a 

271. 779c 

272. 779b 

273. 780b 

274. 783c 

275. 784d 

276. 786b 

277. 786d 

278. 787b 

279. 787d 

280. 789a 

281. 792c 


—rlH-Hdl 

-^R 3 ! ! 

W- 

vjo<> 

^l^FT A 
del: 

cHdJMftd4> A 

^rfj- 

-aiu^dO ! 

TFTTft- 

cld: 

PinRid: C 
vTlTt>| Hypo(l) 

-f9 3H-S-CK: Hypo(l) 

AL 

xraift- 

4Klf4H^ 









































COMPARISON: TEXTUAL VARIANTS 


429 


282. 

555d 

: J 2 Li 

282. 

794b 

^TSTtf^RTT 

283. 

557a 


283. 

795c 

dlHIdtf- 

284. 

561a 


284. 

800a 


285. 

563a 


285. 

802a 


286. 

563c 

55-qcf 

286. 

802c 

-«I <T 

287. 

564b 

5-qt 

287. 

803b 


288. 

566c 


288. 

805c 


289. 

568b 


289. 

807b 


290. 

573cd 

: cT«n 

290. 

812cd 

not found 

291. 

576b 


291. 

814b 

cfjR -! L 

292. 

576c 


292. 

815a 

fop- 

293. 

578b 

■5TJc?T 

293. 

816d 

^IA 

294. 

578cd 


294. 

817ab 


295. 

586d 

^«ilP^dl : Ai 

295. 

825b 


296. 

591c 


296. 

830a 


297. 

597c 

w«n<jPs- 

297. 

836cd 

w^ngf^r- 

298. 

602a 

^Cij 2 j5 

298. 

840c 


299. 

603b 


299. 

841d 

wft «T 

300. 

603c 


300. 

842a 

RiRfq^t 

301. 

603d 

3XT5^t 

301. 

842b 


302. 

604a 

PviPfe 

302. 

842c 

faftfST: 

303. 

606b 

p*irpm^ 

303. 

844d 


304. 

606d 

qiHsql 

304. 

845b 

-■^^1 ! 

305. 

608d 

mm 

305. 

847b 

RhR^<1 

306. 

609d 

mm 

306. 

849b 

RtP<p5< 

307. 

610a 

-TIFT 

307. 

848c 

-u**r 

308. 

615b 


308. 

853d 


309. 

617a 


309. 

854c 


310. 

619d 


310. 

858a 


311. 

620d 


311. 

859a 


312. 

621d 

cTTcT— 

312. 

860a 

cTTeT— 

313. 

626a 


313. 

864c 





































430 


NARTANNIRNAYA 


314. 

628b 

-Wn-te 

314. 

866d 

-15RTCT- ! 

315. 

628c 

cTMt 

315. 

867c 

cTM- 

316. 

633c 

-TRRT 

316. 

872a 

-OnHHIl ^ ! 

317. 

636a 


317. 

874d 


318. 

638d 


318. 

877b 


319. 

639d 

f^OlRildl 

319. 

878b 

t^^TT^T A 

320. 

641a 

fd- Ai 

320. 

879d 


321. 

651c 


321. 

890d 


322. 

652ab 

— 

322. 

890cd 

describes ‘natajanukam’ 

323. 

652cd 

— 

323. 

89 lab 

describes ‘mandi’ 

324. 

654c 

-■RFJ^T ( ? - 

324. 

893ab 


325. 

654d 


325. 

893b 

but cf. 877b 

326. 

655c 


326. 

894a 

^ 1 % 4,1 C L 

327. 

656c 


327. 

895a 


328. 

663b 


328. 

901d 

T* 

329. 

666a 


329. 

904c 


330. 

670b 

^CALi 

330. 

908b 


331. 

676a 

WtCiJiJ 2 Li 

331. 

915a 


332. 

Colphon G h u lfd (Lq C1J2J5 

332. 

Colophon 

333. 

Colphon icHli u N S1J2J5 

333. 

WdHuR butWWt, Bi J2J5 


WWFi TR1: 


Positions of simhallla and hamsalila are interchanged 

1. In talalaksana (142-196) the vowel inflexions 0), 0) and (\) are frequently 
mutually displaced - quite indiscriminately in the collative sources of both 
editions, causing much confusion. Some instances of such Variants are shown 
here. 

2. Collative sources of both editions offer graphic representations which are 
often inconsistent with the respect talalaksana. 





























BIBLIOGRAPHY 


Abhayamatya, Kanuparti, Kavijanamanoranjanamu extr. Suryarayandhranighantuvu, g.v. 
Abhinavagupta, Abhinavabharati (Natyasastravivrti), Comm, on Bharatamuni, op. 
cit. 

Idem. Dhvanyalokalocanam, Comm, on Anandavardhana, op.cit; ed. tr. 

Krishnamurthy, K. Meharchand Lachhmandas. New Delhi, 1988. 
Abul Fazl Allami, Ayeen-i-Akbari, Eng. tr. Blochmann, H., Asiatic Society of Bengal, 
Calcutta, 1873. 

Ibid. Eng. tr. Francis Gladwin, 2vols. London, 1800 

Acanna, Vardhamanapuranam, ed. Mariyapppa Bhatta, M. and Govinda Rao, 
Madras University, Madras, 1953. 

Acharya, P.K. Hindu Play House, Modern Review, 1936 

Acyutaraya, Talakalabdhi (unpublished), extr. Ramkrishna Kavi, M., op. cit. 

Adibharata,?, cit. Parsvadeva, op. cit. 

Adiyarkuhallar, comm. Ilamgo Adigal, op. cit. 

Aggala, Candraprabhapuranam, ed. Narasimhachar, S.G. and Ramanuja Iyengar, 
M.A. Karnataka Kavyakalanidhi Series nos. Mysore, 1901 
Agnipuranam, ed. Jivananda Vidyasagara Bhattacharya, Sarasvati Press, Calcutta, 
1882 

Ibid.Anandashrama Sanskrit Series No. 41, Poona, 1957 

Ahobala, Sangltaparijatam. Jivananda Vidyasagara Bhattacharya, Sarasvati Press, 
Calcutta, 1884 

Ibid. ed. Ravaji Shridar Gondhalkar, Jagadhitecchu Press, Pune, 1897 Kalindi ed. 

tr. (Hindi), Sangeet Karyalay, Hathras, 1956 
Allauddin Moulabaksh, Si tar Shikshak, Baroda, 1888 

Aloka Kanungo, Ancient Limb of Odissi, The Economic Times. Calcuta, May 3, 
1987 

Amarasimha, Namalimganusasanam (Amarakosa), with Comm, by Mahesvara, 
Nirnaya Sagar Press, Bombay. 

Ibid. ed. Lewis, Bangalore Government Press, Mysore, 1873. 

Ambikatanayadatta (Bendre, D.R.), Aralu-maralu, Samaja Pustakalaya, Dharwad, 
1957 

Anandavardhana, Dhvanyaloka, eds. Durgaprasad, Kashinatha Panduranga Parab, 
Nirnaya Sagar Press, Bombay, 1891 
Ibid. Kavyamala Series No. 25, Bombay, 1928 
Ibid. Kuppushwami Sastri Research Institute, Madras, 1944 
Ibid. ed. tr. K. Krishnamurthy, Motilal Banarsidass, New Delhi, 1982 
Anantabhatta Comm, on Katyayana, Vajasaneyi Pratisakhyam, q.v. 


432 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


Ankaji Sastri, B and Subba Rao, P (eds), Bharatakalpalataipanjari, Bangalore, 1887. 
Appakavi, Kakunuri, AppakavIyamu.Vavilla Ramaswami Sastri, 2nd. Madras, 1934 
Apte, S. Sanskrit-English Dictionary, 3vols. eds. Gode, P.K., Karve, C.G., Prasad 
Prakasan, Poona, 1957-59 

Arumpudavurai-Airiyar, Arumpudavurai comm, on Ilango Adigal q.v. 
Asokamalla, Nrtyadhyaya, Priyabala Shah (ed.), Gaekwad Oriental Series No. 141, 
Oriental Institute, Baroda, 1963 

Asvalayana Grhyasutram, Ganesha Sastri Gokhale (ed.), Anandashrama Sanskrit 
Series No. 105, Poona, 1978 
Ibid. Nirnaya Sagar Press, Bombay, 1894 

Bahubali, Nagakumara Caritam, Shantiraji Sastri, A.(ed.), Mysore Jaina Associa¬ 
tion, Mysore, 1933 

Bahubali Pandita, Dharmanatha Puranam, MS. Oriental Research Institute, Mysore 
Banabhatta, Kadambari, Kane, P.V. (ed ), Nirnaya Sagar Press, Bombay, 1913 
Ibid. Kashinatha Panduranga Parab (ed.) 2nd edn. rev. by MathuranathaSastri, ed. 
Nirnaya Sagar Press, Bombay, 1948 

Bandhuvarma, Harivamsabhyudaya, MS. Oriental Research Institute, Mysore 
Basavanna, P. Nirikse, Shambhulinga Ksetra Chilukavadi, Kollegal Taluk 
Idem. Sri Sivakumara Caritam, Shambhulinga Ksetra, Chilukavadi, Kollegal Taluk, 
1990 

Basavappanayaka, Keladi Immadi, Sivatattvaratnakara, Rama Rao. B, Sundara 
Sastri, P. (eds.), B.M. Nath, Madras 1927 
Bhagavadgita, with comm. Sri Sarhkara, 2vols, ed. tr. Yellambalase Subrahamanya 
Sharma,Jayachamarajendra Grantharatnamala, Adhyatma Prakasha 
Karyalaya, Holenarasipura, 1946 

Bhagavatapuranam ed. Vasudeva Sharma Nirnaya Sagar Press, Bombay, 1905 
Ibid. Krishnacharya, T.R., Kumbhakonam, 1916 

Bhamaha, Kavyalamkara, Krishnamurthy, K. ed. tr. Kannada Kavikavyamale, 
Sharadamandira, Mysore, 1974 

Bharatamuni, Natysastram, eds. Shivadatta and Kashinatha Panduranga Parab, 
Kavyamala Series No. 42, Bombay, 1894 

Ibid. ed. Batukanatha Sharma and Baladeva Upadhyaya, Chowkhamba Sanskrit 
Series No. 60, Banares, 1929 

Ibid. ed. Ramakrishna Kavi, M. Gaekwad Oriental Series, Oriental Institute, Baroda 
vol. 1 2nd rev. edn. Ramaswami Sastri, K. No. 36, 1956 
vol. 2, No. 68, 1934 
vol. 3 No. 124, 1954 
vol. 4. No. 145, 1964 

Bhartrhari, Vakyapadlyam, ed. Gangadhara Sastri, M., Benares Sanskrit Series, Nos. 
11, 19, 24, Braj B. Das 8c Co, Benares, 1887 (chs, I, II) 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 


433 


Ibid. (ch. Ill), Benares, 1937 

Bhaskara, Ilvandharacarite ed. Ramanuja Iyengar, M.A., Karnataka Kavyakalanidhi 
Mysore 1908 

Bhatta Lollata, ?, comm, on Bharatamuni op. cit. cit. Abhinavagupta op. cit. 
Bhatta Sobhakara, Vivarana, comm, on Narada, Naradlyasiksa q.v. 

Batta Tandu,? cit. Abhinavagupta, op. cit. 

Bhatta Tauta, Kavyakautukam, cit. Abhinavagupta, op. cit. 

Bhatta Udbhata?, cit. Jayasenapati, op. cit. 

Bhavabhuti,, Malatlmadhavam, ed. Telang, M.R., rev. Wasudeva Laxman Sastri 
Pansikar, 6th ed. Nirnaya Sagar Press, Bombay, 1936 
Ibid. ed. Sri Sesharaja Sharma Sastri, Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series, 247, Benares, 
1954 

Blmakavi, Basavapuranam, ed. Hirematha, R.C., Lingayata Vidyabhivriddhi Samsthe 
Publication No. 12, Lingayata Vidyabhivriddhi Samsthe, Dharwad, 
1958 

Bhimakavi, Vemulavada, Kavijanarayamu, Vavilla Ramaswami Sastri Madras, 1950 
Bhojadeva, Srngaraprakasa, ed. critique, Raghavan, V., Punarvasu, Madras, 1963 
Ibid. ed. Yadugiri Yatiraja Svamin, Melukote, 1926 

Idem. Sarasvatikanthabharanam, Kavyamala Series No. 95, Bombay, 1925 
Ibid, ed Chintamani, T.R. Madras University Sanskrit Series No. II; Madras Univer¬ 
sity, Madras, 1937 

Bhikhari Das, Chandarnav Pihgal, cit. Dhirendra Varma, op. cit. 

Bommarasa, Caturmukha, Revanasiddhesvarapuranam, MS. Oriental Research 
Institute, Mysore 

Idem. Saundaryapuranam, eds. Karibasava Sastri, P.R., Basavalinga Sastri, M., and 
Karibasava Sastri, N.R., Virashaivagrantha Prakashika, Mysore, 1909 
Bommayya, Bahura, Vacanagalu, MS. Oriental Research Institute, Mysore 
Brahma Puranam, Venkateswara Steam Press, Bombay, 1906; Anandashrama 
Sanskrit Series No.28, Poona, 1895 

Brhadaranayaka Upanisat, ed. Sacchidanandendra Sarasvatl, Jayachamarajendra 
Grantharatnamala, AdhyatmaPrakashaKaryalaya, Holenarasipura, 

2vols„ 1953, 1954 

Ibid. Dharmasastra Sangraha, (28 Smrtis), ed. Matradeva Sastri, Jnanadarpana 
Press, Bombay, 1883 

British Journal of Psychology (Monograph Suppl. XXVII, 1948) and 1913 
Candraraja, Madanatilakam, ed. Panchamuki, R.S., Kannada Research Institute, 
Dharwad, 1953 

Candrasekhara, Bharatasarasangraha, MS. Oriental Research Institute, Mysore 
Candrasekhara, Astabhasakavi, Pampasthana Varnanam, ed. Krishna Jois, M., 
Sharanasahitya Granthamala, No.21, Bangalore, 1955 


434 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


Caraka, Caraka-Sarhhita, eds. Debendranath Sen, and Upendranath Sen Calcutta, 

1897 

Idem. Konsonanz und Dissonanz, Beitradsge zur Akustik und Musikwissenschaft, 

1898 

Idem. Ueber neucer Untersuchungen zur Tonlehre, VI. Kong, fuer experim. 
Physik, 1914 

Caryagitikosa, eds. Bagchi,P.C.andShantiBhiskuSastri,VisvaBharati,ShanUniketan, 
1956 

Cengalva Kala, Kavi, Rajagopala Vilasamu, ed. Venkata Rao, Np, Tanjor, Saraswathi 
Mahal Series No. 33, Madras Government Oriental Series No. 68, 
Madras, 1951 

Chand Bardai Prthviraj-raso, cit. Dhirendra Varma op.cit., 

Chandogya Upanisat, eds. Sacchidanandendra Sarasvatl, Jayachamarajendra 
Grantharatnamala, No. 58, Adhyatma Prakasha Karyalaya, 
Holenarasipura, 1966 

Chinnaswami Nudaliyar, Oriental Music in European Notation, Madras, 1892 
Cikadevaraya Caupada cit. Venkatachala Sastri, T.V., Kannada-Chandahsvarupa, 
qv - 

Cikkabhupala, Mummadi, Abhinava Bharatasarasangraha, ed. Sathyanarayana, R., 
Sri Varalakshmi Academy Publication Series No. 4, Sri Varalakshmi 
Academy of Fine Arts, Mysore, 1960 

Cikkapadmanna Setti, Anantanatha Caritre, MS.. Oriental Research Institute, 
Mysore 

Cinanarayana Kavi, Savaram, Kuvalayasva Caritram, cit. Suryarayandhra nighantuvu, 

qv- 

Culver, Charles, A. Musical Acoustics. The Blakistan Company, Philadelphia, 1947 
Damodara, Sang!tadamodara, ed. Guru Bipin Singh, Manipuri Nartarnalay, Calcutta, 
1984 

Damodara, Catura, Sangitadarpanam, ed. Vasudeva Sastri, K., TMSSM Library 
Series No. 34, Tanjore Sarasvati Mahal, Tanjore, 1952 
Dandin, Kavyadarsa, ed. tr. Krishnamurthy, K., Kannada Kavikavyamale. 
Sharadamandira, Mysore, 1975 

Dashiell, John, F., Fundamentals of General Physochology, Boston; Houghton 
Mifflin Company, 1937 

Dattila, Dattilam, ed. Sambasiva Sastri, K., Trivandrum Sanskrit Series No. 104, 
Trivendrum, 1930 

Ibid. ed. tr. Jijenhuis, E. Wiersma-Te.Orientalia Rheno-Traiectina, vol. II, Leiden, 
E.J. Brill, 1970 

Ibid, ed.tr. Mukund Lath, Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts, Motilal 
Banarsidass, New Delhi, 1988 





BIBLIOGRAPHY 


435 


Devakavi, Kusumavall Kavyam, Kannada Sahitya Parishad, Bangalore 
Devanna Bhatta, Sangltamuktavali, MS. Tanjore Sarasvad Mahal Library, Tanjore 
Devendra, Sangltamuktavali, MS. loc. cit. 

Dhananjaya, Dasarupaka, ed. tr. Subbanna, K.V., Akswara Prakashana, Sagara, 
Shimoga, 1958 

Dhanika, Dasarupavaloka, comm, on Dhananjaya, op.cit. 

Dharmadasa, Vidagdhamukhamandana, pub with comm. Kavyakalapa, Bombay, 
1865 

Dhirendranath Patnaik, Odissi Dance, Orissa Sangeet Natak Akademi, 
Bhubaneshwar, 1971 

Dhirendra Varma, Hindl-Sahityakosa, Jnanamandal Benares, samvat 2015 (1956) 
Divakara,?, cit. Jammulamadaka Madhavarama Sharma, op.cit. 

Donder, F.C. “Over het timbre der Vokalen”, Neder. Arch, von Geneeskunde en 
Natur-Kunde, I. 1865 
Ephigraphia Carnatica, vols. 4, 6, 7 

Feldt Keller., R., Harbarkeit von Instrumenten Klangen, Acustica, 4 (1954) 
Fletcher, Harvey, S., Speech and Hearing, New York: D. Van Nostrand Company, 
Inc. 1929 

Idem. “Loudness, Pitch, and the Timbre of Musical Tones and Their Relation to the 
Intensity, the Frequency and the Overtone Structure”, Journal of 
the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 6 (1934) 

Idem. “Newer Concepts of the Pitch, the Loudness and the Timbre of Musical 
Tones”, Journal of the Franklin Institute, vol. 120 (1935) 

Fox Strangways, A.H., Music of Hindustan, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1914 
Gandharvaraja, Ragaratnakara ed. for publ. Sathyanarayana, R. from MSS copies in 
Tanjore Sarasvati Mahal Library, Tanjore 
Gandharva Veda MS. Asiatic Society of Bengal, Calcutta; cit. Ramakrishna Kavi, op. 
cit. 

Gangadasa, Chandomarijari, ed. Kashinatha Panduranga Parab, Nirnaya Sagar, 
Press, Bombay, 1890 

Ganga-gauri samvada, cit. Venkatachala Sastri, T.V., Kannada Chandahsvarupa, 
q.v. 

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Ibid. ed. Pandeya, Ramateja Sastri, Varanasi, 1964 

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438 


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Jayadeva Sarasvati, Gltagovindam, eds. Mangesha RamakrishnaTelang and Wasudeva 
Laxman Sastri Pansikar, Nirnaya Sagar Press, Bombay, 1929 (with 
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Kesavadasa, Beluru, Karnataka-bhaktavijaya, Subodha Mudranalaya, Bangalore, 
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Kesiraja, Sabdamanidarpana, ed. Kittel, F., Based Mission Press, Bangalore, 1872 
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Ibid. ed. Velankar, H.D., RajasthanaPuratattvagranthamala, Rajasthan Prachyavidya- 
pratisthan, Jodhpur. 

Vlrasangayyana caupada, cit. Venkatachala Sastri, T.V., Kannadachandahsvarupa, 
q.v. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 


453 


Virupaksa Pandita, Cennabasavapuranam, eds. Basavanala, S.S., et. al, Lingayata 
Vidyabhivriddhi Samstha Vanmayasakhe, Dharwad, 1934 
Visnudharmottarapurana, Venkateswara Steam Press, Bombay, 1912 
Ibid. ed. tr. Venkatacharya, Jayacamarajendragrantharatnamala No. 15, Mysore, 
1953 

Visnupuranam, ed. Pancanana Tarkaratna, Vangavasi Press, Calcutta 
Ibid. tr. Wilson, H.H., 3rd. edn. Bombay, 1866, Calcutta, 1961 
Visnusarman, Pancatantra, Johannes Hertel, Harvard Oriental Series No. 11, 
Cambridge, Mass. 1908 

Visvanatha Kaviraja,Sahityadarpanam,ed. Kane, P.V., 5thedn. MotilalBanarsidass, 
Delhi, 1965 

Vyasa, Mahabharata, eds. Krishnacharya, T.R., Vyasacharya, T.R., (7 vols.), Nirnaya 
Sagar Press, Bombay, 1906-1914 (Kumbhakonam edn.) 

Ibid. Sukthankar, V.S. et al., Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Poona 
Watt, Henry, J., The Foundation of Music, Cambridge University Press, 1919 
Idem. The Psychology of Sound, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1917 
Ahitehead, A.N. Symbolism, Its Meaning and Effect, Macmillan, 1927 
Winckel, Fritz., Music, Sound and Sensation, tr. Thomas Binkly, Dover Publica¬ 
tions, Inc. New York, 1967 

Woodworth, Robert, S., Experimental Psychology, New York: Henry Ols 1938 
Yadavaprakasa, Vaijayantlkosa, Jaikrsnadas-Krsnadasa Pracyavidyagranthamala, 
No.2, ed. HaragovindaSastri, Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series Office, Varanasi, 
1971 

Yadunatha Simha, Abhinayadarpanaprakasa, cit. Dhirendranath Patnaik, Odissi 
Dance q.v. 

Yajnanarayana Diksita, Sahityaratnakara, ed. Chintamani, T.R., Madras, Diocesan 
Press, 1932 

Yajnavalkya, Yajnavalkya Siksa, in Siksasangraha, ed. Yugal Kishore Sharma, Benares 
Sanskrit Series, Braj B. Das, Benares, 1889 
Jasodhara, Jayamangala, comm, on Vatsyayana, op. cit. 

Zeitschrift fur Psychologie 

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INDEX TO NAMES, COMPOSERS 


A 

Abbayamatya, Kanuparti 345 
Abhinavagupta 210, 217, 218, 237, 229, 
243-4, 246, 248, 250, 253, 268, 330 
Acharya, P.K. 251 
Agni283 
Akasa 285 
Akbar 338 
Aloka Kanungo 274 
Anangabhima 276 
Ananta 271-2 
Ananta varma 270 
Anjanlsunu (Hanuman) 245 
Ankaji Sastrl, B. 284-5 
Arjuna 347 

Asokamalla 231-242, 250, 259, 314-5, 335, 
338, 341, 343-4 
Attahasa 277 


B 

Bahubali 293, 343 
Balarama 351, 354 
Balusvami Dlksita 333 
Basavappa nayaka, Keladi Immadi- 207, 
231-243, 251 
Bhadramukha 210 
Bhagirathi 345 
Bhagyacandra 350-1 

Bharata (-muni) 209-12, 214, 216, 227-8, 
236-8, 245-51, 254-55, 260, 267, 269, 277, 
286 

Bharataputra 21 
Bharati 311 
Bhaskara 337 
Bhatta Tandu 210-1 
Bhatta Udbhata 239 


Bhoi 273 
Bhumi 285 

Bommarasa, Caturmukha 313, 328, 337, 
342, 344 

Brahma 210-1, 227, 248, 266, 269, 281, 283, 

311 

C 

Caitanya (deva) 273, 351 
Campaka 345 

Candrasekhara 285, 313, 344 
Candrasekhara, Astabhasa-kavi 209, 280, 
293, 228 

Cengalvakavi 345 
Cina-narayana kavi, Savaram 345 
Cinna-Tirumalayya 297 
Codagangadeva 276-7 
Cudanga 276 

D 

Damodara, Catura 229, 271-3, 280, 284-8, 
290-4, 298, 301-2, 316-17, 325 
Devana-bhatta 261, 289, 335 
Devendra 229, 286-7, 290-8, 301, 304-5, 

319, 325-8, 331-4, 337-8, 341-3 
Dhanamjaya 209, 211, 216 
Dhanika 209 

Dhirendranath Patnik 276 
Dikpala 283 

E,F 

G 

Gajapati Viranarayana deva 276 
Gandharva 269 
Ganesa 269, 281, 322 
Gaudapada 266 
Gaurava 328 



516 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


Gauravanka 293 
Girija 315 
Govinda 350 

Govindavaidya 294, 387, 344 
H 

Hammlra 231-45 
Hanuman 292, 341 
Harapriyadevi 274 
Hari 354 
Harihara 336 

Haripaladeva 231-43, 250-1, 260-1, 267, 
288, 326 
Heramba 281 

I 

Indra 283, 353 

j 

Jadunatha Simha 274 
Jagadekamalla 231-43 
Janna 280 
Jayadeva 351 

Jayasenapati 210, 214, 231-43, 249, 252-3, 
256-7, 269-60, 274-5, 339, 355-6 
Jehangir 272 

K 

Kalidasa 284 

Kallinatha 211, 217, 236-7, 262, 267, 284, 
343 

Kamalabhava 260, 280 
Kamesvari 244, 344 
Kamsa 353 
Kanakadasa 314 
Karya(?) 281 
Kasyapa 311 
Kesiraja 343 
Khelai Lunga 353 
Kinnara 269 
Kirtidhara 210, 244-5 


Kohala 211, 292, 311, 324, 340, 353 
Kokilaprabha 274 
Komalavalli 345 
Krsna 349, 351-4, 358-61 
Kubera 283, 344 
Kumarasvami 347 
Kumaravyasa 336, 343 
Kumbhakama 331-43, 249, 329, 335 

L 

Lakkanadandesa 336 
LaksmI 268, 283 

Laksmlnarayana, Bhandaru 229, 231-45, 
281,346-7 ’ 

Laugaksi Bhaskara 227 
Lokanayika 245 

M 

Mahadeva 347 
Mahaganapati 283 
MahalaksmI 344 
Mahavisnu 283 
MahesvaVa 

Mahesvara mahapatra 274-7 
Mallikarjuna 294 
Mankad, D.R. 251 
Manmatha 347 
Manomohan Ghosh 239 
Manu 227 
Matanga 311 
Matrka 269 

Meichala Kumudini 350 
Moksadeva 231-41 

Monier-Williams, Sir Monier 244, 250, 344, 
360 

Muttayya bhagavata 333 
N 

Naga 269 
Nagacandra 267 
Nandi 210-1, 338 




INDEX TO NAMES, COMPOSER 


517 


Nandikesvara 21, 229, 232-42, 249-50, 253, 
260-61, 265, 281, 283, 286-90, 310 
Narada 251,311,330 
Narahari 337 

Narahari Cakravard 347, 352 
Narasimha, Lord 297 
Narayana deva 274-6 
Narayana tlrtha 333 
Nemicandra 343 
Nijagunasivayogi 267 
Nilakanthacarya 337 
Nirrti 283 

O 

P 

Padmanabha 276 
Pampa 343 
Panini 208, 238, 243 
Parasumani 274 

Parsvadeva 231-43, 249, 256-7, 357 
Parvati 211, 283, 347 
Pattnaik, D.N. 276 
Peddakomati Vemabhupala 270 
Pisharod K.P. 251 
Prabhakara Sastri, Veturi 330 
Prabhuga 267 

Pratapasimhadeva, Savai 352-3 
Purandaradasa 209, 340 
Purusottama Misra 276 

R 

Radha 350-2, 354 

Radha Burnier 283 

Radhika Nandakumar 283 

Raghavan, V. 251, 257, 330 

Raghavanka 263, 335 

Rajaraja Cola 273 

Ramabhadra, Ayyalaraju 345 

Ramacandra deva 273 

Ramakrishna Ravi 210, 230, 245, 295, 338 

Ramakrishna, Nataraja 333, 248 

Ramanand Roy 273 


Ramanathan S. 330 
Ramanuja 297 
Ramasvami Dlksita 332-3 
Rambha 311 
Ranna 336 
Ratnagiri 345 

Ratnakara varni 328, 337-8, 344 
Rudra 285 
Rudra Bhatta 335 
Rukmini 359 
Rupanarayana 301 
Rupavad 345 

S 

Sadaksaradeva 336 
Sadasiva 311 

Sadashiva Rath Sharma 278 
Sakd 311 
Sambhu 210 
Samkhyas 215 
Sangrama Dhanamjaya 300 
Sankara 314 
Santalinga desika 342 
Saptamatrka 283 

Saradatanaya 212, 215-6, 251, 254, 263-4, 
354-5 

Sarasvati 269, 283 
Sardula 281 
Sarkar, S.P. 251 

Sarngadeva 21, 214-7, 231-43, 245, 269, 
295,314,319 
Sasirekha 345 
Sastri P.S. 250 
Satyabhama 353 
Sathyanarayana, R. 212 
Seetha, S. 346 
Serfoji 348 
Shahaji 272, 333 
Siddhendra yogi 273 
Sijaleraibi 351 

Simhabhupala 246, 268, 280 
Singhana 260 

Sltaramaraja, Pusapad 347-8 



518 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


Siva 210-1, 248, 266, 283, 310, 326, 341 
Skanda 283 

Sodhalasunu (Sarngadeva) 245 
Somanarya, Astavadhana 340 
Somarajadeva 231-43, 334 
Somanatha, Palkurike 260, 267 
Somesvara 231-43, 249-50, 334, 338 
Sourindra Mohun Tagore 261, 293 
Srlkantha 231-43 
Srikaranesvara 245, 260 
Srikumara 251 

Srirama Appa Rao, Ponangi 211,230, 251, 
268 

Subbarama DIksita 332-3 
Subba Rao D. 251 
Subba Rao 284-5 
Subharhkara 341 
Subrahmanya 266 
Sudhakalasa 326 
Surana, Vennelakanti 328, 345 
Svargadeva 350 
Svati Timnaj 333 

T 

Tandava-vedin 246 
Tandu 210-1, 248, 269 
Thurston & Rangachari 346 
Trinity 283 
Tulaja 232-3 
Tyagaraja 332-3 

U 

Uma 269 
Usa 269 

V 


Vadhuti 345 
Vallabharaya 345 
Varuna 283 
Vasudeva Suri 251 
Vasudeva Vah ini pall 276 
Vatsyayana 207 
Vayu 283 

Veda 229, 261, 271-3, 283, 285-99, 303-5, 
308, 310, 315, 315-17, 319, 323, 326-9, 
333-5, 337-41, 345, 346, 355 
Vemabhupala 231-4, 279, 299, 300-1,318, 
329,334, 343, 355 
Veiikanarya, Mudurupalli 335 
Venkanarya, Nudurapati 345 
Venkataramasastrl Melatturu 333 
Venkatasubbayya A. 207 
Venkatasundarasani 282, 285, 294, 310, 312 
Venugopala Varaparasada 337 
Vidyanatha 216 
Vighnesa 265, 283 
Vijayaraghava-nayaka 345 
Vinayaka 229 
VIrabhadra 358 
Virahanka 356 

Virupaksapandita 328, 337, 344 
Visakhila 311 
Visnu 269, 285 
Visvanatha bhatta 353 

W-X 

Y 

Yaksa 269 
Yama 283 
Yasoda 354 
Yasodhara 207 




INDEX TO WORKS CITED 


A 

Abhilasitarthacintamani 231-43, 249-50 
Abhinavabharati 210, 238 
Abhinayacandrika 274, 276, 278 
Abhinayadarpanam 211, 227, 231-43, 250, 
253, 260-1,267, 286-90 
Abhinayadarpana-Prakasa 274 
Adipuranam 343 
Adirsettipuranam 264 
Agnipuranam 353 
Amrtamanthana 210 
Ancient Indian Theatre 251 
Ancient Limb of Odissi 274 
Andhrabhasarnavamu 328 
Andhrabhasarnava-nighantuvu 345 
Annamalai Chettiar Commemoration 
Volume, Sir 251 
Apastamba Grhyasutra 227 
Aradhya caritra 337 
Ardhanemipuranam 343 
Astadhyayl 207, 328, 243 
Ayanayarara-Ragale 335 


B 

Bhagavatapuranam 349 
Bhairavesvara Kavyada- Katha 
sutraratnakara 342 
Bharata 336, 343 

Bharatakalpalatamanjarl 284, 292 
Bharatakosa 237, 279, 286-8, 290, 292, 299, 
300, 302-4, 306, 313, 315, 319, 334-5, 
338, 340, 343, 355 

Bharatarnava 231-43, 249, 266-7, 281, 283- 
5, 326 

Bharatasarasangraha 285 
Bharata’s Natyasastra, 2nd Ch. 251 


Bharatesa vaibhavam 328, 336-7, 344 
Bharati 251 

Bharatlya-sangltadalli paribhasa-prayoga 
250 

Bhavaprakasanam 212, 216-7, 251, 254, 
263, 354 

Bhrnglsvara-ragale 336 
Bihar Theatre 251 
Brhadaranyaka-upanisat 214 

C 

Castes and Tribes of South India 328 
Cennabasava puranam 337, 344 
Cikadevaraya-vamsavali 337 
Connotations of the terms Tandava and 
Lasya 212 

Critical Survey of the Ancient Indian 
Theatre in Accordance with the second 
chapter of the Natyasastra, A. appx. no. 
6, Natyasastram (GOS) vol. I, 2nd ed. 

D 

Daksinatyula-natyakala caritra 333, 348 
Dasarupaka 209, 211, 216-25 
Dasarupavaloka 209 
Dharmanathapuranam 343 
Dhatupatha 208, 349 
Dvipada Hariscandra-kavyam 328 

E 

Economic Times, The 274 
F 

G 

Gaurlmata 237 
Gitagovindam 350 





520 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


Gadayuddha 336 
Guptabhava prakasika 251 

H 

Hathayogapradipika 261 
Hariscandra-kavya 264-336 
Harivamsa (puranam) 349 
Harsacarita 350 
Hindu Play-House 251 

I 

Indian Historical Quarterly 251 
Indian Theatre, The 251 

j 

Jagannatha vijayam 335 
Jayamangala 207 
JIvandhara carite 337 

K 

Kalas, the 207 
Kalikapuranam 261 
Kamasutram 207 

Kanthlrava-narasarajavijayam 294, 337, 341 
Kavadi Cindugaj 330 
Kavirajamanoranjanam 345 
Korvyace-Sahityace-Jinnas-Nrtyace 347, 349 
Kridabhiramam 345 
Kuvalayaryacaritra 345 

L 

Lingapuranam 328 
M 

Madras Census Report 1901 346 
Maghakavyam 261 
Mahesvara-Sutra 326 
Mallinathapuranam 267 
Mandukyakarika 266 
‘Matantara’ 233-5, 292, 308 


Menakahita 350 
Modern Review 251 
Mohanatarangini 344 
Moligeyyanapuranam 293 
Mudralaksanam 261 
Music Academy Journal 330 
Music in Ancient Indian Drama 330 

N 

Nagakumaracaritam 293 
Nandikesvara karika 326 
Nandimata 210 
Narada silpa 251 
Narmadasundara-rasa 350 
Narmavatl 350, 353 
Natyacudamani 340 
Natyadarpanam 287-8, 290 
Natyagrhamu 251 

Natyasastram 209-12, 214-8, 225, 230-46, 
248-52, 254-5, 260-1,267, 269, 256, 330- 
1,3 

Natyasastramu 211, 230, 268 
Naukacaritam 332 
N ay ad h a m m akah a 208 
Nellore Manual 346 

Nrttaratnavall 210, 214, 231-43, 249, 252-3, 
* 256-7, 259-60, 264-5, 268, 388-90, 355 
Nrtyadarpana, 276 

Nrtyadhyaya 231-43, 250, 259, 314, 338, 
*341,343 

Nrtyaratnakosa 335 

O 

Odissi Dance 276 

P 

Padma samhita 214 

Pampasthana-varnanam 209, 280, 328, 344 
Panditaradhyacaritramu 260, 267 
Prabandharaja-venkatesvaramu 328 




INDEX TO WORKS CITED 


521 


Prahladacaritra-yaksaganamu 345 
Prasadalaksana 251 
Prataparudrlyamu 216-8 

Q 

R 

Radha-Govind Sangltsara 352 
Raivatamadanika 353 
Rajagopala vilasamu 145 
Rajasekhara vilasam 37 
Ramabhyudayam 345 
Rasagangadhara 216-25 
Rasagltika 350 
RasakaumudI 231-43, 249 
Rasakranta stotra 350 
Rasakrida 350 
Rasakrida pancadhyayi 350 
Rasamahatmya 350 
Rasamanjari 350 
Rasapaddhati 350 
Rasapan cadhyayi 350 
Rasapramana 350 
Rasaryagucchah 350 
Rasasundara- mahakavya 350 
Rasavilasa 350 
Rasaviveka 350 
Rasayatraviveka 350 
RasikajanamanollasinI- sarasangraha 
bharatasastra 282, 285, 294, 302, 311 
Rasollasatantra 350 
Revanasidhesvarapuranam 313,328 

S 

Sabdamanidarpanam 343 
Sabdarthakaustubham 239 
Sadragacandrodaya 280 
Sahinadarpanam 353 
Samjnartha-tattvakosa 314 
Sankaradasimayyanapuranam 294 
Sangitacintamani 231-43, 270, 300, 3123-4, 
318, 329, 343, 355 


Sangltacudamani 231-43 
Sangltadamodara 341 

Sangitadarpanam 229, 271-3, 280-1, 289-90, 
292-8, 301, 303, 305, 313, 316-8, 327-8, 
333, 335, 338-9, 341, 344, 346 
Sangltakalanidhi 211, 284, 343 
Sangltamakaranda 212, 229, 251, 261, 271- 
3, 285-98, 301, 304-10, 313-19, 323, 325- 
29, 333-5, 337-46, 355 
Sangitameru 211 

Sangltamuktavall 229, 261, 273, 286-90, 
292-98, 304-5, 314, 319, 323, 325, 327, 
333-5, 338-9, 342-3 
Sangltanarayana 276 
Sangirtaraja 231-43, 249, 329 
Sangitaratnakara 209, 211-25, 229-50, 253, 
255-7, 260-8, 280, 295, 317, 329, 334, 343 
Sangltaratnavall 231-43 
Sangltasamayasara 241-43, 249, 256-7, 257 
Sangltasampradayapradarsinl 322 
Sangltasara(Prasa) kalika 231-43 
Sangltasarasangraha 293, 347, 352 
Sangitasudhakara 247, 250, 256, 260-1, 267, 
288, 326 

Sang!tasuryodaya 229, 231-43, 281, 346, 349 
Sangltopanisat-saroddhara 326 
Sanskrit-English Dictionary, A 244, 250, 
344,360 

Santisvarapuranam 260, 280 
Satcakranirupanam 261 
Saundarapuranam 235, 313, 342 
Silparatna 251 
Sivanubhava-sabdakosa 214 
Sivatattvacintamani 336 
Sivatattvaratnakara 207, 231-43, 251 
Somesvaracarite 264 
South Indian Inscriptions (SII) 297 
Srngarahara 231-43 
Studies in Indian Dance 212 
Sugrivavijayam 330 
Sukranltisara 207 
Svararagasudharasa 339 




522 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


T 

Tanjore as a Seat of Music 346 

Tantrasara 261 

Tattvaratnapradipika 214 

Theatre Architecture in Ancient India 251 

Torave Ramayana 337 

Tripuradaha 210, 248 

Triveni 251, 330 

U 

V 


Vaijayantikosa 214, 238, 343 
Vikramorvaslyam 285 
Vilasavatl 350, 353 
Vivekacintamani 267 
Visnudharmottarapuranam 214, 251 
Visnupuranam 328, 345 
Vrttajatisamuccaya 356 

Y 

Yaksagana 330 
Yasodharacarite.280 




INDEXTO PLACE NAMES 


Akhada Chapa Pali 273 
Anantapur 346 

Andhra 270-3, 293, 306, 328, 330, 334, 344, 
357 

Andhrapradesh 261, 297 
Assam 350 
Avasiya 347 
Bellary 346 
Bengal 350 
Brindavan 350, 353 
Burma 350 
Calcutta 274 
Chidambaram 247 
China 267 
Coorg 360 
Cuddapah 330 
Delhi 272 
Devagiri 60 
Dharakote 274 
Dvaravatl 353 
Ghana 347 
Greater India 269 
Gujarat 350, 352 
Guntur 297 
Himachalpradesh 350 
Himalaya 248 
India 256, 269, 270 
Jaipur 352 
Jakkula Ceruvu 346 
Jakkulodiki Aranalu 346 
Kabul 343 
Kaina 350 

Karnataka 209, 251, 261, 269, 276-7, 293, 
306, 313, 335, 338, 340,. 344, 347, 357-8 
Kerala 367 

Khema(n)di 274, 276 
Khurasan 347 
Kodagu 360 
Kolahalapura 276 


Kolar 276 
Kondavldu 270 
Krishna 346 
Kumbhakonam 247 
Kurnool 229 
Lamghan 343 
Lampaka 343 
Lata 347 

Madhyapradesh 350 
Mandya 359 
Mangalagiri 297 
Manipur 209, 350 
Mathura 339, 353 
Meirang 350 
Multan 347 

Mysore 261, 283, 286, 293, 327, 340, 357 

Nomoijin 350 

North India 350, 357 

North Karnataka 359 

North Orissa 276 

Orissa 269, 273-4, 276 

Persia 347, 349 

Poona 267 

Punjab 350 

Puri 278 

Rajasthan 350, 352 

Saurashtra 211,218, 352 

South India 247, 269, 273, 293, 329, 349 

Srirangapattana 269 

Tamil Country 329 

Tamilnad 261,272-3, 344, 357 

Tanjore 247, 272-3, 292, 345-7 

Tenali 346 

Tiruvannamalai 247 

Tumkur 359 

Turuskadesa 347 

Uttarapradesh 350 

Vijayanagar 269 

Vizianagaram 347 

Vriddhachalam 247 



MANUSCRIPT COPIES CONSULTED 


Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, 
Poona 

Government Oriental Manuscripts Library, 
Madras 

Institute of Kannada Studies, Mysore 
Oriental Institute, Baroda 


Oriental Research Institute, Mysore 
Sarasvati Bhandara, Maharaja Sanskrit 
College, Mysore 

Sri Varalakshmi Academy, Mysore 
Tanjore Maharaja Serfoji’s Sarasvati Mahal 
Library, Tanjore 



INDEX TO WORDS 


A 

abbara 267 
abharana vihim 207 
abhidhana-kosa-chandovijnana 207 
abhinaya 212-3, 229, 230, 232, 238, 254, 
257-8, 260, 272, 281, 283-4, 333, 339, 356 
abhinayabheda 260 
abhinayakarma 218 
abhinayapada 348 
abhineta 253 
abhitapta 233 
abhoga 328-9, 333-4, 339 
abhyantara 363 
acacia catechu 357 
acaryakarana 212 
accessories of nartaka 227 
acchurita249 

acrobatic dances 269, 271, 274 
acrobatic element 272 
acrobatic feat 279 
acrobatic karana 273 
acropaticsh 269 
acropatic types 
acrobatism 

acronymic definition 284 
adala 316, 318 
adalahoramayi 319 
adalu 316 

adana-pratidana 207 
adantara 316-7 
adavu 254, 293,311-2 
adbhuta 235, 249, 250 
addajaggu 334 
addakalu 316 
addaml 258 
addaskhalita 295 
addatall 342 
addavaja 263 
addi335 


addita 242,244-5,295, 331 
addita dhruva 331 
addri 334 
adhara 230, 232 
adhastala 239 
adhikarana 227 
adhogata 239 
adhomukha 233-4, 240 
adhuta 233 

adhyardhika 242,281,294 
adhyasavada 216 
adhyatma 227-8 
adhyatma sankirtana 345 
adila 356 

aditala 260, 292, 294-5, 299, 302, 304, 306- 
8, 340, 343, 347 
aditya 266 
adrstaprstha 312 
adrstaprsthatulla 297 
adugopu katige 359 
advaitin 227 
aesthetic affect 216 

agama (verbal testimony) 227, 237, 283 

agnihasta 235 

agnija avega 221 

agraga 239-40 

agramukha 239 

agrapluta 242 

agratalasancara 240, 244-5 

agratha 244 

aharyabhinaya 213-4, 227, 350 

ahvana, 239 

aindra 241, 250 

aitihya 227 

akampita 233 

akarsana 239 

akasa 216 

akasacari 209, 230, 242, 313 
akasamandala 230 


526 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


akekara 233 
akhyayika 207 
aksara 335 
aksepikl dhruva 331 
aksipta 242, 244, 249 
aksiptacarl 295 
aksipta recita 249 
akuncita 241 
ala datukolu 259 
aiaga 250,317,319,323 
alagabhramarl 250 
alagadindu 316, 319 
alagapada 241, 243 
alagna 249 

alamkara 213-4, 278, 330 
alapa 265, 267, 328, 338 
alapacari 292, 337 
alapadma 234-6, 307, 324 
alapallava 234-6 
alapti 281 
alaru 347 
alasya 219 
alata 242-3, 246 
alatacakra 266 
alataka 249 
alatika 242 
alavani kolu 359 
alekhya 207 

alldha 241-2, 249,311,254 
alige-alu-tirugu-kaddi 360 
alingana 235 
allika 345 

alliterative euphony 329 
alokita 233 
alpa 227 

alu-suttu-kolu 359 
amarsa 223 
amrta 330 
amsagati 259-60 
amsasvara 268 
anagata graha 212 
analogy 227 
ananda 263 


anandabhairavl raga 347 
anaiiga 257, 259, 323 
anaiigu 253 

ancita 233-4, 240, 249-50, 281 
andolita 234, 240, 243, 341 
anekarupavirbhava-krtijnana 207 
anekasana-sandhana-ratijnana 207 
anekavadya-vikrti-tadvadana-vijnana207 
anga 227, 230, 232-3, 257, 259, 271, 281 
anga-ananga 260 
angabhinaya 330 
angadi kolu 359 

angahara 210-2, 227, 247-9, 258. 260, 281 

ahgalasyarekha 311 

angaracana 213 

angaraga 260 

ahga-upanga nartana 327 

anga viksepa 207 

aiighri 230, 240, 247 

anghritaditacari 320 

angikabhinaya 209, 215, 227, 230, 257, 350 

anguliprstha 240 

anibaddha 281 

anibandha 271 

anibandhaneri 341 

anibandha nrtta 34, 342 

anibandha nrtya 227 

anibandha urupa 295, 243 

anlki 258, 260 

anila 230 

anjali 234, 282, 294 
arijana 235 
alike 260 
anklebell 329 
antaharana 331 
antara 331 
antaradhruva 331 
antaralaga 250 
antaralagna 249 
antara padmasana 241, 243 
antarbhramarl 250, 311, 313 
antardhana 268 
antarjanubhramari 324 



INDEX TO WORDS 


527 


antyabandha 311 
antyajati 322 
anubandha dhruva 331 
anubhava 214-8 
anuddhata 212 
anugayaka 263 
anukramanl 281 
anumana 257, 259 
anupallavi 332-3 
anuradha 251 

anupalabdhi (nonperception) 227 

anusara 251 

anuvrtta 233 

apabhramsa 256 

apakranta 242, 245, 250 

apakrstadhruva 331 

apaksepa 242 

apakuncita 242 

aparajita 249 

apasara 354 

apasarpana 244 

apasarpita 249 

apsmara 223 

apaspandita 245 

apavestita 234, 237 

apaviddha 234, 245, 249 

ap-bhuta 216 

appana 260 

apriyasravanaja avega 222 
apasara 211 
arabhati 212, 269, 292 
arala 234 
aranga 319, 321 
aralakhatakamukha 235 
aratrika 233 
aravu tala 312 
arddl 334 

ardhabhramari 351 
ardhacandra 234, 308 
ardhacaturasra 235 
ardhamandali 242 
ardhamattalli 249 
ardhamukula 233 


ardhanikutta 249 
ardhanikuttita 249 
ardhapataka 234 
ardhapuratl 240, 242 
ardharecita 235, 242 
ardharecita rekha 311 
ardhaskhalita 240 
ardha (adda) skhali taka 242 
ardhasuci 249 
ardhasvastika 249 
ardhavisamavrtta 331 
ardhyardhika 244 
argala 249 
arjuna 295, 299 
arjunabana 298, 307-8 
arjuna wood 331 

arthapatti (presumptive testimony) 227 

asamamjara carl (?) 311 

asamyuta hasta 230-1, 234, 237, 295 

asarita 269 

aslna 211, 256 

astagopl-astasyama- rasa 352 

astaka daru 332 

astapadi 351 

astatala 355 

astatall 343 

astatali yati 341 

asthila 242 

asuya 219 

asvajhampa 311 

asvakranta 241, 292 

asvara pata 335 

asva(sthana) 295 

athana raga 347 

atikranta 242, 245, 249, 273 

atitagraha 212 

atta 349 

attatala 267, 437 
aupmya samvidhana 331 
authority 227-8 
autsukya 222 
avada 268 
avadhana 260 



528 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


avadhuta 233 

avaghada cakra 270 

avahittha 223, 234, 241, 249, 295 

avahittha sthanraka 281 

avaja 263 

avakrsta 331 

avalokita 233 

avara sampradaya 264 

avarta 249, 298 

avartana 260 

avasanikl dhruva 331 

avasthiti 247 

avasy(p)andita 242, 245 

avega 221 

aviddha 234, 242, 246 
aviddha kuncita 246 
aviddha vaktra 235, 304 
ayata 241 
ayatasthana 281 
ayatta 267 
Ayurveda 227 

B 

baddha 42, 281 
baddha 245 
baddhapana 354 
bagu kolu 359 
bahurupa 281 
bahirbhramari 311 
bahu 230-1,234 
bahurupa 281 
bahya 263 
bahyabhramari 250 
bahyavastvanukarini 217 
bahyopacara 253 
baka kalasa 334, 336 
bala 260 
bala 338 
balacandra 234 
balamagula cutige 360 
balarama hasta 235 
balidu kolu 360 
balija 346 


ballikolu 359 
bana 234 

bandha 269-280, 328, 358 

bandhana 279 

bandhana paryaya 280 

bandha (ka) nrtta 300, 355 

bandha nrtya 227, 248, 250, 269-280 

bandha pattern 356 

bandha talarupa kvada 342 

bandhasara 270 

bandhava basta 335 

bangall 337-8 

banu kolu 360 

barukolu gantu jade 359 

basant rasa 352 

bastard sago358 

bauddha 227 

bayavala 260 

bennali kolu 359 

betalabhramarl 311 

bhagavata mela 330, 332 

bhagavata mela repertoire 333 

bhairava 338 

bhairavancita 249-50 

bhairavi 347 

bhajana 340 

bhajima 213 

bhana 211, 255-6, 353 

bhanavl 283, 286, 292, 342 

bhanda 312 

bhangi 273 

bhangi pareng 351 

bhanl 353 

bhanika 353 

bharatanatya 209, 258-9, 311 
bharataputra 210 
bharatl (style) 353 
bhasa 353 

bhasmasura nartana 337 
bhaumamandala 230 
bhautikavada 216 

bhava 215, 218, 254-6, 258-9, 261-77, 295, 
327 



INDEX TO WORDS 


529 


bhava glance 212 
bhavaneri 295 
bhavarekha 311 
bhavika 211 
bhavita 256 
bhaya 225 
bhayanaka 233 
bhayanvita 233 
bheda 354 
bhedana 240 
bhedyaka 354-5 
bherunda 235 
bhilla 278 
bhilli 337-8 
bhlma 248, 338 
bhinna 293, 310 
bhinnatala 329 


bhrantapadancita 250 
bhratr hasta 235 
bhrti 212 
bhru 230-3 
bhrukuti 233 
bhucaramanovrtta 244 
bhucari 209 
bhujangancita 249 
bhujangini 290 
bhukali 257 
bhumicari 230, 241-2 
bhujangatrasita 242, 249 
bhujangatrasta recita 249 
bhusana yojana 207 
bhuta 216 
bibhatsa 233 
biccu kolu 359 
bidulaga 271, 273, 313-5 
bilahari raga 347 
biruda 326, 332 


blsu 318, 320 
body configuration 269 
body contortion 269 
‘bols’ 277 
brahma 241 
brahma 298-9, 308 
brahma hasta 235 
brahman 308 
brahmatala 308 
brahmatala udupa 299 
brahmana hasta 235 
brnda 263, 281 
bronze cymbals 265 
budha 235 

C 

caccatputatala 341 
cadhuka 278 
cadurubhaga kolu 359 
caesural requirment 331 
cajjala gumpu 360 
cakasa 236 
cakkara 337 
cakke kolu 359 
cakra 235, 299 
cakrabandha 298, 308 
cakrabhramari 249, 324 
cakramandala 249, 273 
cakra tala 307 
calabalike 260 

caiaka’211, 230, 239, 247, 314-5, 326 
calana 241 
calavali 260 

cail 258-9,311,329, 338-9 

calivada 258 

calivali 258 

calivata 258-9 

callya 312 

caluvali 258 

camatkara 334, 338 

camatkara dhuta (head) 283 

cancuputa 278 

can da 212 


bhita 233 
bhitra 296 
bhogi gati 260 
bhramara 234, 249, 295 
bhramari 210, 227, 242, 250, 259-60, 271, 
278, 304, 307, 313, 323-4, 351, 357 







530 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


candana 259 

chandahsastra 228 

candika 241 

chandas 227 

candra 235 

chapu tala 332 

candra 250 

chatra 311 

candrakala 234 

chatrabhramarl 250 

candrakanta 235 

chattisagadhl hindl 338 

candrika 241 

cheda 354 

candutore kolu 360 

chedana 239 

cankramana 242 

cheva 260 

canthium parviflorum 258 

chinna 240, 249 

capalata 221 

chordophone 351 

caramana 302, 312 

choreographic disposition 248 

caramayura 279 

chotika 356, 259-60 

carana 230, 332-3 

cibuka 230, 232 

carcari 254-6 

cihali 264 

carcari tala 355 

cihani 264 

carl 211, 227-8, 230-1, 242-4, 246-7, 249, 

cinda 292, 329 

259, 271, 281-2, 295, 306, 312, 328-30, 

cindu 227, 271-3, 281, 328-30 

338-9, 342, 354, 356 

cinnadi kolu 359 

carlkarana 247 

cinta 220 

earn 360 

cintamani 338 

caryota urens lin. 358 

cintapara (?) 244 

casagati 242, 244 

cintu 329 

cataki 337 

cira 278 . 

catura 233-4 

cit 359 

caturanga 249, 319, 321 

citagi 359 

caturasra 235-6, 241, 248, 256, 267, 281, 

citige 360 

295,331 

citige tala 359 

caturasra 235, 241 

citkolu 359 

caturasra bhramana 270 

citra 211, 278, 311-2, 353 

caturasra gati 338 

citrabheda311 

caturasra hasta 306 

citrabhinaya 227-8, 230, 236-7 

caturasra sthanaka 294, 307, 324 

citrabhramari 311 

caturasra sthanaka 323-4 

citradyalekhana 207 

caturasra tala 331 

citrakalasa 292 

caturiya (?) 295 

citra karma 207 

caturmukha 234, 266, 270 

citra kolu 359 

catuspadl 332 

citra natya 274 

caupada 345 

citrapaddhali 269 

cendatada kolu 359 

citrapurvaranga 248 

cesta 227 

citrarecita 250 

cestima 214 

citra tala 311, 353 

chand 353 

citravidhi 207 





INDEX TO WORDS 


531 


citta 215 

cittaragombe kolu 359 
cittavttti 217 
cittavrttyarpika 217 
cokki 260 
colikvbhidruta 355 
collective configuration 272 
collective convolution 269 
colligative skill 236 
comparison 227 
conch 251 

configurational dance 272 
convention 271 
couplet 328, 332 
cuka 260 
cullaka 306, 308 
curnika gadya 284 
cutige 360 

cymbals 260, 268, 351 
cymbal player 264 
cymbal stroke 354 

D 

dainya 220 
daiviki 283 
daivi siddhi 254 
daksinavarta 270 
dala 260 

daman 242, 311, 317 

damaru 207, 234, 241, 250, 278 

dampati hasta 235 

dance dama 232 

danda 251 

danda 243 

dandaghattana 338 

dandaka 345 

dandalasya 345 

dandapada 242-3, 249 

dandapaksa 235, 249, 294 

dandapramanancita 250 

danda pranata 250 

danda hras 357 

danda rasaka 356-7 


dandarecita 294 
dandaka recita 249 
dande kolu 359-60 
dandia rasa 352 
dantu 316-7, 320 
daravesl 337 
dardura 234 
darpasarana 250 
darsana 230 
daru 330-34, 345 
daruvu 330 

dasana-vasana-angahara 207 

dasarupaka 208 

dasavatara 337 

dasavatara hasta 235 

dattila puspanjali 282 

datu 316 

davani kolu 359 

denouement 335 

desabhasavijnana 207 

desaja turuska prabandha 347 

desl 259, 261, 345-6 

desi anga 257 

deslcari 230, 242-3 

desldance 251, 360 

desl form 351, 356 

desihindola raga 258, 260 

desikara 258, 260 

desl kattari 281, 333, 338 

desl lasyanga 256-7, 260, 335 

desl name 320-2 

desl nrttanga 293 

desl nrtya 208 

desl pataha 265, 268 

desl song 331 

desl sthanaka 241 

desl suda songs 356 

desl tala 334 

desl tradition 307 

desl uparupaka 353 

devadasl system 273 

devata hasta 235 

dhala 256-8, 260-1 






532 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


dhanamjaya 310 

dlna 233 

dhannala 338 

dindu 293, 317 

dhanurveda 228 

dillayi 258, 260,311 

dharanamatrka 207 

discursive meaning 237 

dharml 217 

divarasa 352 

dharu 227, 271-3, 280, 292, 330, 333-4 

doha 353 

dharuvu 330 

dola 234, 242 

dhasaka 259-60 

dolapada 241 

dhatu 333, 339, 355 

dombika 353 353 

dhatupradhana 332 

drama 227 

dhavana laga 317 

dramatised themes 227 

dhenkl 318-9 

dramatis persona 213-4, 253 

dhillayi 256-7, 259-60 

drpta 233 

dhosa 356 

drsti 311, 230-1, 249, 280 

dhraupada 281, 338 

drstibheda 327 

dhrti 220 

drupada nrtta 339 

dhrupad 338, 353 

druta 212, 298, 307 

dhrupada 292, 338, 346 

druta dhruva 331 

dhruva 281, 328, 331, 334, 338, 349, 355 

druta laya 304, 339,’342 

dhruva 329-31 

druta tempo 355 

dhruva dhatu 339 

dudi 328 

dhruva element 350 

dukkhayi 260 

dhruvapada 273, 292, 338-9 

dundubhi251 

dhruvapada nrtta 339 

durmallika 353 

dhruva segment 328 

durupada 345 

dhruva tala 284, 326 

dusi 293 

dhunana 239 

dusi 320 

dhusi 316 

duvada313 

dhuta 233 

duwala 313 

dhuvada 268, 313 

dvaita 227 

dhvada 271-2, 292, 307-8, 319-21 

dvimudha 211 

dhvada kvada 215 

dvimudhaka 256 

dhvada laga 313, 319 

dvimukha 234, 278 

dhvada nrtta 315 

dvipatha 356 

digbhramarl 250 

dvipadi 332, 356 

dikcakra 281, 294-5 

dvipadi prabandha 355-6 

dikpala 282 

dvisikhara 234-5 

dikpalaka 269 

dvitiya tala 307. 343 

dikpala hasta 235 
dikpala puja 283 

E 

diksvastika 249 

edamagula cutige 360 

dima 210, 248 

edemyale kaddi 360 

dimika 353 

eka 355 




INDEX TO WORDS 


533 


ekacaranancita 250 

ekadesaja- siddhi 255 

ekajanu 241 

ekajanugata 241 

ekapada 241,250, 282 

ekapadalohadi 250 

ekapadancita 250 

ekaparsva 241 

ekaparsvagata 241 

ekapadasthanaka 308, 313 

ekatala 298, 312, 330, 343, 349 

ekatall 292, 307, 328, 334, 338, 341, 355 

ekatall yati 341 

ekvira 266 

ekkanati 344 

ela 327, 345, 356 

el (-d)akakridita 242,245,249 

elakakridita carl 311 

elekolu 359 

elu alina kolu 360 

elu citagina katige 359 

elu cutige 359 

embouchure 266 

empirical practice 237 

empirical usage 237 

enapluta 250 

eradone tala 359 

eradu cu(ci)tige 359 

examplar 227 

F 

farasl 337 

figuration (in bandha) 272 

figurative element (in choreography) 271 

G 

gaddi kolu 359 
gadya 213 
gagana 278 
gajadanta 234-5 
gajagati 283 
gajakridita 249 


gajallla 270, 289, 292, 302 
gajara 268 

gajara vadyaprabandha 337 
gambhlra310 
gana 331 
gana 339 
ganda 230-1 
ganda bheunda 311 
gandasucl 249 
gandharva 250, 278 
gandharvabhramari 311 
genesa sabda 281, 292 
ganesastuti kolu 359 
gangatarangini raga 332 
gangavatarana 249, 273 
garba dance 352 
garbha vimarsa 353 
garuda 335, 311 
garuda 241, 294, 324 
garudapaksa 235-6, 241 
garudapluta 249 
garudl 337 
garva 222 
gatagata 241 
gatha 330 

gati 247, 271-3, 283, 286, 291-2, 295, 298, 
301, 304, 306, 308, 312, 328, 338-40 
gatimandala 249 
gatistha 259 
gattu 358-9 

gauda (dance style) 277 
gayakatva 207 
gazalu 347 
geyapada 211, 255 
geyaprabandha 354 
gharghara 271, 273, 329 
ghargharika 328 
ghataja avega 222 
ghata nrtya 278 
ghatitotsedha 240 
ghattita 240 

ghatyadyaneka yantravadya 207 
ghonda 211 



534 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


ghurnita 249 
giku 293 
girvana 310 
glrukolu 359 

glta 207, 227, 261, 272-3, 281, 294, 348 

gitamudracindu 281, 327 

gltanrtya 271 

gltanga 331 

gltangarekha 260 

gltavadyata 258-9 

glyam 207 

glana 233 

glani 218 

gomukha 234 

gomutrika 308, 311 

gondali 281 

gopala 337 

gopalaka 354 

gopl 349, 351-2, 354, 358 

gopuhenikejade 353 

gosthi 353 

goii 273 

gotipua 269, 273-4 
graha 331 
grahagad 260 
gramyanrtya 278 
grdhravallna 249 
grlva 230-1 
gucchavadhra 342 
gudala gopu 359 
guitar 351 
gujarati 347 
gujjari 337 
gulma 346 
gulpha 354-5 
guna 230 
gundala 321, 342 
gundall dance 212 
guru 235 

gymnastic feat 318 
gymnastics 273 


H 

hadinaru citigava katige 359 
hadinaru varise biccu katige 359 
hadinelu varise biccu katige 359 
halpayana 278 
halllsa 353 
halllsaka 353 
hamsagati 256-7 
hamsakalasa 335-6 
hamsamala yati 341 
hamsapaksa 234, 236, 306-7 
hamsaruta 243 
hamsasya 234, 307 
hamsavaktra 234 
hamsini 283, 288, 292 
hand cymbals 330 
harabandha 298, 308 
haridasa 340, 344 
harikatha 340 
hari kolu 359 

harinapluta 242-3, 249, 311 
harinatrasita 242 
harinl 283, 288, 292 
harsa 221 

harugaddi kolu 359 
hasa 225 
hasaka 347 
hasika 353 

hasta 130-1, 234, 236, 251, 255, 259, 281-2, 
295, 306 

hastakarana 230, 236, 247 
hastakarma 230, 234, 247 
hastaksetra 230, 247 
hastalaghava 207 
hasta neri 295 
hastapracara 230, 239 
hastavartana 342 
hastaviniyoga 211 
hasya 235 
hasya glance 339 
hasya rasa 341, 353 
haudukkika 263 
hava 327, 339 



INDEX TO WORDS 


535 


havabhavadi samyukta nartana 207 
hela 211, 256 
hemistich 236 
hermaba 250 

heteronomous meaning 237 
hidta 261 

hlnamadhyadisamyogavarnadiranjana207 
Hindustani music207, 340 
hingarana 319 

histrionic representation 227 
honne 358 
horamayi 316 
hoyilu 305 
hoyiluhoramayi 319 
hoylu 305 

hoysala architecture 369 
hrdaya 231 
hrsta 233 
hrsta drsti 283 
hudukkk 265, 314 
hudukka player 269 
hulla 292 
hullam 305 
human character 228 
hurumayi 316 
husenl raga 347 
huttari kolu 360 
huvu kolu 359 
huvilu 305 

I 

idavan 298-9 
Indian aesthetics 215 
Indian dance 277 
ndra hasta 235 
mdrajala 269 
nknut wood 356 
Isana hasta 235 
islam 337 
istadaiva 358, 361 
isvara hasta 235 
idvrtta nirmana 211 
itthl lakkhanam 207 


* 

j 

jadata 222 
jade 359 
jade kolu 359 

Jagannatha temple dances 273 

jakadi nrtya 347 

jakhari 351 

jakka 292 

jakkadi 344 

jakkari 344, 346, 349 

jakkini 284, 337, 344-9 

jakkini daru 348-9 

jakkudi 344 

jakkulu 344, 346 

jalaje 344 

jalasayana 250 

jalasayya 249 

jali rekha (?) 310 

jalodbhuta 342 

jammi 338 

jana vayom 207 

jangha 230 

janghalanghanika 242, 320 
janghavart 242 
janita 242, 244-5, 249, 295 
janu 230 

janu bhramari 324 
janugata 241 
januprstha bhramari 323 
januvestana 295 
jappai kolu 360 
jaramana 293, 301 
jathara 230-1 

jati 282-3,311,328, 337, 347 

jati 259, 281,328 

jati hasta 235 

jati nrtta 281 

jati nrtya 338 

jati passage 326 

jati phrase 260 

jati sekhara 298-9 

jatra 330 

javanika 268 





536 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


jayanta 236, 250 
‘jayajava’ 350 
jayapriya 310 
jehana 264 
jhakkarl 282 
jhakkini 313, 342, 344 
jhampa 349 

jhampa tala 267, 328, 330 

jhanka 256-8, 260 

jharika rekha 311 

jharikari 346-7 

jhankarl 347, 349 

jhanke 260 

jharjharika 264 

jhombada 355 

jihma 233 

jihva 230 

jirukolu 359 

jiva 216 

jnana 212, 235 

joda 319 

jodani269 

jodi jade 359 

jodu bagina katige 359 

jogini 313 

jugupse 225 

jugupsita 333, 353 

jyestha bhratr 235 

K 

kodakattu 312 
kadalu gopu kolu 359 
kadamba 234 
kadu golla 358 
kafai daru 332 
kagani lakkhanam 207 
kahala 264 
kahala player 268 
kahalika 260 
kaimare 337 
kaimuru 293 
kaimuru 234-7 
kaimuru 337 


kaisiki style 353 
kaivara 355 
kaivartana 341 
kaiadu 268, 311-2 
kakatunda 234 
kaku 329 
kala 311 
kala 211 
kalacakra311 
kala carl 328 
kalacaricindu 224, 328-9 
kaladhvani 322 
kalanidhi 267 
kalapa 235, 249, 338 
kalasa 236 

kalasa 256-7, 259-60, 293, 328, 330, 335-8 

kalasika 312 

kalasuluhu 293 

kalavinkavinoda 314 

kalki hasta 235 

kalla 346 

kallijade 359 

kalpa 281 

kalpavalli 353 

kalucitlu kolu 359 

kalyana 310 

kalyani raga 347 

kalotsahavati 353 

kama 337-8 

kamasastra 207 

kamasrngara rasa 353 

kamala 310 

kamala vartanika 350 

kampita 233, 239 

kamsyatala 264 

kancukadi-slvana-vijnana 207 

kangula 234 

kanigolu 360 

kanisthabhratr 235 

kanisthabrinda 263 

kanisthaka 260 

kanistha sampradaya 264 

kanjavall 338 





INDEX TO WORDS 


537 


kanka 257 

kartaryancita 249-50 

kannada 258-61, 264, 280-1,283, 293, 298, 

karu 250 

301, 305, 307, 312-3, 315-6, 317-9, 328, 

karuna 250 

333-4, 306-7, 340-4, 347 

karuna 233, 249, 341 

kannada poetry 267 

karunika 249 

kannada yaksagan a 336 

karunika II 281 

kanta 233, 338 

kasthanrtta 352 

kapala curnana 250 

katara 242 

kapittha 234 

kathak 329 

kapola 230 

kathakali 214, 267 

kapota 234-5 

kathinakarma-laga 319 

karakarana 230, 239-40 

kati 230-1, 240, 344 

karakarma 230, 237 

katibhranta 249 

karala 310 

katicchinna 249 

karana 209-12, 227, 230, 238, 243, 247-9, 

katicchinna-bhramari 324 

256-60, 267-8, 271-2, 280-1, 283-4, 294, 

katisama 249 

327, 355 

katra 304 

karanabhramari 324 

katradinda 315 

karananeri 256, 294 

katrikolu 359 

kai ana neru 295, 311 

kattada 337-8 

karana tala 311 

kattalme 337 

karangalu 293 

kattana 337 

kararighrisvastika 295 

kattana cindu 329 

karanguli 230 

kattane 293-4, 337 

karasparsana 250 

kattradindu 317 

karasparsanika 322 

kattara nrtya 333 

karata 264-5, 268 

kattari 337 

karatika 263 

kattari 338 

kara vartana 327 

kattari dindu 317 

kare 358 

kattari kolu 359 

karibantana kolu 368 

kattona 337 

karihasta 242, 249, 295, 301 

kattara 292, 334, 337-8 

karivat 235 

kaucata 299 

karkata 234 

kaukkuti 289 

karmabheda bodhaka-pramana 227 

kaula 346 

karna 253 

kaulu 347 

karnata (dance style) 277 

kaumarila mlmarhsaka 227 

karnataka music 333 

kauta 267 

kartal 351 

kaumudi 341 

kartari 241, 243, 293 

kautilya 257 

kartarilohadi 250 

kautta 348 

kartarl-mukha 234 

kavadi cindu 328 

kartarisvastika 234-5 

kavita 348, 353 



538 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


kavitva 207 
kavya 353 
kavyalamkara 207 
kavyarasa 353 
kedargaula raga 347 
kelika 346 

kerala (dance style) 277 
kesabandha 235 
kesari dynasty 276 
kettana 337 
ketu 235 

khadgabandha 242 
khadgakalasa 335 
khadagasya 234 
khanda 354 
khandaka 249 
khandamana 359 
khandanatkuta 331 
khandasuci 241-2, 301 
khandasuclbhramarl 324 
khandasucisthanaka 324 
khanjanl 283 
khanjaritl 292 
khatakamukha 233 
khatakavardhamana 234 
khatva 235 
khousarol 351 
khulla 292 
khullam 307 
khutta 242 
kllaka 235,311 
kinematics 230 

kinetic element (in choreography) 271 
kinnarabhramari 311, 313 
kintu 257, 259 
kirita 

kittu 257-8, 260, 330 
kodava tribe 358 
kohlatika 209 
koka 338 
kola 337 

kolacaricindu 228 
kolata 357-9 


kolatadaru 332 
kolavani 338 
kolusl 338 

komalika 256, 258, 260 
kona 243 
kopu 345 
koravanji 330 
koravanji dance play 347 
koravanjikolu 359 
kottu 343 
koyila 311 
kranta 241 
kridatala 396, 307 
kriyakalapa 207 
krodasya 234 
krodha 225 
kruddha 233 
Krsna cult 350 
Krsna hasta 235 
krti 250 

ksatriya hasta 332 
ksepa 239-40 
ksudra 278 
kubera hasta 235 
kucipudi dance 273 
kudupa 343 
kudupu 343 
kuja 235 

kukkaragalu kolu 359 
kukkuta 286 
kukkutl 272 
kulacara 371 
kulavani 338 
kulirika 242-3, 306, 308 
kulla 308 
kuluvari 338 
kummidaru 332 

kuncita 233-4, 240-, 242, 246, 249, 295, 324 

kuncita carl 305 

kuncitadantu 319 

kuncita sthana 294 

kundalavarta 242 

kundall 346 




INDEX TO WORDS 


539 


kundanaci 295 
kundanaci tala 295, 298-9 
kunjara 292 

kunjarodbhramana 222 
kuntelu cutige 360 
kuranji 338 
kuravanji 347 
kurma 235 
kurmabandha 270 
kurma hasta 235 
kurmalaga 250 
kurmasana 241 
kutaja wood 358 
kutamana 312 
kutamana pata 311 
kutapata 334, 341 
kutilasampradaya 263 
kutta 240 
kuttana 242 
kuttugolu 360 
kuvada 268, 398^9, 308 
kvada 273, 281,292,298 
kvada nrtta 309-10 

L 

ladhi 256-7, 259-60, 267 

laga 272,313,315,318, 320 

lagu 293 

laghu 298-9 

laghu nrtta 209, 269 

laghu-sekhara tala 304-5, 312 

lahari 269 

laharicakra 273, 291 

lai haraoba 351 

lajjita 233 

laksmi hasta 235 

lalata tilaka 241, 243, 273, 295 

lali 257-8, 260 

lalita 233, 238, 242, 249 

lalita I 281 

lalita II 281 

lalita IV 281 

lalita tala 341 


Jalitavasa 260 
lambagini 358 
lambani tribe 358 
langala 270 
langhita 259-60 
langhita janghita 242 
lahghita tulla 297 
lankadahancita 250 
lasya 210-1, 255-6, 259, 268-9, 283, 291 
lasyanga 211, 255-6, 259, 281, 307,311, 329- 
30, 353, 356 
lasyankura 250 
lata 235, 354-5 
lata hasta 283, 294, 324 
latakara 281, 305, 312 
lataksepa 240-2 
latavrscika 249, 273, 294 
lava 291 

lavakl 273, 283, 290, 359 
lavalajade 359 
lavana 308, 344 
lavanl 258, 260 
lavani 293, 307, 344 

laya 209, 255-6, 258, 260-1, 266, 281, 312, 
331,333, 335, 352,354 
leham 207 
lepa 235 
111a 250, 341 
Ilia rekha 311 
linga 227 
linga hasta 249 
lipi 227 
lohadl 250 
loka 227-8, 237 
lokadharmi 217, 222 
lokajnana 207 
loka prasiddha 227 
lolita 233-4, 242, 249, 295 
lotita 249 
lulita carl 311 
luthita 242, 250 
luthita carl 311 
luthitollalita 242 




540 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


M 

macha(-tsya)puta 315 
mada 219 
madalasa 241-2 
madamanthara 256-7 
madamayuragamini 283 
madana 356 
madaskhalita 249, 295 
madavilasita 249 
madhukita carl 294 
madhupa 343 
madhupa deslcarl 343 
madhura bhasa 339 
madhyadeslyabhasa 339 
madhya laya 212, 304, 307, 338 
madhyama brnda 263 
madhyamakala 332 
madhyama sampradaya 265 
madhyamottama brnda 263 
madhya sanca 304, 324 
madira 233 

magadhi (dance style) 277 
magolu 360 
mahadinda 319 
mahadindu 322 
mahajanika 331 
mahananda 266 
maharasa 352 
maharl 273-4 
mahasanni 295, 299 
mahesvara 250 
mahocca 227 
mainavl 283, 286-7, 292 
makara 234-5 
makaranda 295, 299 
mala 337 
malacindu 329 
malaka 295, 343 
malakina kolu 359 
malaku golu 360 
malavl 335 

Malayalam 318, 336, 243 
malina 233 


mallaka 307 * 

mallika 353 

mallikamoda 314 

malyagrathana 207 

malyavidhi 207 

mana 259, 329 

mana 338-9 

manamanohara 324 

manas 281-2 

manavl 286 

manmatha 250 

manmatha hasta 235 

mandala 210, 227, 230, 241, 246, 294-5, 

308,313, 356 

mandala bhramari 324 

mandala dance 354 

mandalagati 234 

mandalagra 313 

mandalakara 294 

mandala movement 349 

mandala sthana 295, 311, 324, 343 

mandalasvastika 249 

mandapa 251-2 

mandi 293, 243 
• » 

mandibhramari 301, 324 
mandukl 290 
manibandha 230 
Manipuri culture 351 
manipuri dancing 351 
manjarl 347 
manodharma 259 
manohara 260 
manomada 339 
manorama 319, 321 
mantha 308, 310 
manu 266 
manusl 283 
manusl siddhi 291 
marala 242, 311-2 
marana 224 
marathl 340, 347-8 
mardala 263, 267 
mardangika 264 



INDEX TO WORDS 


541 


mardita 240 

marga 259, 262, 331 

marga-akasacari 242 

marga-bhaumlcarl 246 

marga carl 242 

marga lasyariga 256, 259-60 

marga nrtya 209 

marga sthanaka 241 

marga tradition 307 

marga uparupaka 353 

martial arts 273 

masaghata 331 

masrnata 259-60 

matangl 338 

matavall 311 

mathya 349 

mati 224 

matr hasta 235 

matra 258,311-2, 331 

matrka 247, 249, 260 

matsya 235 

matsya hasta 235 

matsya karana 250 

matsya- lolita 250 

matta 261 

mattakrlda 249 

mattalli 242, 244-5, 249, 338 

mattapada 244 

mattaskhalita 249 

matdia 355 

matu pradhana 232 

mayura 234, 278, 292 

mayaralalita 273 

mayurl 272 

medha 278 

medhya 227 

melapaka 268, 281,292 

melapini 268 

melaprapti 267-8, 292 

melodic phrase 330 

menasina salu kaddi 360 

metrical requirement 331 

mlna 292 


% mlnbuli 293 
misrasiddhi 254 
mithunasraya 278 
mltukolu 360 
model 227 
moha 220 
mohana 337-8 
mohani 337 
mohara 267, 282 
moksana 239 
motana 239, 341 
motita 241 

mrdanga 210, 251, 265, 268, 278, 282, 326, 
334, 351,360 
mrdanga player 263, 268 
mrgakalasa 335 
mrgapluta 242 
mrgaslrsa 234 
mrgl 288, 292 
mudia 235 
mudra 261, 294, 327 
mudupa 307, 343 
mugitaya 359 
muhura 281 
mukha 230, 331 
mukha darsana 233 
mukhacala 279, 281 

mukhacall 229, 269, 271-3, 281-3, 285, 291- 

2 

mukhajati 332 
mukhamantapa 297 
mukharaga 215, 230-3, 261, 339 
mukharandra 266 
mukharasa 257, 259-60 
mukhasandhi 353 
mukhari 263, 265, 267-8 
mukhavadya 269 
mukhavarl 337 
muktajanu 241 
muktaya 359 
muktaya svara 332 
mukuta 233-4 
mundi 337 



542 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


murigarana 319 
muni 267 

muraja 265, 326, 354 
muralu kolu 359 
muralina hejje kolu 359 
muralu suttadu kolu 359 
muru 293, 307 
muru 307, 342 
muru 293,313 
muru 307-8 
murucutige 359 
murudl 270 
muruganda 307, 309 
muruhu 293, 307, 342 
murundari 343 
muruntu 240 
musalaghatika 244 
musti 234 

mustikasvastika 235 

Mysore School of Bharatanatya 259, 285 
N 

nabandi kolu 359 
nada 277 
nadaneri 295 
naga 338 

nagabandha 235, 241, 250, 270-1, 307 

nagabandha kuvada 300 

nagapasa274 . 

nagapasa sarpita 249 

nahunia 278 

naipunl 256 

nairajita 233 

naiskramiki dhruva 331 

naiyayika 227 

nalinipadmakosa 235 

nama 331 

namani 257 

namanika 260 

n am avail 340 

namra 234 

nanadeslyavarnasusamyaglekhanajnana207 
nanagitasritanrtya 327 


nananha hasta 235 
nanatala urupa 311 
nandlpada 267 

nandlsloka 229, 272, 281-2, 283-4, 254 

nandyavarta 241, 281, 296 

nandyavarta sthana 311 

narasimha-stuti 294 

narayana 250 

narayanapriya 270 

nartana 212, 214, 253, 292, 302, 313 

nartanabharana 314 

nartana rasa 352 

nartaka laksana 253 

nartaki 253, 257 

nasa 230, 232 

nasaputa 230 

nasika 230 

nata 240-1 

nata 256-7 

nata 227, 253, 292 

nataka 207, 227, 253, 353 

natakakhyayika darsana 207 

natakasala 251 

natakapala darsana 249 

natanarasa 352 

nataprstha 250 

natika 253 

nati raga 267 

natra 293, 296, 307, 311-2 

natra sallumana 311 

nattam 207 

nattuva 267, 283 

natya 208-9, 211-2, 214, 217, 227-8, 237, 
243, 254, 282 
natyadharml 217, 243-4 
natyamandapa 251, 270 
natyanatana anga 312 
natyarasaka 351, 353-6 
natyasala 251 
natyasastra 227 
natyaveda 227 
navagraha hasta 235 
nava pancaka 278 
nelavu jade 359 







INDEX TO WORDS 


543 


nepathya 213 
nepathya prayoga 207 
neri 273, 294-5 
neru 294,311-2 
netra 230, 295 
nidhi 266 
nidra 223 
nigraha 239-40 
nihancita 233 
nihsanka 315, 317, 322 
nihsaru tala 327 
nija 240 
nijapana 258-9 
nijavana 256 
nijavanl 260 
nlkl 260 

nikuncita 234, 249 
nikutta 240, 249 
nikuttaka 242 
nllambarl raga 347 
nillu kolu 359 
nilugade 259 
nimllita 233 
nintelu cutige 360 
nlrajita calana 283 
nlrajita pada 283 
nirrti hasta 235 
nirupana 244 
nirvahana sandhi 253 
nirvana 263 
nirveda 218 
nisadha 234 
nissaru 355 
nissarasa(-naP) 243 
nistambhita 250 
nisumbhita 249-50 
nitamba 235, 249 
nityarasa 352 
nivesa 249 
nivrtta 240 
nondicindu 320 
nondicural cindu 320 
norm 227-8 


* nrpalaksana 292 
nrsimha hasta 235 

nrtta 208-9, 211, 213, 227, 230, 237-8, 244, 
253, 258, 261,327, 332-3, 343 
nrttabhava 266, 312 
nrttacarl 313 

nrttahasta 230-1, 235, 247, 259, 295, 312 

nrttakarana 230, 243, 246-9, 260 

nrttamantapa 251-2 

nrttanga 256-7 

nrttasastra 228 

nrttasiddhi 254 

nrtya 207, 209, 211-2, 230, 237, 254, 257, 
261,278 
nrtyabhava 266 
nrtyasastra 254 
nupura 249 
nupurapadika 242 
nupuraviddha 242 
nyanca 233 

nyaya (batde modality) 228, 230, 261 

O 

odhra 277 
odissi 277 

ombattu citige kolu 359 
ontikolu 359 
opera 328, 332 
ora 271 

oradi daru 332 
orchestration 251 
oriya 274 
ostha 230 
ottu 265 
ottuka 264 
oyara 258, 260 
oyyara 260 

P 

pada 332-3, 338, 345, 348 
pada 230-1,254, 281 
padacall 346 
padacari 259, 357 


544 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


pada daru 331 
pada karma 230 
pada kuttana 307 
padamani 343 
padapata 259 
padapaviddha 249 
padavall 351 

padmabandha 270-2, 300-1 
padmabandha kuvada 300 
padmakosa 234, 301 
padmasana 241 
padya 213 
pagadi kolu 359 
paheliam 207 
paksapradyota 235 
paksisaluka 319 
paksisardula 317 
paksavancita 235 
pala 242 
pala cholom 351 
palatu kolu 359 
pallava 235 
pallavi 332-3 

paricaghata(mathya) tala 354 
pancajanya 270 
panava 251 

paricama tala 307-8, 342, 344 
pancanada (dance style) 277 
pancapadl sulu 295 
pancasya 234 
pancavaktra 266 
pani330 
panika 330 
panna 319, 321 
paramanga 319-20 
paranmukha 339 
paraspara 337-8 
parasurama hasta 235 
paravrtta 233-4, 241, 249 
paravrtta sthanaka 311 
paravrtta tala 242 
parida 319, 322 
parijata 353 


parijata kolu 359 
paricchinna 249 
parigraha 239 
parivahita 233 
parivartita 236-7 
parivrtta 241, 249 
parivrtta recita 249 
parsni 230 

parsnicandaghata 244-5 
parsniga 240 
parsnipada 241 
parsniparsva 241 
parsnparsvagata 241-2, 245 
parsniplda 241 
parsnirecita 242 
parsnirecita carl 304 
parsnividdha 241 
parsva 230-1 
parsvabhimukha 233 
parsvaccheda 249 
parsvadandapada 246 
parsvaga 240 
parsvagata 239 
parsvagatasthana 311 
parsvakampita 233 
parsvakampita 233 
parsvakranta 242-6 
parsvajanu 249 
parsvamandall 235 
parsvamukha 239 
parsvanikutta 249 
parsvasvastika 249 
parsva tala 239 
parvatl hasta 235 
paryasta 248 
pasa 235, 337-8 

pata 259, 283-4, 311-2, 325, 358 
patabandhana 286 
patajati 253 

pata passage 332, 348-9, 354 
pata phrase 359, 277, 312-4, 334 
pata recital 341 
pata recitation 354 




INDEX TO WORDS 


545 


pata sabda 334 
pata structures 268 
patasucl 311 
pata syllables ^59 
pata text 341 
patagane jade 359 
pataha 329 
patahika 264 
pataka 234-327 
patakasvastika 235 
patalasuci 308 
patava 278 
patita 233 
patlyasi 292 

patra 253, 265, 268-70, 281-3, 292, 342, 354- 

6 

patracchedya 207 
patraguna 253 
patralaksana 253 
patrapravesa daru 332 
patle kolu-jade kolu 360 
pattabhiseka daru 332 
pattachayyam 208 
patti 333-5 
pature kolu 360 
pauranika 227 
pekkana 346 
pen'a 351 
perana 241,243 
perani 281, 337, 345-6 
perani dance 209 
philosophical enquiry 227 
phirangi 338 
phutkara randhra 266 
pidana 319 
pidara 319, 322 
pillamuru 293 
pillamuru 328-9 
pillamuru 337 
pinaka 250 
pinda 319, 321, 355 
pindibandha 210, 354-5 
pinnada 319, 322-3 


% pltha 312 
pithamardaka 353 
pitr hasta 235 
plava kalasa 335 
pluta 298, 344 
popular usage 278 

postural element (in choreography) 271 
prabandh 352 

prabandha 273, 294, 327, 345, 347 

prabandha nartana 327 

prabandha nrtta 292 

prabhakara mimamsaka 227 

prabhulaksana 281 

pracanda 212 

pracara 247 

pracchedaka 212, 256 

pracura312 

pradana 235 

pradipa 278 

prahelika 207, 306 

prakara331 

praharana 255, 227 

prakaranantara 227 

prakaranika 353 

prakarta 213, 233, 297, 329 

pralapa daru 332 

pralokita 233 

pralokita drstl 281 

pramana 251, 259, 261, 294, 327, 331 

prana 215-6 

papada bhramari 323 

prasadiki dhruva 331 

prasanna 233 

prasannata 260 

prasara 293, 304, 312 

prasarita 234, 241 

prasarpita 249 

prasnika 255 

prastara 331 

prasthana 353 

prasthitanugamana 207 

prathama 310 

pratibha 227 






546 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


pratimattha 355 
pratimukha31 
pratimukhari 264-5, 268 
pratimukha sandhi 353 
pratipatra 282 
pratisira 268 

prati tala (exotic song form) 347 

pratyahara 268 

pratyaksa (perception) 227 

pratyalldha 241, 292 

prathyalldha sthanaka 354 

pratyanga 227, 230, 232-3, 271 

pratyangabhinaya 230 

pravrta 240 

pravrtta 331 

pravrtta 242 

pravenl 331 

pravesika 331 

praveskl dhruva 331-2 

prayojaka 256 

prayoktr 253 

preksana 353 

prenkholita 249 

prerana 353 

prescriptive rule 237 

primary colour 214 

priyasravanaja avega 222 

pronnata 233, 241 

proof 227 

prototype (of bandha) 269 
prsthakapala darsana 249 
prsthanugata 234 
prsthanusari 234 
prstha svastika 250 
prsthatah 240 
prsthotksepa 242 
prsthottana pada 241 
prsthottanatala 241 
prthvi 216 
prthvikundall 308 
psychophysical state 215-6, 223 
pua 273 

pukkhara gayam 207 


punahpunar-niriksana 207 
‘pundarika’ 340 
pung 351 
pung cholom 351 
purahksepa 242 
purahksepa can 311 
puratl 240, 242, 296 
purusabhava grahana 207 
purusa carl 230 
purusa sthanaka 241 
purvamimamsaka 227 
puvaranga 248, 267, 283 
purvarangavidhi 269 
puspagandika 211, 256 
puspanjali 211, 281-5, 292 
puspaputa 234, 250, 281 
puspasakatika 207 
pusta 214 
pustakarma 207 
pusya 251 
puta 284 
putakarma 230 
putita 278 
putra 235, 

R 

radha 337 

raga 232, 294, 332-3, 339, 353-4, 356 

ragabandha 310 

ragada 345 

ragakavya 349 

ragalapa 280, 293 

ragalapti 280 

ragapaddhati 292 

ragavakyanga yati 292 

rahu 235 

rajaklra 294 

rajamela tal 351 

raksana 239 

raksasa hasta 235 

rakta 233 

ramabana 307-8 

ramabhadri kopu katige 359 






INDEX TO WORDS 


547 


ramacandra hasta 235 
ramakrlda 353 
ramya 272 
ranagrdhra 234 
rande ata kolu 359 
rariga 310 
rangabharana 270 
rangabhoga 268 
rangadhidevata stuti 284-5 
rangalaksana 292 
rangalaksm! 270 
ranga parijnana 207 
rangapuja 292 
rangapravesa 267 
rangasobha 260 
rangavadana 263 
rangavandana 263, 267 
rangavatarana 268 
raoul 337 

rasa 218, 249, 254-6, 259-63, 277, 295, 339 

rasa 278, 337, 350-6 

rasabhinaya 211 

rasabodha 339 

rasa dance 361 

rasa drsti 230-2, 295 

rasa- gosthl 349 

rasaka 350, 353-6 

rasaka I 356 

rasaka II 356 

rasakrida 349 

rasallla 350-1 

rasa mahotsav 351 

rasamandala 349 

rasamandala nrtya 352-3 

rasanrtya 349-50 

rasa purana 339 

rasa tala 307, 343 

rasa utsav 349 

rasa vrtti 356, 359 

rathacakra 242 

rathacakra carl 294 

rathanga 270 

rathya carl 355 


rattaimuru 342 
rati 225 
raudra (-1) 233 
ravana 338 

rayabhara horamayi 319 
rayapaksi saluva 318 
rayapanka saluva 318 
rayarangalu 316-7 
recaka 210, 230 
recakanikuttaka 249 
recita 233, 235, 240, 249, 308 
recita angahara 210 
recita hamsasya 305 
recita hasta 281 
recita pada 245 
Reddy kings 270 
rekha 255-60, 294, 312, 327 
rekha bandha 242 
renugopugolu 359 
revati 251 
ridi 267 
riti 329 

rltigau 3471a raga 

rk 330, 333 

rksaka 378 

rodhana 239 

rope rasadance 353 

Rotteria tinctoria Roxb. 358 

rudra 267,312 

rudradanda 278 

rundha 337 

runja 337 

rupa 257, 260, 292-3 

rupaka 209, 211, 255-6, 335, 349, 353 

rupanrtta 281 

rupaka tala 308, 347 

ruvam 207 

S 

sabda 227, 281, 292, 312, 325, 345, 347-8, 
355 

sabda (verbal testimony) 227, 271-3 
sabdacall 272, 281, 292, 325-6 





548 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


sabdakhanda 327 
sabdalapa 339 
sabdanrtta 281, 325 
sabdantara 227 
sabda passage 335, 355 
sabdasuda 272 
sabhadhlradhl 260 
sabhalaksana 254 
sabhapati 261 
sabharacana 292 
sabhasada 261 
sabala 337-8 
sabalakari 338 
sad 233 
sadas 282 
sadja 327 
sadhutva 216 
sagadi 278 
sahaja 233 
sahitya218 
saindhava 216 
saindhavaka 256 
saiva 241, 250 
sajatlya hasta 237 
sajatlya nrttahasta 248 
sajatlya pattern 355 
sajlva 213 
sajjiva 213 
sakampa dhuta 233 
sakampa parivahita 233 
sakata 235 

sakatasya 242, 249, 271 
sakatasya carl 311 
sakhl nautch 273 
salaga gita 211 
salaga neri urupa 311 
salaga neru 294 
salagasuda 272 

salagasuda prabandha 331, 341, 355 
salanga neri 295 
sali 260 

sallaparasa 353 
salugolu 360 


sama 233, 240-1 
sama 333 
samabandha 270 
samabhangi 260 
samadhi 215 
samadrsti 281, 312-3 
sama foot 343 
sama graha 212 
sama hasta 268 
sama head 283, 313 
samakartaryancita 250 
samakhya 227 
samanakha 243-4, 283 
samanakha can 311 
samanrtta313 

samapada 241-2, 244, 281, 295 

samapadancita 250 

samapada sthana 3-4, 311 

samaprenkhana 242 

samasivas 312-3 

samaskhalita 240-42 

sama stance 267 

sama sthanaka 282, 310 

sama suci 241 

samasuci sthanaka 307 

sama tala 207, 311 

samavakara 210 

samavrtta 311 

sambhava 227 

sambhranta 249, 295 

sandamsa 234 

sarhghata 249 

samghattika 243 

sarhharana 331 

samhata 241-2, 281, 292 

samhata sthana 283, 294-5, 301, 311, 324 

samirana 250 

samjna 227 

sarhkhya 227 

samkhyavada 215-6 

sammanana 212 

samnata 249 

sammukha 239 







INDEX TO WORDS 


549 


sammukhatala 237 
samotsaritamattalli 242, 244 
sampradaya 265 
samputa 235 

samskrta 213, 215, 251, 280, 298, 318, 329- 
30, 336, 339, 341-4, 349, 351 
samskrta lexicographer 
samslesa 239 
samivada daru 332 
samvitjnana 216 
samyapada 241 
samyogaja colour 214 
samyukta hasta 230-1, 234-5, 237, 250, 295 
sanca 307 
sancari bhava 218 
sancaribhava abhinaya 333 
sancari drsti 230-1 
sancarita 242 
sandal wood 359 
sandhi 260, 331 
sandhima 213 
sandhya tandava 248 
sangatya 345 
sani 235 
sanjlva 213-4 
sanka 218, 260 
sankha 235, 250, 268 
sanklrna 338 
sanklria neri urupa 311 
sanklm neru 294 
sankita 233 
sanmukha 266 
sanmukha hasta 235 
sanna 281 
sanni 299 
santaja 249 
santa rasa 341 
sapatnl 235 
sapta lasya 283 
sapta rupanga songs 330 
sarabhallla 295, 299, 310 
saragayam 207 
sarala 234 


sarana 242 
sarana 358 
saraiiga 310 
‘saranu saranu’ 347 
sarapani jade 359 
sarasa 299 
sarasa 310 
saraslkarana 311 
sarasvati hasta 235 
sardula puspanjali 282 
sari 270-2 

sari candrakala 270 
sa(a)rika 242 
sarlrasamskara 207 
sarita 240 
sarpasiras 234, 250 
sarpita 249 
sarvaganda 307 
sarvagatasiddhi 254 
sarvatsbhadra 270 
sastra 210, 227-8, 237,319 
sasvarapata 332 
sat 310 
sattaka 353 
sattva 215-6 

sattvika bhava 215-6, 218 

sattvikabhinaya 216, 227, 230, 233 

saurasenl (dance style) 277 

sansthava 256-60, 268, 281, 295, 302, 343 

sausthavarekha 311 

savari tala 347 

sayana 278 

scirpus kysoor 342 

serva 347 

siddhi 254-5 

sikhara 235, 283, 294-5, 308, 323-4, 343 
siksa 284 

siksatma puspanjali 284 

silindhri 338 

silpaka 353 

sllu 301 

sllu 301 

simha 250 





m 






550 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


simhaghataka 338 
simhakarsita 249, 294-5 
simhallla 298 
simhamukha 234 
simhavikridita 249 
sirhhl 290 
singhana 337 
siras 230-1 
sirobheda 295, 327 
sirobhramari 250 
slrsaka 331 
slrsaka dhruva 331 
sivagange kolu 359 
sivallla 347 
sivalinga 234 
sivalinga hasta 238 
skandha 230 
skandhabhranta 250 
skandhanata 233, 308 
skandhavaja 263 
skhalita 234, 249 
skhalitapada 249 
slistarekha 311 
slokavarna 347 
smrti 220 
smrtikara 227 
snigdha 233 
snusa 235 
sobana kolu 359 
sociocultural trends 273 
sodhana 251 
soka 225 
solfa passage 348 
sollu 267, 282, 332, 347-8 
sollukattu 259, 313 
spandita 244 
sphurika 240-42 
spurita 242 
spurita carl 311 
sphotana 239 
spiritual faculty 227 
srama 219 
sranta 233 


sri 310 

srigadita 353 

sriranga 310 

srnganatya 283 

srngara 233, 249, 341, 355 

srngara pada 345 

srngara rasa 333, 340, 353, 356 

srngarl 262 

srnkhala 234-5, 354-5 

sruti 227 

sruva 260 

stambhakridanika 242, 295 
sthala laga 319 
sthalastha dhvada 316 
sthana 306, 331 

sthanaka 210, 230, 235, 241, 247, 249, 257, 
268, 271, 281-2, 289, 312, 327, 338 
standard 227 
sthapana 227 
sthapana 256-8 
sthayibhava 215, 218, 225 
sthayibhavadrsti 230, 232-3 
sthirahasta 248 
sthirahasta rekha 311 
sthita 239 
sthita dhruva 331 
sthitapathya 211, 256 
sthitavarta 242, 244 
story element 227 
stri carl 230 
strl sthanaka 241 
sucana drsti 281 
sue! 234, 240, 242, 246, 249 
suclmukha 234 
suclviddha 242, 248-9 
sucyantani 259 
sucyasya 234-5 
sudarsana 250 
suda 331 

sudadigltanrtta 292, 327 
sudagita 273 
sudrsana 270 
sudasabda 281, 325 






INDEX TO WORDS 


551 


sudadisabdanrtta 292 

sudadi tala 327 

suddha cindu 329 

suddha gita 211 

suddha hasta 294 

suddha neri 294 

suddha neri urupa 311 

suddha neru 294 

suddha paddhati 268-9, 292 

suddha pata 334 

suddha suda 281, 355 

‘suddha’ syllables 326 

suddha yati 292 

sudra hasta 235 

sugati 260 

suji kolu 360 

suka 337-8 

suka 260 

sukalasa 258-9 

sukasarika pralapana 207 

sukasya 234 

sukatunda 234 

sukhanasl 269 

sukra 235 

sukumara 212 

suladi 273, 341 

suladi tala 294, 330, 349 

sultanl 337 

sulu 281 

suiu 281-2, 293-5, 307, 313, 315, 328 

sulu dance 226 

sulu dhvada316 

suluhu 293 

sulupa 333, 335 

sundala horamayi 319 

sundara 250, 272 

sundaraparaga rekha 312 

sunya 233, 278 

supta 223 

supta carl 230 

suptasthanaka 241 

surekhatva 257 

surya 235 


susandhi258 
suska song 354 
suskavadya 269 
sutra 251 
sutradhara 354 
suttu kolu 359 
svabhavaja colour 214 
svabhavika 23 
svagata daru 332 
svalpa cinda 332 
svapna 223 

svara 327, 332, 348, 355 
svarabhinaya 271-2 
svarahara 257 
svarajati 348 
svaramantha 271-2 
svaramandia nrtta 327 
svara passage 312-3 
svarapatti 280 
svasamaya 261 
svasru hasta 235 
svastalasa 241 
svastha 241 
svasthana 280, 311 

svastika 234-5, 240-2, 244-5, 249, 294-5, 324 

svastikabhramarl 311,323 

svastikarecita 249 

svastika sthana 296 

svasura hasta 235 

syama 233 

sy(-p)andita 242 

syandita 245 

syandita carl 294, 311 

T 

tada 260 
tadana 239 
tadita 240 
takarana 307 

tala 209-10, 251, 255, 257-60, 278, 280, 298- 
300, 302, 306-7, 310, 313, 322, 327, 333, 
335-42, 352-5, 358 




552 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


tala (cymbal) 263 
tala 259 
talacari 281 

taladharl 260, 264, 268 
taladarsinl 242, 295 
talagattige 359 
tala graha 212, 330, 335 
talagutuku 359 
talahati 240 
tala keeper 265 
talakuta 298 
talamukha 235 
talamukha hasta 281 
talapinda 308 

talapradhana nrttaprabandha 300 
talaprana 260 
tala purana 339 
talapuspaputa 249, 281, 327 
talarupa214 
talarupaka 273, 298, 343 
talarupa kvada 300, 310 
talasamsphotita 249, 295 
talasamya 260 

talasanca 306, 308, 324, 342 
talasarighattita 249, 295 
talasarpanika 243 
tala udupa 299, 300 
talavarta 340 
talavilasa 249 
talavilasita 294-5 
talodvrtta 242 
talotksepa 243 
tamalaku kolu 359 
tambatta 330 
tamburi 269 
tamracuda 234 

tamil 264, 318, 328, 331, 333, 337, 340-3 
tana 267, 328 

tandava 209-12, 257, 259, 292, 351 

tantrasastra 261 

tantrika 227 

tantrik ritual 351 

tara 232 


tarakarma 230 

taraprati 310 

tararandhra 

tarjana 239 

tarksyapaksavilasa 314 

taruni padikamma 207 

tata 256-7* 260 

tata 260 

tattala 241, 243 

tattakara 257, 282, 327, 347 

tattavadhana 282 

tauta 312 

teak 358 

tejas 216 

telugu 258, 260, 264, 280, 297-8, 305-6, 319, 
328, 330, 333, 335, 337, 340-1, 343-3, 
347-8 

telugu poetry 267 
tekke kolu 359 
tena 327 
tenaka 327 

Terminalia chabula Roxb. 358 

Terminalia tementosa 358 

teru kolu 360 

terukkuttu 328 

Thang-ta 351-2 

tharahara 257-8, 260 

thasaka 259-60 

thavali 260 

thengourol 351 

theva 257 

theva 260 

thevani 260 

tihani 264 

tilaka 235 

tilana 347-8 

tiraskarini 268 

tiripa 313, 339 

tiripabhramari 250 

tirupu 293 

tirurupa 306 

tiryagancita 250 

tiryagancita utplutikarana 320 





INDEX TO WORDS 


553 


tiryak 234 

tiryakkarana 249-50 
tiryakkuncita 242 
tiryanmukha 239, 242 
tiryarinatonnata 233 
tiryaksancarita 245 
tiryaksvastika 250 
tiryaktandava 315 
tiryaktata 233 
tisrajati ekatala 232 
tittiri 273, 291-2 
tittiri gati 243 
tivata 329, 348 
tivatabandha 338 
tivata sylluables 339 
tivati 299 
todana 239 
tolala 311 
tolana 259 
tolasu kolu 359 
toiil 311 
tomtom 330 
torana 278 
totaka 353 
tradition 271 
trasa 225 
trasta 233 
tratita 240 

tribhangi 241, 260, 355 
trika 246, 295 
trikala 359 
trikali 257-9 
trikam 256 
trimudha211 
trimudhaka 256 
trimukha 234 

tripataka 234, 236, 250, 307, 324, 342 

tripataka svastika 235 

triputa 330, 348-9 

tripurusa 266 

trisula 234, 278 

trkam 258 

tryasra 239-40, 249 


* tryasra 242, 248 
tryasra tala 331 
tryasra varna 295, 299 
tudi 328 

tuduka 268, 279, 334 
tuka 259-60 
tukavana 260 
tulla 293, 297 
tullam 302-3 
tulu 318, 337, 343 
tunga 278 
turagapluta 312 
turangalnla 270 
turamgini 283, 287, 292 
turla 297 

turlapatti khaddike 297 
turupu 312 
turuska duo 347 

U 

uccalita 234 
uccanda 312 
ucitabhramari 311 
ucitarekha 311 
udakavadya 207 
udalagopu 359 
uddhata 212, 235 
uddhata dhruva 331 
uddri kolu 359 
uddhuta 233 
udgata 330 

udghattita 240, 246, 249 
udgraha 328, 333-4, 339 
udra 277 

udvahita 233, 240-1, 244, 295 

udvestita 234, 237, 245, 295 

udvestana 240, 242 

udvrtta 235, 242, 244, 247, 249, 295 

ududyotpluta laga 319 

uduga319 

udupa 267, 281, 292, 295 
ugrata 224 







554 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


ugratara 249 
uktapratyukta 211, 256 
ulbana 235 
ullala 242 
ullasa 257-60, 278 
ullokita 233 
ullola 240, 242 
ullopyaka 353 
umapati 266 

umapati puspanjali 281-2 
unmada 224 
unmatta 249 
unmllita 330 
unnamita 240 
unnita 233 
upadhana 234 
upaghata 331 
upama 227 

upanga 227, 230, 269, 271 
uparigabhinaya 230-1 
upara 260 

uparupaka 330, 350, 353, 358-9 

upasrta 249, 295 

upavarta 331 

upavista can 230 

upavista sthanaka 241 

upohana 267 

urah 230 

urahparsvardhamandali 235 
urdhvadhomukha 239 
urdhvaga 239 
urdhvajanu 242, 249, 293 
urdhvalaga 250 
urdhvalagna 249 
urdhvamandall 235 
urdhvamukha 239 
urdhvastha 234 
urnanabha 234 
uromandala 249, 294 
uromandali 235 
urongana 298-9 
uru 230-1 
urudvartanika 304 


urudvrtta 242, 245, 249 

urupa 271-3, 292-3, 297, 306-7, 311-2, 319 

urupu 293 

urutadita 242 

uruveni 242 

uruveni carl 304 

uruvrtta 245 

utaksya(?)glta 282 

utkarsana 239 

utkata 241,293, 295, 332 

utkata sthana 301, 307 

utkhandita 243 

utkrsta 330 

utksepa 240 

utksipta 233, 242 

utkuncita 242 

utpataja avega 221 

utpluti 313, 315 

utplutikarana 230, 250, 313 

uttama brnda 263 

uttamottama 211, 256 

uttamottama sampradaya 265 

uttana 239 

uttanavancita 235 

uttara 251 

uttarabhadra 251 

uttarapratyattara deru 332 

uttarasadha 251 

utsaha 225 

utsanga 234 

utsanjana 212 

utsarita 234 

utsava 251 

utsy(-p)andita 242 

uyyale kolu 339 


V 

vacana 345 
vacika 212 

vacikabhinaya 215, 227, 237 
vacinda 329 
vadana 230 





INDEX TO WORDS 


555 


vadasamya 292 

+ vardhamana 234, 241, 281, 296 

vadya 207, 261 

varise 358 

vadyabrnda 265 

varna 310, 330, 347-8, 354 

vadyaprabandha 257, 267, 269, 292, 327, 

vamana daru 332 

334, 337, 341, 348, 355-6 

varnapata 354 

vaggeyakara 326-7 

vamasara 355 

vaihayasika 331 

varna tala 354-5 

vainika 264 

varsaja avega 221 

vaipota 272, 339 

vartana 211, 230, 247, 258 

vaisakha 241, 296 

vartanabharana 314 

vaisakha recita 249 

vartanl 210, 234, 355 

vaisakha s than a 311 

vartanika 271 

vaisesika 277 

vartita 249 

vaisikl 264 

vartula 239 

vaisnava 235, 241-2, 282, 292, 295 

varuna 250 

vaisn avail 241 

varuna hasta 235 

vaisanava saints 352 

vasa 267 

vaisnava stance 267 

vasakasajja 353 

vaisnava sthanaka 260, 311 

vasanta 342 

vaisya hasta 235 

vasara 311-2 

vaijjada 293 

vastralamkarasandhana 207 

vajra 331 

vastu sastra 251 

vaksah 230 

vasu 266 

vaksahsvastika 249 

vataja avega 268 

vaktrabandha 242 

vatmkkheddam 207 

vakya 330, 338 

vatu 278 

vakyabhinaya 21 

vatu dance 276-7 

valana 244-5, 307 

vatuka 278 

valid knowledge 328 

vayiyam 207 

valinadaicindu 328 

vayu hasta 235 

valita 235, 241, 249 

veda 227-8 

valita karana 313 

vegini 242 

valita sthanaka 311 

venu gopu 360 

valitoru 249 

vennotturu 312 

vallabha 310 

vestana 240-2 

valvi 345 

vestima 214 

\imana 235 

vibhanga 278, 319-20 

vamsa 266-7 

vibhangabandha 278 

\*anddicindu 329 

vibhasa 353 

N-aradabhaya 235 

vibhava 215-8 

varaha 235 

vibhrama 260 

\-araha hasta 235 

vibhranta 233 

\arasari 338 

vibodha 223, 339 





556 


NARTANANIRNAYA 


vibhuti 292 
vicaracaturanana 250 
vicchurita317 
vicitra 270 
vicitra 242, 249, 310 
vicitrabhramari 306 
vicitra pada 256 
victravarta 294 
vicyuta 235 
vidacinda 329 
vida(-di)cindu 328 
viddha 243 
vidhi 359 
vidhuta 233 
viducindu 329 
vidya 261 

vidyadhara bhramari 311 

vidyavanta 263, 268 

vidyudbhranta 242-3, 246, 249 

vidyudbhranta can 311 

vidyudvilasita 314 

vidyulllla 242 

vidyutkalasa 335 

viganana212 

vigati 260 

vihalaka 264 

vihalika 263-4 

vihasi 259-60 

vijatlya 237 

vijatlya nrttahasta 248 

vijatlya pattern 355 

vijaya 310 

vikala 249 

vikarsana 239 

vikata 257 

vikata nrtta 209, 269 
vikosa 233 
vikrama 249 
vikrta 249 
viksepa 239, 242 
viksepa valita 245 
viksipta 249 
viksiptaksipta 250 


vilamba 295 * 

vilamba laya 294, 326 
vilambita 212, 306 
vilambita aditala 294 
vilambita dhruva 331 
vilata kolu 359 
vilaya 260 
vilokita 233 
vimana 269 
vimukta 241 
vlna 207 

vinayaka hasta 235 

vi(-e)naka tulla 297 

vinivartita 241 

vinivrtta 241, 249 

viniyoga 230 

vipluta 233 

viprakirna 235, 330 

vlra 249, 278, 337, 341,358 

vlra 233, 290 

vlrabhadra 338 

virabhadra dance 209 

viragase 209 

virala 330 

vlra rasa 356 

viruvani cindu 329 

visa 318, 320 

visada 222 

visadinl 233 

visadin! drsti 283 

visakha 251 

visala 330 

visama bandha 269-70 
visama bhramari 311 
visama dusl 293 
visama nrtta 209, 269 
visama padmasana 241 
visama sancara 242 
visama sue! 241 
viuamasucl sthanaka 307 
visamasvastika 250 
visama vrtta 331 
visanna 233 




INDEX TO WORDS 


557 


visarjana 239 
visesakacchedya 207 
visesakausala 277 
visistadvaita 227 
viskambha 248-9, 295 
viskambhapasrta 249 
viskambhita 241 
vislesa 239 
vislista 242 
vismita 233 
Visnu 308 
Visnu hasta 235 
visnukranta 249, 295 
visruta 330 
vitada 260 
vitala 260 
vitarka 225 
vitarkita 233 
vitasti 242 
vitata 256-7, 260 
vlthi 353 

vivartana 257, 259-60, 272, 295 

vivartita 241, 249 

vivasvata 339 

vivrtta 240,249 

viyoga 239 

vocal passage 359 

vorvi 337 

voyara 356-7 

vrajabhasa 339 

vrida 221 

vrksabandha 271, 308, 310 
vmda 263, 292 
vrsbhakridita 249 
vrsabhasana 241 
vrscika 249, 294, 324 
vrscikakuttita 249, 294 
vrecikapasrta 249 
vrscikarecita 249 
vrtahga 278 
vrttajati 331 
vrtti 230, 339 


% 

vyabhicari bhava 218 
vyabhicari drsd 233 
vyadhi 225 
vyadhima 213 
vyag(-gh) rapalli 234 
vyakarana 228 
vyamsita 249 

vyavartana karakarma 294 
vyavartita 234, 236-7 
vyavasaya 260 
vyaya 212 
vyayama 207, 242 
vyayogini 353 

W 

Webera tetandra Willd. 358 
word passage 348 
Wrightia antidysenterica 358 

Y 

yaksagana 215, 261, 267, 330 
yaksini 344 
yama hasta 235 

yati 257, 269, 292, 306, 330-2, 337 

yati glta 327 

yati nrtta 281, 341 

yatinrtya 341 

yati prabandha 272, 241 

yatisekhara 299 

yati tala 331, 341 

yati (vadya) prabandha 338 

yatra 391 

yauvanatritaya 253 
yavanika 268-9 
yedavatturu 312 
yedupu 282 
yoga 237 
yogamusti 234-5 
yogasastra 261 
yogini 337 


Z 






edition uptodate, more comprehensive and 
inclusive of the earlier Calcutta edition. 

The present edition of Nartananirnaya 
is based on adequate critical apparatus. It 
provides detailed and exegetical Text-Critical 
Comments; a readable English translation 
rendered self-contained in a new way, a 
comprehensive Bibliography and numerous 
indexes for both Text and Commentary, 
self- sufficient for each volume. The work is 
supported by a detailed and probing 
commentary with fluent extrapolations from 
cognate, art interdisciplines. 


Professor R. Sathyanarayana is widely reputed 
in India and abroad as an authority on Indian 
music and Indian dancing. He isbroadbased 
in several physical sciences, humanistic and 
indological disciplines. He has published 
numerous books including critical edidons, 
translations* commentaries, annotations, 
monographs, original creative books, and 
research papers on Indian music, dance 
and other cognate subjects. He has received 
numerous academic distinctions (including 
doctoral degrees, fellowships, honorific 
titles'^, awards and honours. He is intimately 
associated with many learned bodies in India 
and abroad. He is a familiar figure in national 
and international learned conclaves. His 
major areas of interest and activity in music 
and dance include systematic textual 
criticism, textual interpretation with 
contemporary relevance, interdisciplinal 
extra-polations, and performance oriented 
reconstruction and revival of ancient and 
medieval compositions in music and dance. 
He is a guide and examiner for doctoral 
examinations. 

Prof. Sathyanarayana belongs to the 
sisyaparampara of the Saint Composer Sri 
Tyagaraja. He is a music composer, teacher, 
public speaker, broadcaster, etc. He travels 
frequently to interprete traditional Indian 
culture in several countries on cultural 
missions. He is closely associated with several 
learned bodies. He is acclaimed for his 
systematic contributions to the intra- 
disciplinal and inter-disciplinal bases of 
modem Indian musicology and danceology.